ការពិភាក្សា:អេហ្ស៊ីប

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អត្ថបទ​នេះ គួរ​សរសេរ​ជា​ភាសាខ្មែរ​។ បើ​មិនដូច្នោះ​ទេ នឹង​ត្រូវ​លុបចេញ​។ --ធារិត ម៉ោង០៩:១៧ ថៃ្ងព្រហស្បតិ៍ ទី១៥ ខែមករា ឆ្នាំ២០០៩ (UTC)

សាធារណរដ្ឋអារ៉ាប់នៃប្រទេសអេហ្ស៊ីប
جمهورية مصر العربية
Gumhūriyyat Miṣr al-ʿArabiyyah
ទង់ វរលញ្ចករ
បទភ្លេង: Bilady, Bilady, Bilady
ប្រជានាម ជនជាតិអេហ្ស៊ីប
រដ្ឋាភិបាល
 -  ប្រធានាធិបតីប្រទេសអេហ្ស៊ីប ហូស្និ ម៉ាប់ប៉ារ៉ាក់
 -  នាយករដ្ឋមន្រ្តីប្រទេសអេហ្ស៊ីប អាមេត ណាហ្ស៊ីប
ប្រវត្តិប្រទេសអេហ្ស៊ីប
 -  កនរាជវង្សដំបូងនៃប្រទេសអេហ្ស៊ីបt បហែល 
 -  ឯករាជពីសហអាណាចក្រ(អង់គ្លេសនិងអៀងទ្បង់ខាងជើង) កុម្ភៈ ២៨, ១៩២២ 
 -  ប្រកាសសាធារណរដ្ឋ មីថុនា ១៨, ១៩៥៣ 
ផ្ទៃដី
 -  សរុប 1.002.450 គ.ម. (៣០)
387.048 sq mi ម៉ាយការ៉េ
ប្រជាជន
 -  ការ​ប៉ាន់​ស្មាន = វិច្ឆការ ២០០៨  ៧៥,៥០០,៦៦២[១] (១៦ធីអេច(th))
 -  សន្ទភាព ៧៤/គម (១២០)
192/ម៉ាយ​ការ៉េ
ផសស (យអទ) ការ​ប៉ាន់​ស្មាន ២០០៧
 -  សរុប ៤០៤.២៩៣ ប៊ីលានដុល្លា[២] (២៧)
ផសស  (មធ្យម) ការ​ប៉ាន់​ស្មាន ២០០៧
 -  សរុប ១២៧.៩៦៦ប៊ីលានដុល្លា [២] (៥២)
 -  ក្នុងម្នាក់ ១,៧៣៩ដុល្លា[២] (១១៧)
ជីនី (១៩៩៩–០០)៣៤.៥
កំហុស: តម្លៃ​ជីនី​មិន​ត្រឹម​ត្រូវ
លអម (២០០៨)ទំព័រគំរូ:ថយ​ចុះ០.៧១៦
កំហុស: តម្លៃ HDI មិន​ត្រឹមត្រូវ · ១១៦
តំបន់​ម៉ោង (មសស+២)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (មសស+៣)
វថកអន្តរជាល .eg
១. និយាយភាសា ជនជាតិអេហ្ស៊ីបអារ៉ាប់.


