ការសរសេរអត្ថបទ

ពីវិគីភីឌា
Jump to navigation Jump to search

សេចក្តី​សង្ខេប​[កែប្រែ]

ដំណើរការ​នៃ​ការ​សរសេរ​អត្ថបទ​ (Writing process)ចាប់​តាំង​ពី​ទសវត្សរ៍ ឆ្នាំ ១៩៧០ មក អ្នក​ស្រាវជ្រាវ​បាន​ព្យាយាម​ស្វែងយល់​អំពី​អ្វី​មួយ ដែល​សព្វថ្ងៃ​នេះយើង​ស្គាល់​ថា​ជា ដំណើរ​ការ​នៃ​ការ​សរសេរ​អត្ថបទ (writing process) ។ គំនិត​គន្លឹះ​មួយ​ (key concept) នៅ​ក្នុង​ការ​បង្រៀន​វិធី​តែង​សេចក្តី (writing) និង ក្នុង​ការ​ស្រាវជ្រាវ​អំពី​ការនិពន្ធ (composition studies) គឺ អ្នក​ជំនាញ​​ខាង​ដំណើរការ​និពន្ធ (process scholars) បាន​​ដើរ​តួ​សំខាន់​បំផុត​ក្នុង​ការ​ជួយ​ផ្លាស់​ប្តូរ​ចំណាប់​អារម្មណ៍​របស់​គ្រូ​បង្រៀន​ ​ពី​ការ​ឲ្យ​តម្លៃ​ទៅ​លើ​​ស្នាដៃ​និពន្ធ​របស់​សិស្ស (students' written products) ហើយ​​ងាក​ទៅរក​ការ​​បង្រៀន​​អំពី​ដំណើរការ​នៃ​ការ​សរសេរ​របស់​សិស្ស​ (students' writing processes) វិញ​ម្តង ។

ការ​ស្រាវជ្រាវ​អំពី​ដំណើរការ​នៃ​ការនិពន្ធ (Composing process) ត្រូវ​បាន​នាំ​មុខ​គេ​ដោយ​អ្នក​ជំនាញ​ច្រើន​រូប​ (scholars) ដូច​ជា លោក​ស្រី ជែណិត អេមិគ (Janet Emig)​ តាម​រយៈ​អត្ថបទ​ "The Composing Processes of Twelfth Graders" (ដំណើរការ​និពន្ធ​របស់​សិស្ស​ថ្នាក់​ទី ១២) (បោះពុម្ព​ឆ្នាំ 1971)[១] , លោក​ស្រី សឹនដ្រា ភឹល (Sondra Perl) តាមរយៈ​អត្ថបទ "The Composing Processes of Unskilled College Writers" (ដំណើរការ​និពន្ធ​របស់​អ្នក​និពន្ធ​គ្មាន​បទពិសោធន៍ ជា​និស្សិត​នៅ​តាម​​មហាវិទ្យាល័យ) (បោះពុម្ព​ឆ្នាំ 1979) [២] , និង លោក​ស្រី លីនដា ផ្លៅវ័រ (Linda Flower) និង លោក​ ចន អ័រ ហេស៍ (John R. Hayes) តាម​រយៈ​អត្ថបទ "A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing" (ទ្រឹស្តី​នៃ​ដំណើរ​ការ​យល់ដឹង​អំពី​ការសរសេរអត្ថបទ) (បោះពុម្ព​ឆ្នាំ 1981)​[៣]

ដោយសារ​ការ​សរសេរ​គ្មាន​ពាក់ព័ន្ធ​នឹង​សម្ពាធ​ខាង​ក្រៅ និស្សិត​ទទួល​ផល​ប្រយោជន៍​ច្រើន​ពី​ការ​ណែនាំ​អំពី​​របៀប​​សរសេរ​អត្ថបទ (writing instruction) នៅ​ពេល​ដែល​​ការ​ណែនាំ​នោះ​ជួយ​ឲ្យ​ពួក​គេ​ដឹង​ថា អ្វី​ៗ​ដែល​ពួក​គេ​សរសេរ ជាប់​ទាក់​ទង​ជា​មួយ​នឹង​​ជីវិត​ជាក់​ស្តែង​នៅ​ក្រៅ​រង្វង់​ថ្នាក់​រៀន ។ តាម​មតិ​របស់​លោក​ស្រី អ័ន្ន អ៊ី ប័រថ័ហ្វហ្វ៍ (Ann E. Berthoff), កិច្ចការ​របស់​គ្រូបង្រៀន "គឺ​ត្រូវ​តាក់តែង​ជំហាន​​នៃ​លំហាត់​អនុវត្ត (sequences of assignments) ដែល​បណ្តោយ​ឲ្យ​និស្សិត​រកឃើញ​ដោយ​ខ្លួន​គេ​នូវ​អ្វី​ៗ​ដែល​ភាសា​អាច​ធ្វើ​បាន និង អ្វី​ៗ​ដែល​ពួក​គេ​អាច​​ធ្វើ​បាន​ជា​មួយ​នឹង​ភាសា​" ។

