ប្រព័ន្ធប្រតិបត្តការ Android

Jump to navigation Jump to search
Android robot.svg
Android logo (2007-2014).svg
Android 4.2 "Jelly Bean" on the Nexus 4
ក្រុម​ហ៊ុន / អ្នក​អភិវឌ្ឍ Google
Open Handset Alliance
Android Open Source Project
សរសេរ​ក្នុង C, C++, Java[១]
គ្រួសារ OS Unix-like
ស្ថានភាព​ការ​ងារ Current
ប្រភេទ​ប្រភព Open source[២]
ការ​ចេញ​ផ្សាយ​ដំបូង កញ្ញា 23, 2008 (2008-09-23)[៣]
ការ​ចេញ​ចុង​ក្រោយ 4.2.1 Jelly Bean / វិច្ឆិកា 27, 2012; 2420 ថ្ងៃ កន្លងទៅ (2012-១១-27)[៤][៥]
ទិស​ដៅ​ទី​ផ្សារ Smartphones
Tablet computers
ភាសា Multi-lingual
ប្រព័ន្ធ​កញ្ចប់​កម្មវិធី Google Play, APK
ផ្លាត​ហ្វម​ដែល​ស្គាល់ ARM, MIPS,[៦] x86[៧]
ប្រភេទ​ខឺនែល Monolithic (modified Linux kernel)
រូប​រាង​បង្ហាញ​លំនាំ​ដើម Graphical (Multi-touch)
អាជ្ញាប័ណ្ណ Apache License 2.0
Linux kernel patches under GNU GPL v2[៨]
គេហទំព័រ​ផ្លូវ​ការ android.com

Android is a Linux-based operating system designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Initially developed by Android, Inc., which Google backed financially and later purchased in 2005,[៩] Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance: a consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.[១០] The first Android-powered phone was sold in October 2008.[១១]

Android is open source and Google releases the code under the Apache License.[១២] This open source code and permissive licensing allows the software to be freely modified and distributed by device manufacturers, wireless carriers and enthusiast developers. Additionally, Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of devices, written primarily in a customized version of the Java programming language.[១៣] In October 2012, there were approximately 700,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from Google Play, Android's primary app store, was 25 billion.[១៤][១៥]

These factors have allowed Android to become the world's most widely used smartphone platform[១៦] and the software of choice for technology companies who require a low-cost, customizable, lightweight operating system for high tech devices without developing one from scratch.[១៧] As a result, despite being primarily designed for phones and tablets, it has seen additional applications on televisions, games consoles and other electronics. Android's open nature has further encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which add new features for advanced users[១៨] or bring Android to devices which were officially released running other operating systems.

Android had a worldwide smartphone market share of 75% during the third quarter of 2012,[១៩] with 500 million devices activated in total and 1.3 million activations per day.[២០][២១]


Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger),[២២] Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.),[២៣] Nick Sears[២៤] (once VP at T-Mobile),[២៥] and Chris White (headed design and interface development at WebTV)[៩] to develop, in Rubin's words "smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".[៩] Despite the past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was working on software for mobile phones.[៩] That same year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope and refused a stake in the company.[២៦]

Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005, making it a wholly owned subsidiary of Google. Key employees of Android Inc., including Rubin, Miner and White, stayed at the company after the acquisition.[៩] Not much was known about Android Inc. at the time, but many assumed that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market with this move.[៩] At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradable system. Google had lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.[២៧][២៨][២៩]

Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006.[៣០] Reports from the BBC and the Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver that. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors that Google was developing a Google-branded handset. Some speculated that as Google was defining technical specifications, it was showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony.[៣១][៣២]

On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint Nextel and T-Mobile, and chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop open standards for mobile devices.[១០] That day, Android was unveiled as its first product, a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2.6.[១០] The first commercially available phone to run Android was the HTC Dream, released on October 22, 2008.[៣៣]

Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases. Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat; for example, version 1.5 Cupcake was followed by 1.6 Donut. The latest release is 4.2 Jelly Bean. In 2010, Google launched its Nexus series of devices—a line of smartphones and tablets running the Android operating system, and built by a manufacturer partner. HTC collaborated with Google to release the first Nexus smartphone,[៣៤] the Nexus One. The series has since been updated with newer devices, such as the Nexus 4 phone and Nexus 10 tablet, made by LG and Samsung, respectively. Google releases the Nexus phones and tablets to act as their flagship Android devices, demonstrating Android's latest software and hardware features.