ប្រទេសអេហ្ស៊ីប (ទំព័រគំរូ:Audio-IPA; Misr(ទំព័រគំរូ:Audio-IPA;អារ៉ាប់مصر‎, Miṣr or Máṣr) គឺជាប្រទេសស្ថិតនៅក្នុង ទ្វីបអាព្រិចខាងជើង ជាប់ប្រទេស ស៊ីនញ៉ា ពែននីស៊ូទ្បា សណ្ឋានដីរូបរាងដូចជាស្ពានសិ្ថតនៅក្នុងទ្វីបអាស៊ីខាងលិច។ លាតសន្ធឹងប្រហែល ទំព័រគំរូ:ផ្ទៃក្រទ្បា ប្រទេសអេហ្ស៊ីបជាប់ព្រំប្រទល់ សមុទ្រមីដេតេរ៉ានេ ខាងជើង និងប្រទេសហ្គាសាស្រីប ប្រទេសអ៊ីស្រាអែលខាងលិច សមុទ្រក្រហមខាងកើត ប្រទេសស៊ូដង់ខាត្បូង ហើយនិងលីបយ៉ាខាងលិច។ អេហ្សីបគឺជាប្រទេសមួយដែលល្បីល្បាញនិងចំណាស់ក្នុងចំណោមប្រទេសជាច្រើននៅក្នុងទ្វីអាព្រិច និងពាក់កណ្តាលប្រទេសខាងកើត។ អេហ្សីបគឺជាប្រទេសមួយដែលល្បីល្បាញនិងចំណាស់ក្នុងចំណោមប្រទេសជាច្រើននៅក្នុងទ្វីអាព្រិច និងពាក់កណ្តាលប្រទេសខាងកើត។ ភ្នាក់ងារកណ្តាលប្រជាជនបានបំលាស់ប្តូរដែលមាន ស្ថិតិប្រជាជនប្រមាណ ៨២ លាននាក់ ក្នុងខែកក្តដា ឆ្នាំ ២០០៨ ដែលរស់នៅជាប់ច្រាំងទន្លេទីលនៅក្នុងតំបន់ដែលមានដីអាចធ្វើកសិកម្ម និងដាំដំណាំបាន តំបន់ដែលធំគឺវាលខ្សាច់សាហារ៉ា ដែលមានមនុស្សរស់នៅតិចតួច។ ប្រជាជនពាក់កណ្តាលរបស់ប្រទេសអេហ្សីបមានទីលំនៅក្នុងតំបន់ទីក្រុង និងមានប្រជាជនច្រើននៅកណ្តាលទីក្រុងកៃរ៉ូ ក្រុងអាទ្បិចសិនឌ្រា និងរាជធានី ជាច្រើនទៀននៅក្នុងទន្លេនីលដែនដីសណ្តរ។ ប្រទេសអេហ្សីបគឺជាប្រទេសមួយដែលល្បីល្បាញមានអរ្យធម៌បុរាណប្រទេសអេហ្សីបបុរាណ និងមានបូនីយស្ថាននីល់ពីភពលោកដ៏ល្បីល្បាញរាប់បញ្ចូលទាំងហ្គីហ្សាពីរ៉ាមីតដ៏អស្ច្យចារ និងហ្គីហ្សាស្ពីនដ៏ធំ។ ខាងត្បូងទីក្រុងលុចសឺរមានវត្ថុបុរាណដែលសល់ពីសម័យបុរាណច្រើន ដូចជាប្រាសាទការណាក់ និងជ្រលងភ្នំរបស់សេ្តច។ ប្រទេសអេហ្សីបគឺជាប្រទេសដែលមើលទៅ ធំទូលាយនៃនយោបាយដ៏សំខាន់និងវប្បធម៌ជាតិនៃអាស៊ីខាងលិច។

និរុត្តសាស្រ្ត[កែប្រែ]

ទំព័រគំរូ:Hiero One of the ancient Egyptian names of the country, Kemet (kṃt), (from kem "black"), is derived from the fertile black soils deposited by the Nile floods, distinct from the deshret, or "red land" (dšṛt), of the desert.[៣] The name is realized as kīmi and kīmə in the Coptic stage of the Egyptian language, and appeared in early Greek as ទំព័រគំរូ:Polytonic (Khēmía).[៤] Another name was t3-mry "land of the riverbank".[៥] The names of Upper and Lower Egypt were Ta-Sheme'aw (t3-šmˁw) "sedgeland" and Ta-Mehew (t3 mḥw) "northland", respectively.

Miṣr, the Arabic and modern official name of Egypt (Egyptian Arabic: Maṣr), is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew ទំព័រគំរូ:Lang-Hebrew2 (Mitzráyim), literally meaning "the two straits" (a reference to the dynastic separation of upper and lower Egypt).[៦] The word originally connoted "metropolis" or "civilization" and also means "country", or "frontier-land".

The English name "Egypt" came via the Latin word Aegyptus derived from the ancient Greek word Aígyptos (Αίγυπτος). The adjective aigýpti, aigýptios was borrowed into Coptic as gyptios, kyptios, and from there into Arabic as qubṭī, back formed into qubṭ, whence English Copt. The term is derived from Late Egyptian Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name Hat-ka-Ptah (ḥwt-k3-ptḥ), meaning "home of the ka (soul) of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis.[៧] Strabo provided a folk etymology according to which Aígyptos (Αίγυπτος ) had evolved as a compound from Aegaeon uptiōs (Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως), meaning "below the Aegean".