កាល​ពី​ឆ្នាំ ១៩៧២ លោក ដូណ័លដ៍ អឹម ម័ររ៉េ (Donald M. Murray) បាន​បោះពុម្ព​សេចក្តី​ប្រកាស​ខ្លី​មួយ (manifesto) ដែល​មាន​ចំណង​ជើង​ថា "Teach Writing as a Process Not Product" (ចូរ​បង្រៀន​វិធី​សរសេរ ទុក​​ដូច​ជា​ដំណើរ​ការ​មួយ និង មិន​ត្រូវ​ទុក​ដូច​ជា​ស្នាដៃ​មួយឡើយ)[៤] ហើយ​​សម្តី​នេះ​បាន​ក្លាយ​ទៅ​ជា​ សម្រែក​ទាមទារ​មួយ​ ដែល​គ្រូបង្រៀន​ខាង​វិធីសរសេរ​អត្ថបទ​​ច្រើន​នាក់​កំពុង​តែ​ស្រែក​ទាម​ទារ​ឲ្យ​មាន​ការ​ផ្លាស់​ប្តូរ ។ ដប់​ឆ្នាំ​ក្រោយ​មក នៅ​ឆ្នាំ ១៩៨២ លោក​ស្រី​ ម៉ាក់ស៊ីន ហែស្តុន (Maxine Hairston) បាន​ជំទាស់​ថា ការបង្រៀន​វិធី​សរសេរ​អត្ថបទ បាន​ឆ្លងកាត់​​ដំណាក់​កាល​នៃ "ការ​ប្តូរ​គម្រូ" (paradigm shift) ដោយ​បាន​បង្វែរ​ចំណាប់​អារម្មណ៍​ពី ស្នាដៃ​និពន្ធ (written products) ទៅ​ចាប់​អារម្មណ៍​លើ ដំណើរការ​នៃ​ការសេរអត្ថបទ​ (writing processes) វិញ​ម្តង [៥]

​រយៈកាល​ច្រើន​ឆ្នាំ​មក​ហើយ គ្រប់​គ្នា​សន្មតិ​​ទូទៅ​ថា​ ដំណើរ​ការ​នៃ​ការ​សរសេរ​អត្ថបទ ប្រតិបត្តិ​នៅ​ក្នុង​ ដំណាក់​កាល (stages)​ មួយ​ចំនួន​ដូច​ខាង​ក្រោម​នេះ ៖

  1. ការ​គិតគូរ​មុន​សរសេរ (Prewriting)
  2. ការ​សរសេរ​ព្រាង (Drafting)
  3. ការ​​កែ​លម្អ​អត្ថបទ (Revising)
  4. ការផ្ទៀងផ្ទាត់​ឡើង​វិញ (Editing, proofreading)
  5. ការ​បោះពុម្ព (Publishing)

What is now called "post-process" research demonstrates that it is seldom accurate to describe these "stages" as fixed steps in a straightforward process. Rather, they are more accurately conceptualized as overlapping parts of a complex whole or parts of a recursive process that are repeated multiple times throughout the writing process. Thus writers routinely discover that, for instance, editorial changes trigger brainstorming and a change of purpose; that drafting is temporarily interrupted to correct a misspelling; or that the boundary between prewriting and drafting is less than obvious.

