ក្រុម (តារាងខួបនៃធាតុគីមី)

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The periodic table of the chemical elements. The columns represent the groups

In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements. There are 18 numbered groups in the periodic table, but the f-block columns (between groups 2 and 3) are not numbered. The elements in a group have similar physical or chemical characteristic of the outermost electron shells of their atoms (i.e., the same core charge), as most chemical properties are dominated by the orbital location of the outermost electron. There are three systems of group numbering. The modern numbering group 1 to group 18 is recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). It replaces two older naming schemes that were mutually confusing. Also, groups may be identified by their topmost element, like oxygen group (group 16) and some groups have a specific name, like chalcogen (group 16).

Group names[កែប្រែ]

The periodic table groups are as follows:[១][២]

ក្រុម នៅក្នុង តារាងខួបនៃធាតុគីមី
Group number 1 2 3b 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
CAS (US) IA IIA IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA
old IUPAC (European) IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIII IB IIB IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB Group 0
Trivial name Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Coin­age metalsc Vola­tile metalsc Icosa­gensc Crys­tallo­gensc Pnicto­gens Chal­co­gens Halo­gens Noble gases
Name by element Lith­ium group Beryl­lium group Scan­dium group Titan­ium group Vana­dium group Chro­mium group Man­ga­nese group Iron group Co­balt group Nickel group Cop­per group Zinc group Boron group Car­bon group Nitro­gen group Oxy­gen group Fluor­ine group Helium or Neon group
Period 1 title="Hydrogen: diatomic nonmetals" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:ទំព័រគំរូ:Element color/diatomic nonmetals;; "| Ha He
Period 2 Li Be B title="Carbon: polyatomic nonmetals" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:ទំព័រគំរូ:Element color/polyatomic nonmetals;; "| C title="Nitrogen: diatomic nonmetals" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:ទំព័រគំរូ:Element color/diatomic nonmetals;; "| N title="Oxygen: diatomic nonmetals" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:ទំព័រគំរូ:Element color/diatomic nonmetals;; "| O title="Fluorine: diatomic nonmetals" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:ទំព័រគំរូ:Element color/diatomic nonmetals;; "| F Ne
Period 3 Na Mg Al Si title="Phosphorus: polyatomic nonmetals" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:ទំព័រគំរូ:Element color/polyatomic nonmetals;; "| P title="Sulfur: polyatomic nonmetals" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:ទំព័រគំរូ:Element color/polyatomic nonmetals;; "| S title="Chlorine: diatomic nonmetals" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:ទំព័រគំរូ:Element color/diatomic nonmetals;; "| Cl Ar
Period 4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As title="Selenium: polyatomic nonmetals" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:ទំព័រគំរូ:Element color/polyatomic nonmetals;; "| Se title="Bromine: diatomic nonmetals" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:ទំព័រគំរូ:Element color/diatomic nonmetals;; "| Br Kr
Period 5 Rb Sr f-blockb Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te title="Iodine: diatomic nonmetals" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:ទំព័រគំរូ:Element color/diatomic nonmetals;; "| I Xe
Period 6 Cs Ba La–Yb Lub Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po title="Astatine: metalloids" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:ទំព័រគំរូ:Element color/metalloids;; min-width:4%;"| At Rn
Period 7 Fr Ra Ac–No Lrb Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Fl Uup Lv Uus Uuo
a Hydrogen (H), while placed in column 1, is not considered to be a in the group alkali metals.
b Group 3: depending on the source, Lutetium (Lu) and Lawrencium (Lr) may be included; the f-block (with 14 lanthanides and 14 actinides) may be included.
c This group name is not recommended by IUPAC.
New IUPAC numbering CAS (American) Old IUPAC (European) Name by element Specific name note
Group 1 IA IA lithium family alkali metals Hydrogen is in this column, but not considered to be an alkali metal
Group 2 IIA IIA beryllium family alkaline earth metals
Group 3 IIIB IIIA scandium family Consisting of rare earth elements plus actinides
Group 4 IVB IVA titanium family
Group 5 VB VA vanadium family
Group 6 VIB VIA chromium family
Group 7 VIIB VIIA manganese family
Group 8 VIIIB VIII iron family
Group 9 VIIIB VIII cobalt family
Group 10 VIIIB VIII nickel family
Group 11 IB IB copper family coinage metals The name coinage metals is not IUPAC-recommended
Group 12 IIB IIB zinc family volatile metals The name volatile metals is not IUPAC-recommended
Group 13 IIIA IIIB boron family triels, icosagens triels from Greek tri (three, III), the name icosagens is not IUPAC-recommended
Group 14 IVA IVB carbon family tetrels, crystallogens tetrels from Greek tetra (four, IV), the name crystallogens is not IUPAC-recommended
Group 15 VA VB nitrogen family pnictogens
Group 16 VIA VIB oxygen family chalcogens
Group 17 VIIA VIIB fluorine family halogens
Group 18 VIIIA Group 0 helium family or neon family noble gases, aerogens

References[កែប្រែ]

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Further reading[កែប្រែ]

  • Scerri, E. R. (2007)។ The periodic table, its story

and its significance។ Oxford University Press។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-19-530573-9