Geography[កែប្រែ]

White Desert, Farafra

At ១០០១៤៥០ សហតិមាត្រការ៉េ (៣៨៦៦៦០ ម៉ាយ ក.),[៨] Egypt is the world's 38th-largest country. In terms of land area, it is approximately the same size as all of Central America,[៩] twice the size of France,[១០] four times the size of the United Kingdom,[១១] and the combined size of the US states of Texas and California.[១២]

Nevertheless, due to the aridity of Egypt's climate, population centres are concentrated along the narrow Nile Valley and Delta, meaning that approximately 99% of the population uses only about 5.5% of the total land area.[១៣]

ឯកសារ:Alexcoast.jpg
The Coastline of Alexandria, Egypt's second largest city

Egypt is bordered by Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east. Egypt's important role in geopolitics stems from its strategic position: a transcontinental nation, it possesses a land bridge (the Isthmus of Suez) between Africa and Asia, which in turn is traversed by a navigable waterway (the Suez Canal) that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean via the Red Sea.

The Nile River in Egypt

Apart from the Nile Valley, the majority of Egypt's landscape is a desert. The winds blowing can create sand dunes more than ១០០ ភ្វីត (៣០ ម) high. Egypt includes parts of the Sahara Desert and of the Libyan Desert. These deserts were referred to as the "red land" in ancient Egypt, and they protected the Kingdom of the Pharaohs from western threats.

Towns and cities include Alexandria, one of the greatest ancient cities, Aswan, Asyut, Cairo, the modern Egyptian capital, El-Mahalla El-Kubra, Giza, the site of the Pyramid of Khufu, Hurghada, Luxor, Kom Ombo, Port Safaga, Port Said, Sharm el Sheikh, Suez, where the Suez Canal is located, Zagazig, and Al-Minya. Oases include Bahariya, el Dakhla, Farafra, el Kharga and Siwa. Protectorates include Ras Mohamed National Park, Zaranik Protectorate and Siwa. See Egyptian Protectorates for more information. ទំព័រគំរូ:MapLibrary

Climate[កែប្រែ]

Egypt does not receive much rainfall except in the winter months.[១៤] South of Cairo, rainfall averages only around 2 to 5 mm (0.1 to 0.2 in) per year and at intervals of many years. On a very thin strip of the northern coast the rainfall can be as high as ៤១០ mm (១៦ in),[១៥] with most of the rainfall between October and March. Snow falls on Sinai's mountains and some of the north coastal cities such as Damietta, Baltim, Sidi Barrany, etc. and rarely in Alexandria, frost is also known in mid-Sinai and mid-Egypt.

Temperatures average between ៨០ °F (២៧ °C) and ៩០ °F (៣២ °C) in summer, and up to ១០៩ °F (៤៣ °C) on the Red Sea coast. Temperatures average between ៥៥ °F (១៣ °C) and ៧០ °F (២១ °C) in winter. A steady wind from the northwest helps hold down the temperature near the Mediterranean coast. The Khamaseen is a wind that blows from the south in Egypt in spring, bringing sand and dust, and sometimes raises the temperature in the desert to more than ១០០ °F (៣៨ °C).

Every year, a predictable flooding of the Nile replenishes Egypt's soil. This gives the country consistent harvest throughout the year. Many know this event as The Gift of the Nile.

The rise in sea levels due to global warming threatens Egypt's densely populated coastal strip and could have grave consequences for the country's economy, agriculture and industry. Combined with growing demographic pressures, a rise in sea levels could turn millions of Egyptians into environmental refugees by the end of the century, according to climate experts.[១៦]

History[កែប្រែ]

Ancient Egypt[កែប្រែ]

Giza Pyramids

There is evidence of rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in the desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers replaced a grain-grinding culture. Climate changes and/or overgrazing around 8000 BC began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralized society.[១៧]

By about 6000 BC the Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley.[១៨] During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt. The Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are generally regarded as precursors to Dynastic Egyptian civilization. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, Merimda, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining somewhat culturally separate, but maintaining frequent contact through trade. The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BC.[១៩]

ទំព័រគំរូ:HieroA unified kingdom was founded circa 3150 BC by King Menes, giving rise to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next three millennia. Egyptians subsequently referred to their unified country as tawy, meaning "two lands", and later kemet (Coptic: kīmi), the "black land", a reference to the fertile black soil deposited by the Nile river. Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinctively Egyptian in its religion, arts, language and customs. The first two ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the Old Kingdom period, c.2700−2200 BC., famous for its many pyramids, most notably the Third Dynasty pyramid of Djoser and the Fourth Dynasty Giza Pyramids.

The Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza, built during the Old Kingdom, are modern national icons that are at the heart of Egypt's thriving tourism industry.

