ថវិការដ្ឋាភិបាល (អង់គ្លេស ៖ government budget) is a document plan of public revenue and expenditure that is often passed by the legislature, approved by the chief executive-or president and presented by the Finance Minister to the nation. The budget is also known as the Annual Financial Statement of the country. This document estimates the anticipated government revenues and government expenditures for the ensuing (current) financial year. For example, only certain types of revenue may be imposed and collected. Property tax is frequently the basis for municipal and county revenues, while sales tax and/or income tax are the basis for state revenues, and income tax and corporate tax are the basis for national revenues.
- Balanced budget: when the government revenue as expenditure are equal.
- Surplus Budget: when anticipated revenues exceed expenditure.
- Deficit Budget: when anticipated expenditure is greater than revenues.
សមាសធាតុចម្បង២នៃគ្រប់ថវិកាទាំងអស់ គឺខ្ទង់ចំណូល និងខ្ទង់ចំណាយ។ In the case of the government, revenues are derived primarily from taxes. Government expenses include spending on current goods and services, which economists call government consumption; government investment expenditures such as infrastructure investment or research expenditure; and transfer payments like unemployment or retirement benefits.
Budgets have an economic, political and technical basis. Unlike a pure economic budget, they are not entirely designed to allocate scarce resources for the best economic use. They also have a political basis wherein different interests push and pull in an attempt to obtain benefits and avoid burdens. The technical element is the forecast of the likely levels of revenues and expenses.
- Sectoral Balances in State Budget-By Fred Bethune
- Performance Budgeting: Linking Funding and Results, Marc Robinson (ed.), IMF, 2007
- Fiscal Policy in a Stock-Flow Consistent Model by Wynne Godley and Marc Lavoie
- From Line-item to Program Budgeting, John Kim, Seoul, 2007
- List of countries by budget; its reference is the CIA's World factbook, in alphabetic order.
- Micha Grau. 2008. Using a Model Municipal Performance Measurement System to Assess Mid-size Texas Cities' Systems.