Android's user interface is based on direct manipulation,[៣៥] using touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects.[៣៥] The response to user input is designed to be immediate and provides a fluid touch interface, often using the vibration capabilities of the device to provide haptic feedback to the user. Internal hardware such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and proximity sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented, or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a racing game by rotating the device, simulating control of a steering wheel.[៣៦]

Android devices boot to the homescreen, the primary navigation and information point on the device, which is similar to the desktop found on PCs. Android homescreens are typically made up of app icons and widgets; app icons launch the associated app, whereas widgets display live, auto-updating content such as the weather forecast, the user's email inbox, or a news ticker directly on the homescreen.[៣៧] A homescreen may be made up of several pages that the user can swipe back and forth between, though Android's homescreen interface is heavily customisable, allowing the user to adjust the look and feel of the device to their tastes. Third party apps available on Google Play and other app stores can extensively re-theme the homescreen, and even mimic the look of other operating systems, such as Windows Phone.[៣៨] Most manufacturers, and some wireless carriers, customise the look and feel of their Android devices to differentiate themselves from the competition.

Present along the top of the screen is a status bar, showing information about the device and its connectivity. This status bar can be "pulled" down to reveal a notification screen where apps display important information or updates, such as a newly received email or SMS text, in a way that doesn't immediately interrupt or inconvenience the user.[៣៩] In early versions of Android these notifications could be tapped to open the relevant app, but recent updates have provided enhanced functionality, such as the ability to call a number back directly from the missed call notification without having to open the dialer app first.[៤០] Notifications are persistent until read or dismissed by the user.


Android has a growing selection of third party applications, which can be acquired by users either through an app store such as Google Play or the Amazon Appstore, or by downloading and installing the application's APK file from a third-party site.[៤១] The Play Store application allows users to browse, download and update apps published by Google and third-party developers, and is pre-installed on devices that comply with Google's compatibility requirements.[៤២] The app filters the list of available applications to those that are compatible with the user's device, and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons.[៤៣] Purchases of unwanted applications can be refunded within 15 minutes of the time of download,[៤៤] and some carriers offer direct carrier billing for Google Play application purchases, where the cost of the application is added to the user's monthly bill.[៤៥] As of September 2012, there were more than 675,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Play Store was 25 billion.[៤៦]

Applications are developed in the Java language using the Android software development kit (SDK). The SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools,[៤៧] including a debugger, software libraries, a handset emulator based on QEMU, documentation, sample code, and tutorials. The officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse using the Android Development Tools (ADT) plugin. Other development tools are available, including a Native Development Kit for applications or extensions in C or C++, Google App Inventor, a visual environment for novice programmers, and various cross platform mobile web applications frameworks.

In order to work around limitations on reaching Google services due to Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China, Android devices sold in the PRC are generally customized to use state approved services instead.[៤៨]


Android is developed in private by Google until the latest changes and updates are ready to be released, at which point the source code is made available publicly.[៤៩] This source code will only run without modification on select devices, usually the Nexus series of devices.[៥០] With many devices, there are proprietary components which have to be provided by the manufacturer, in order for Android to work.[៥១]


Architecture diagram

Android consists of a kernel based on Linux kernel version 2.6 and, from Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich onwards, version 3.x, with middleware, libraries and APIs written in C, and application software running on an application framework which includes Java-compatible libraries based on Apache Harmony. Android uses the Dalvik virtual machine with just-in-time compilation to run Dalvik 'dex-code' (Dalvik Executable), which is usually translated from Java bytecode.[៥២] The main hardware platform for Android is the ARM architecture. There is support for x86 from the Android x86 project,[៧] and Google TV uses a special x86 version of Android.

Android's linux kernel has further architecture changes by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle.[៥៣] Android does not have a native X Window System by default nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries, and this makes it difficult to port existing Linux applications or libraries to Android.[៥៤] Support for simple C and SDL applications is possible by injection of a small Java shim and usage of the JNI[៥៥] like, for example, in the Jagged Alliance 2 port for Android.[៥៦]

Certain features that Google contributed back to the Linux kernel, notably a power management feature called wakelocks, were rejected by mainline kernel developers, partly because kernel maintainers felt that Google did not show any intent to maintain their own code.[៥៧][៥៨][៥៩] Google announced in April 2010 that they would hire two employees to work with the Linux kernel community,[៦០] but Greg Kroah-Hartman, the current Linux kernel maintainer for the stable branch, said in December 2010 that he was concerned that Google was no longer trying to get their code changes included in mainstream Linux.[៥៨] Some Google Android developers hinted that "the Android team was getting fed up with the process," because they were a small team and had more urgent work to do on Android.[៦១]