The First Intermediate Period ushered in a time of political upheaval for about 150 years. Stronger Nile floods and stabilization of government, however, brought back renewed prosperity for the country in the Middle Kingdom c. 2040 BC, reaching a peak during the reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. A second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Semitic Hyksos. The Hyksos invaders took over much of Lower Egypt around 1650 BC and founded a new capital at Avaris. They were driven out by an Upper Egyptian force led by Ahmose I, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and relocated the capital from Memphis to Thebes.

The Hanging Church of Cairo, first built in the third or fourth century AD, is one of the most famous Coptic Churches in Egypt.

The New Kingdom (c.1550−1070 BC) began with the Eighteenth Dynasty, marking the rise of Egypt as an international power that expanded during its greatest extension to an empire as far south as Jebel Barkal in Nubia, and included parts of the Levant in the east. This period is noted for some of the most well-known Pharaohs, including Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, Tutankhamun and Ramesses II. The first historically attested expression of monotheism came during this period in the form of Atenism. Frequent contacts with other nations brought new ideas to the New Kingdom. The country was later invaded by Libyans, Nubians and Assyrians, but native Egyptians drove them out and regained control of their country.

The Thirtieth Dynasty was the last native ruling dynasty during the Pharaonic epoch. It fell to the Persians in 343 BC after the last native Pharaoh, King Nectanebo II, was defeated in battle. Later, Egypt fell to the Macedonians and Romans, beginning over two thousand years of foreign rule.

Before Egypt became part of the Byzantine realm, Christianity had been brought by Saint Mark the Evangelist in the AD first century. Diocletian's reign marked the transition from the Roman to the Byzantine era in Egypt, when a great number of Egyptian Christians were persecuted. The New Testament had by then been translated into Egyptian. After the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, a distinct Egyptian Coptic Church was firmly established.[២០]

The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after a brief Persian invasion early in the seventh century, until in AD 639, Egypt was invaded by the Muslim Arabs. The form of Islam the Arabs brought to Egypt was Sunni. Early in this period, Egyptians began to blend their new faith with indigenous beliefs and practices that had survived through Coptic Christianity, giving rise to various Sufi orders that have flourished to this day.[២១] Muslim rulers nominated by the Islamic Caliphate remained in control of Egypt for the next six centuries, including a period for which Cairo was the seat of the Caliphate under the Fatimids. With the end of the Ayyubid dynasty, the Mamluks, a Turco-Circassian military caste, took control about AD 1250. They continued to govern the country until the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517, after which it became a province of the Ottoman Empire. The mid-14th-Century Black Death killed about 40% of the country's population.[២២]

Modern History[កែប្រែ]

Mosque of Mohamed Ali built in the early nineteenth century within the Cairo Citadel.

The brief French Invasion of Egypt led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798 had a great social impact on the country and its culture. Native Egyptians became exposed to the principles of the French Revolution and had a chance to exercise self-governance.[២៣] The expulsion of the French in 1801 by Ottoman, Mamluk, and British forces was followed by four years of anarchy in which Ottomans, Mamluks, and Albanians who were nominally in the service of the Ottomans, wrestled for power. Out of this chaos, the commander of the Albanian regiment, Muhammad Ali (Kavalali Mehmed Ali Pasha) emerged as a dominant figure and in 1805 was acknowledged by the Sultan in Istanbul as his pasha (viceroy) in Egypt; the title implied subordination to the Sultan but this was in fact a polite fiction: Ottoman power in Egypt was finished and Muhammad Ali, an ambitious and able leader, established a dynasty that was to rule Egypt (at first really and later as British puppets) until the revolution of 1952. His primary focus was military: he annexed Northern Sudan (1820-1824), Syria (1833), and parts of Arabia and Anatolia; but in 1841 the European powers, fearful lest he topple Byzantium itself, checked him: he had to return most of his conquests to the Ottomans, but he kept the Sudan and his title to Egypt was made hereditary. A more lasting consequence of his military ambition is that it made him the moderniser of Egypt. Anxious to learn the military (and therefore industrial) techniques of the great powers he sent students to the West and invited training missions to Egypt. He built industries, a system of canals for irrigation and transport, and reformed the civil service. For better or worse, the introduction in 1820 of long-staple cotton, the Egyptian variety of which became famous, transformed Egyptian agriculture into a cash-crop monoculture before the end of the century. The social effects of this were enormous: it led to the concentration of agriculture in the hands of large landowners, and, with the additional trigger of high cotton prices caused by the United States' civil war production drop, to a large influx of foreigners who began in earnest the exploitation of Egypt for international commodity production.[២៤]

