ខួប (តារាងខួបនៃធាតុគីមី)

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In the periodic table of the elements, elements are arranged in a series of rows (or periods) so that those with similar properties appear in a column. Elements of the same period have the same number of electron shells; with each ក្រុម across a period, the elements have one more proton and electron and become less metallic. This arrangement reflects the periodic recurrence of similar properties as the atomic number increases. For example, the alkaline metals lie in one group (group 1) and share similar properties, such as high reactivity and the tendency to lose one electron to arrive at a noble-gas electronic configuration. The periodic table of elements has a total of 118 elements.

The Madelung energy ordering rule describes the order in which orbitals are arranged by increasing energy according to the Madelung rule. Each diagonal corresponds to a different value of n + l.

ខួប[កែប្រែ]

Seven periods of elements occur naturally on Earth. For period 8, which includes elements which may be synthesized after 2012, see the extended periodic table.

A group in chemistry means a family of objects with similarities like different families. There are 7 periods, going horizontally across the periodic table.

ធាតុគីមីនៅក្នុងខួបទី១[កែប្រែ]

ក្រុម 1/17 2/18
#
ឈ្មោះ
1
H
2
He

The first period contains fewer elements than any other, with only two, hydrogen and helium. They therefore do not follow the octet rule. Chemically, helium behaves as a noble gas, and thus is taken to be part of the group 18 elements. However, in terms of its nuclear structure it belongs to the s block, and is therefore sometimes classified as a group 2 element, or simultaneously both 2 and 18. Hydrogen readily loses and gains an electron, and so behaves chemically as both a group 1 and a group 17 element.


ធាតុគីមីនៅក្នុងខួបទី២[កែប្រែ]

ក្រុម 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18
#
ឈ្មោះ
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne

Period 2 elements involve the 2s and 2p orbitals. They include the biologically most essential elements besides hydrogen: carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.

ធាតុគីមីនៅក្នុងខួបទី៣[កែប្រែ]

ក្រុម 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18
#
ឈ្មោះ
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar

All period three elements occur in nature and have at least one stable isotope. All but the noble gas argon are essential to basic geology and biology.


ធាតុគីមីនៅក្នុងខួបទី៤[កែប្រែ]

ក្រុម 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
#
ឈ្មោះ
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
From left to right, aqueous solutions of: Co(NO3)2 (red); K2Cr2O7 (orange); K2CrO4 (yellow); NiCl2 (green); CuSO4 (blue); KMnO4 (purple).

Period 4 includes the biologically essential elements potassium and calcium, and is the first period in the d-block with the lighter transition metals. These include iron, the heaviest element forged in main-sequence stars and a principal component of the earth, as well as other important metals such as cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc. Almost all have biological roles.

ធាតុគីមីនៅក្នុងខួបទី៥[កែប្រែ]

ក្រុម 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
#
ឈ្មោះ
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe

Period 5 contains the heaviest few elements that have biological roles, molybdenum and iodine. (Tungsten, a period 6 element, is the only heavier element that has a biological role.) It includes technetium, the lightest exclusively radioactive element.

ធាតុគីមីនៅក្នុងខួបទី៦[កែប្រែ]

ក្រុម 1 2 3 (Lanthanides) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
#
ឈ្មោះ
55
Cs
56
Ba
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn

Period 6 is the first period to include the f-block, with the lanthanides (also known as the rare earth elements), and includes the heaviest stable elements. Many of these heavy metals are toxic and some are radioactive, but platinum and gold are largely inert.

ធាតុគីមីនៅក្នុងខួបទី៧[កែប្រែ]

ក្រុម 1 2 3 (Actinides) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
#
ឈ្មោះ
87
 Fr 
88
Ra
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Uut
114
Fl
115
Uup
116
Lv
117
Uus
118
Uuo

All elements of period 7 are radioactive. This period contains the heaviest element which occurs naturally on earth, californium. All of the subsequent elements in the period have been synthesized artificially. Whilst one of these (einsteinium) is now available in macroscopic quantities, most are extremely rare, having only been prepared in microgram amounts or less. Some of the later elements have only ever been identified in laboratories in quantities of a few atoms at a time.

Although the rarity of many of these elements means that experimental results are not very extensive, periodic and group trends in behaviour appear to be less well defined for period 7 than for other periods. Whilst francium and radium do show typical properties of Groups 1 and 2 respectively, the actinides display a much greater variety of behaviour and oxidation states than the lanthanides. Initial studies suggest Group 14 element flerovium appears to be a noble gas instead of an other metal, and group 18 element ununoctium probably is not a noble gas.[១] These peculiarities of period 7 may be due to a variety of factors, including a large degree of spin-orbit coupling and relativistic effects, ultimately caused by the very high positive electrical charge from their massive atomic nuclei.

ធាតុគីមីនៅក្នុងខួបទី៨[កែប្រែ]

No element of the eighth period has yet been synthesized. A g-block is predicted. It is not clear if all elements predicted for the eighth period are in fact physically possible. There may therefore be no ninth period.

Legend for the background color
Background color shows subcategory in the metal–nonmetal range:
លោហៈ Metalloid អលោហៈ Unknown
chemical
properties
អាល់កាឡាំង Alkaline earth metal Lan­thanide Actinide Transition metal Other metal Polyatomic nonmetal Diatomic nonmetal ឧស្ម័នកំរ

References[កែប្រែ]

  1. See references in the articles Flerovium, Ununoctium