​ផ្តោត​លើ​ដំណើរ​ការ​[កែប្រែ]

ទ្រឹស្តី ​Flower-Hayes Model នៃ​ការ​និពន្ធ[កែប្រែ]

​គម្រូ​នៃ​ការ​យល់ដឹង[កែប្រែ]

Flower and Hayes extend Bitzer's rhetorical situation to become a series of rhetorical problems, i.e., when a writer must represent the situation as a problem to be solved, such as the invocation of a particular audience to an oversimplified approach such as finding a theme and completing the writing in two pages by Monday's class. (472)

In "The Cognition of Discovery" Flower and Hayes set out to discover the differences between good and bad writers. They came to three results from their study, which suggests that good writers envelop the three following characteristics when solving their rhetorical problems:

  1. Good writers respond to all of the rhetorical problems
  2. Good writers build their problem representation by creating a particularly rich network of goals for affecting a reader; and
  3. Good writers represent the problem not only in more breadth, but in depth. (476)

Flower and Hayes suggest that composition instructors need to consider showing students how "to explore and define their own problems, even within the constraints of an assignment" (477). They believe that "Writers discover what they want to do by insistently, energetically exploring the entire problem before them and building for themselves a unique image of the problem they want to solve."

មិតិរិះគន់​[កែប្រែ]

Patricia Bizzell argues that even though educators may have an understanding of "how" the writing process occurs, educators shouldn't assume that this knowledge can answer the question "about 'why' the writer makes certain choices in certain situations", since writing is always situated within a discourse community (484). She discusses how the Flower and Hayes model relies on what is called the process of "translating ideas into visible language" (486). This process occurs when students "treat written English as a set of containers into which we pour meaning" (486). Bizzell contends that this process "remains the emptiest box" in the cognitive process model, since it de-contextualizes the original context of the written text, negating the original intent and meaning. She argues that "Writing does not so much contribute to thinking as provide an occasion for thinking..."

ទ្រឹស្តី​ផ្តោត​ទៅ​លើ​ដំណើរ​ការ​[កែប្រែ]

According to the expressivist theory, the process of writing is centered on the writer's transformation. This involves the writer changing in the sense that voice and identity are established and the writer has a sense of his or her self. This theory became popular in the late 1960s and early 1970s. According to Richard Fulkerson's article "Four Philosophies of Composition", the focus of expressivism is for writers to have "... an interesting, credible, honest, and personal voice". Moreover, proponents of the expressivist process view this theory as a way for students to become fulfilled and healthy both emotionally and mentally. Those who teach this process often focus on journaling and other classroom activities to focus on student self-discovery and at times, low-stakes writing. Prominent figures in the field include John Dixon, Ken Macrorie, Lou Kelly, Donald C. Stewart and Peter Elbow.

ប្រវត្តិ​នៃ​ការ​​និពន្ធ និង ដំណើរ​ការ​[កែប្រែ]

An historical response to process is concerned primarily with the manner in which writing has been shaped and governed by historical and social forces. These forces are dynamic and contextual, and therefore render any static iteration of process unlikely.

Notable scholars that have conducted this type of inquiry include media theorists such as Marshall McLuhan, Walter Ong, Gregory Ulmer, and Cynthia Selfe. Much of McLuhan's work, for example, centered around the impact of written language on oral cultures, degrees to which various media are accessible and interactive, and the ways in which electronic media determine communication patterns. His evaluation of technology as a shaper of human societies and psyches indicates a strong connection between historical forces and literacy practices.

ការ​ផ្ទៀងផ្ទាត់​កែ​លម្អ[កែប្រែ]

Editing has several levels it operates on (depending on the publishers process this is typically 5 levels). The lowest level is the only one most people think that editing really is but in fact is the least important of the various editing process.

See more at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Editing. However this is also incomplete with respect to many publishers full process.

The lowest, often called line editing is the stage in the writing process where the writer makes changes in the text to correct errors (spelling, grammar, or mechanics) and fine-tune his or her style. Having revised the draft for content, the writer's task is now to make changes that will improve the actual communication with the reader. Depending on the genre, the writer may choose to adhere to the conventions of Standard English. These conventions are still being developed and the rulings on controversial issues may vary depending on the source. A source like Strunk and White's Elements of Style, first published in 1918, is a well-established authority on stylistic conventions.[៦] A more recent handbook for students is Diana Hacker's A Writer's Reference.[៧] An electronic resource is the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL), where writers may search a specific issue to find an explanation of grammatical and mechanical conventions.[៨]