Muhammad Ali was succeeded briefly by his son Ibrahim (in September 1848), then by a grandson Abbas I (in November 1848), then by Said (in 1854), and Isma'il (in 1863). Abbas I was cautious. Said and Ismail were ambitious developers; unfortunately they spent beyond their means. The Suez Canal, built in partnership with the French, was completed in 1869. The expense of this and other projects had two effects: it led to enormous debt to European banks, and caused popular discontent because of the onerous taxation it necessitated. In 1875 Ismail was forced to sell Egypt's share in the canal to the British government. Within three years this led to the imposition of British and French controllers who sat in the Egyptian cabinet, and, "with the financial power of the bondholders behind them, were the real power in the government."[២៥] Local dissatisfaction with Ismail and with European intrusion led to the formation of the first nationalist groupings in 1879, with Ahmad Urabi a prominent figure. In 1882 he became head of a nationalist-dominated ministry committed to democratic reforms including parliamentary control of the budget. Fearing a diminishment of their control, Britain and France intervened militarily, bombarding Alexandria and crushing the Egyptian army at the battle of Tel el-Kebir.[២៦] They reinstalled Ismail's son Tewfik as figurehead of a de facto British protectorate.[២៧] In 1914 the Protectorate was made official, and the title of the head of state, which had changed from pasha to khedive in 1867, was changed to sultan, to repudiate the vestigial suzerainty of the Ottoman sultan, who was backing the Central powers in World War I. Abbas II was deposed as khedive and replaced by his uncle, Husayn Kamil, as sultan.[២៨]

In 1906, the Dinshaway Incident prompted many neutral Egyptians to join the nationalist movement. After the First World War, Saad Zaghlul and the Wafd Party led the Egyptian nationalist movement, gaining a majority at the local Legislative Assembly. When the British exiled Zaghlul and his associates to Malta on March 8, 1919, the country arose in its first modern revolution. Constant revolting by the Egyptian people throughout the country led Great Britain to issue a unilateral declaration of Egypt's independence on February 22, 1922.[២៩]

The Revolution[កែប្រែ]

The new Egyptian government drafted and implemented a new constitution in 1923 based on a parliamentary representative system. Saad Zaghlul was popularly-elected as Prime Minister of Egypt in 1924. In 1936 the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty was concluded. Continued instability in the government due to remaining British control and increasing political involvement by the king led to the ousting of the monarchy and the dissolution of the parliament in a military coup d'état known as the 1952 Revolution. The officers, known as the Free Officers Movement, forced King Farouk to abdicate in support of his son Fuad.

On June 18, 1953, the Egyptian Republic was declared, with General Muhammad Naguib as the first President of the Republic. Naguib was forced to resign in 1954 by Jamal Abdel Nasser– the real architect of the 1952 movement– and was later put under house arrest. Nasser assumed power as President and declared the full independence of Egypt from the United Kingdom on June 18, 1956. His nationalization of the Suez Canal on July 26, 1956 prompted the 1956 Suez Crisis.

View of Cairo, the largest city in Africa and the Middle East. The Cairo Opera House (bottom-right) is the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital.

Three years after the 1967 Six Day War, during which Israel had invaded and occupied Sinai, Nasser died and was succeeded by Anwar Sadat. Sadat switched Egypt's Cold War allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States, expelling Soviet advisors in 1972. He launched the Infitah economic reform policy, while violently clamping down on religious and secular opposition alike.

In 1973, Egypt, along with Syria, launched the October War, a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights. It was an attempt to liberate the territory Israel had captured 6 years earlier. Both the US and the USSR intervened and a cease-fire was reached. Despite not being a complete military success, most historians agree that the October War presented Sadat with a political victory that later allowed him to regain the Sinai in return with peace with Israel.

Sadat made a historic visit to Israel in 1977, which led to the 1979 peace treaty in exchange for the complete Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Sadat's initiative sparked enormous controversy in the Arab world and led to Egypt's expulsion from the Arab League, but it was supported by the vast majority of Egyptians.[៣០] A fundamentalist military soldier assassinated Sadat in Cairo in 1981. He was succeeded by the incumbent Hosni Mubarak. In 2003, the Egyptian Movement for Change, popularly known as Kefaya, was launched to seek a return to democracy and greater civil liberties.

Identity[កែប្រែ]

The Nile Valley was home to one of the oldest cultures in the world, spanning three thousand years of continuous history. When Egypt fell under a series of foreign occupations after 343 BC, each left an indelible mark on the country's cultural landscape. Egyptian identity evolved in the span of this long period of occupation to accommodate, in principle, two new religions, Christianity and Islam; and a new language, Arabic, and its spoken descendant, Egyptian Arabic.[៣១] The degree to which Egyptians identify with each layer of Egypt's history in articulating a sense of collective identity can vary. Questions of identity came to fore in the last century as Egypt sought to free itself from foreign occupation for the first time in two thousand years. Three chief ideologies came to head: ethno-territorial Egyptian nationalism, secular Arab nationalism and pan-Arabism, and Islamism. Egyptian nationalism predates its Arab counterpart by many decades, having roots in the nineteenth century and becoming the dominant mode of expression of Egyptian anti-colonial activists and intellectuals until the early 20th century.[៣២] Arab nationalism reached a peak under Nasser but was once again relegated under Sadat; meanwhile, the ideology espoused by Islamists such as the Muslim Brotherhood is present in small segments of the lower-middle strata of Egyptian society.[៣៣]

Politics[កែប្រែ]

See also[កែប្រែ]

ទំព័រគំរូ:Columns

Lists[កែប្រែ]

Main list: List of basic Egypt topics

Notes and references[កែប្រែ]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named popclock
  2. ២,០ ២,១ ២,២ "Egypt". International Monetary Fund. បានយកមកកាលពី ២០០៨-១០-០៩.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  3. Rosalie, David (1997)។ Pyramid Builders of Ancient Egypt: A Modern Investigation of Pharaoh's Workforce។ Routledge។ ទំ. 18។ 
  4. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Date_validation at line 45: attempt to compare number with nil.
  5. Breasted, James Henry; Peter A. Piccione (2001)។ Ancient Records of Egypt។ University of Illinois Press។ ទំ. 76;40។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 9780252069758http://books.google.com/books?id=bT0q7nt1-gUC&client=firefox-a 
  6. Biblical Hebrew E-Magazine. January, 2005
  7. Hoffmeier, James K (October 1, 2007), "RAMESES OF THE EXODUS NARRATIVES IS THE 13TH CENTURY B.C. ROYAL RAMESSIDE RESIDENCE", Trinity Journal: 1, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3803/is_200710/ai_n21137941/pg_2 
  8. World Factbook area rank order
  9. More changes ahead for Egypt
  10. E. A. Pearce, Charles Gordon Smith, The Times Books World Weather Guide, (Times Books/Random House: 1990), p.40
  11. Sun, sand and searing heat
  12. Robert Pateman, Salwa El-Hamamsy, Egypt, (Marshall Cavendish: 2003), p.7
  13. Hamza, Waleed. Land use and Coastal Management in the Third Countries: Egypt as a case. Accessed= 2007-06-10.
  14. Soliman, KH. Rainfall over Egypt. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 80, issue 343, pp. 104-104.
  15. Marsa Matruh, Egypt. Weatherbase.com. Last accessed February 12, 2008.
  16. Contingency planning for rising sea levels in Egypt | IRIN News, March 2008
  17. Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  18. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Date_validation at line 45: attempt to compare number with nil.
  19. Bard, Kathryn A. Ian Shaw, ed. The Oxford Illustrated History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. p. 69.
  20. Kamil, Jill. Coptic Egypt: History and Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo, 1997. p. 39
  21. El-Daly, Okasha. Egyptology: The Missing Millennium. London: UCL Press, 2005. p. 140
  22. Egypt - Major Cities, U.S. Library of Congress
  23. Vatikiotis, P.J. The History of Modern Egypt. 4th edition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1992, p. 39
  24. Nejla M. Abu Izzeddin, Nasser of the Arabs, published circa 1973, p 2.
  25. Nejla M. Abu Izzeddin, Nasser of the Arabs", p 2.
  26. Anglo French motivation: Derek Hopwood, Egypt: Politics and Society 1945-1981. London, 1982, George Allen & Unwin. p 11.
  27. De facto protectorate: Joan Wucher King, Historical Dictionary of Egypt. Metuchen, New Jersey, USA; 1984; Scarecrow. p 17.
  28. James Jankowski, Egypt, A Short History, p. 111
  29. Jankowski, op cit., p. 112
  30. Vatikiotis, p. 443
  31. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Date_validation at line 45: attempt to compare number with nil.
  32. Jankowski, James. "Egypt and Early Arab Nationalism" in Rashid Khalidi, ed. The Origins of Arab Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990, pp. 244-45
  33. Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 2003, pp. 264-65, 267

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