ផ្ទៀងផ្ទាត់​ចំណុច ៖

  • អក្ខរាវិរុទ្ធ (spelling)
  • ភាព​ត្រូវ​គ្នា​រវាង​ប្រធាន និង កិរិយាសព្ទ (Subject/verb agreement)
  • ភាពដូចគ្នា​គ្រប់​ពេល (មិន​ប្តូរ​ចុះ​ឡើង) ​នៃ​ការ​ប្រើ​​កិរិយាសព្ទ​បំបែក​ (​Verb tense consistency)
  • ភាព​ដូច​គ្នា​គ្រប់​ពេល នៃ​មតិ​របស់​អ្នក​និពន្ធ (Point of view consistency)
  • កំហុស​នៃ​ពាក្យ​វេយ្យាករណ៍​ក្នុង​ប្រយោគ (Mechanical errors)
  • ជម្រើស​នៃ​ការ​ប្រើ​ពាក្យ (Word choice)
  • ការប្រើប្រាស់​ពាក្យ​ត្រឹមត្រូវ (Word usage) ឧទាហរណ៍ ៖ និង (and) ខុស​ពី នឹង (with) ។[៧]

មើល​បន្ថែម[កែប្រែ]

ឯកសារ​យោង[កែប្រែ]

  1. Janet Emig, The Composing Processes of Twelfth Graders, Urbana: NCTE, 1971.
  2. Sondra Perl, "The Composing Processes of Unskilled College Writers", Research in the Teaching of English 13 (1979), pp. 317-36, rpt. in Cross-Talk in Comp Theory, 2nd ed., ed. Victor Villanueva, Urbana: NCTE, 2003.
  3. Linda Flower and John R. Hayes, "A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing", CCC 32 (1981, pp. 365-87, rpt. in Cross-Talk in Comp Theory, 2nd ed., ed. Victor Villanueva, Urbana: NCTE, 2003.
  4. IDonald M. Murray, "Teach Writing as a Process Not Product" The Leaflet (November 1972), rpt. in Cross-Talk in Comp Theory, 2nd ed., ed. Victor Villanueva, Urbana: NCTE, 2003.
  5. Maxine Hairston, "The Winds of Change: Thomas Kuhn and the Revolution in the Teaching of Writing" CCC 33 (1982), pp. 76-88, rpt. in The Norton Book of Composition Studies, ed. Susan Miller, New York: Norton, 2009
  6. Strunk, Jr., William; E. B. White (1972) [1918]. The Elements of Style (2nd ed.). Plain Label Books. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-1-60303-050-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=Hd5o74IehyoC&pg=PA55.
  7. ៧,០ ៧,១ Hacker, Diana. (2009). A Writer's Reference (6th ed.). Bedford/St. Martin's. ISBN 978-0-312-59332-2. [១]
  8. "General Writing". The Purdue Online Writing Lab (Owl). Purdue University, 2008. Web. 16 Apr 2010. <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/>.

ឯកសារ​ជ្រើស​រើស​សម្រាប់​អាន​[កែប្រែ]

  • Berthoff, Ann. [២] "The Making of Meaning: Metaphors, Models and Maxims for Writing Teachers".
  • Brand, Alice G. "The Why of Cognition: Emotion and the Writing Process". CCC 38.4 (1987): 436-443.
  • Bruffee, Kenneth A. "Collaborative Learning and the 'Conversation of Mankind'" College English 46.7 (1984): 635-652.
  • Elbow, Peter. Writing without Teachers 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, USA, 1998.
  • Flower, Linda and John R. Hayes. "A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing". CCC 32.4 (1981): 365-387.
  • Guffey, Rhodes and Rogin. "Business Communication: Process and Product". Third Brief Canadian Edition. Thomson-Nelson, 2010.
  • Murray, Donald. Writing to Learn 8th ed. Wadsworth. 2004
  • Pattison, Darcy. Paper Lightning: Prewriting Activities to Spark Creativity and Help Students Write Effectively.
  • Sommers, Nancy. "Revision Strategies of Student Writers and Experienced Adult Writers". CCC 31.4 (1980): 378-388.

តំណ​ភ្ជាប់​ទៅ​ខាង​ក្រៅ[កែប្រែ]

ទំព័រគំរូ:ការតែងនិពន្ធ​អក្សរសិល្ប៍