In August 2011, Linus Torvalds said that "eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years".[៦២] In December 2011, Greg Kroah-Hartman announced the start of the Android Mainlining Project, which aims to put some Android drivers, patches and features back into the Linux kernel, starting in Linux 3.3.[៦៣] Linux included the autosleep and wakelocks capabilities in the 3.5 kernel, after many previous attempts at merger. The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: to memory (the traditional suspend that Android uses), and to disk (hibernate, as it is known on the desktop).[៦៤]

The flash storage on Android devices is split into several partitions, such as "/system" for the operating system itself and "/data" for user data and app installations.[៦៥] In contrast to desktop Linux distributions, Android device owners are not given root access to the operating system and sensitive partitions such as /system are read-only. However, root access can be obtained by exploiting security flaws in Android, which is used frequently by the open source community to enhance the capabilities of their devices,[៦៦] but also by malicious parties to install viruses and malware.[៦៧]

Memory management[កែប្រែ]

Since Android devices are usually battery-powered, Android is designed to manage memory (RAM) to keep power consumption at a minimum, in contrast to desktop operating systems which generally assume they are connected to unlimited mains electricity. When an Android app is no longer in use, the system will automatically suspend it in memory - while the app is still technically "open," suspended apps consume no resources (e.g. battery power or processing power) and sit idly in the background until needed again. This has the dual benefit of increasing the general responsiveness of Android devices, since apps don't need to be closed and reopened from scratch each time, but also ensuring background apps don't waste power needlessly.[៦៨]

Android manages the apps stored in memory automatically: when memory is low, the system will begin killing apps and processes that have been inactive for a while, in reverse order since they were last used (i.e. oldest first). This process is designed to be invisible to the user, such that users do not need to manage memory or the killing of apps themselves.[៦៩] However, confusion over Android memory management has resulted in third-party task killers becoming popular on the Google Play store; these third-party task killers are generally regarded as doing more harm than good.[៧០]

Update schedule[កែប្រែ]

Google provides major updates, incremental in nature, to Android every six to nine months, which most devices are capable of receiving over the air.[៧១] The latest major update is Android 4.2 Jelly Bean.[៧២]

Compared to its chief rival mobile operating system, namely iOS, Android updates are typically slow to reach actual devices. For devices not under the Nexus brand, updates often arrive months from the time the given version is officially released.[៧៣] This is caused partly due to the extensive variation in hardware of Android devices, to which each update must be specifically tailored, as the official Google source code only runs on their flagship Nexus phone. Porting Android to specific hardware is a time- and resource-consuming process for device manufacturers, who prioritize their newest devices and often leave older ones behind.[៧៣] Hence, older smartphones are frequently not updated if the manufacturer decides it is not worth their time, regardless of whether the phone is capable of running the update. This problem is compounded when manufacturers customize Android with their own interface and apps, which must be reapplied to each new release. Additional delays can be introduced by wireless carriers who, after receiving updates from manufacturers, further customize and brand Android to their needs and conduct extensive testing on their networks before sending the update out to users.[៧៣]

The lack of after-sale support from manufacturers and carriers has been widely criticised by consumer groups and the technology media.[៧៤][៧៥] Some commentators have noted that the industry has a financial incentive not to update their devices, as the lack of updates for existing devices fuels the purchase of newer ones,[៧៦] an attitude described as "insulting".[៧៥] The Guardian has complained that the complicated method of distribution for updates is only complicated because manufacturers and carriers have designed it that way.[៧៥] In 2011, Google partnered with a number of industry players to announce an "Android Update Alliance", pledging to deliver timely updates for every device for 18 months after its release.[៧៧] As of 2012, this alliance has never been mentioned since.[៧៣]

Open source community[កែប្រែ]

Android has an active community of developers and enthusiasts who use the Android source code to develop and distribute their own modified versions of the operating system.[៧៨] These community-developed releases often bring new features and updates to devices faster than through the official manufacturer/carrier channels, albeit without as extensive testing or quality assurance;[១៨] provide continued support for older devices that no longer receive official updates; or bring Android to devices that were officially released running other operating systems, such as the HP Touchpad. Community releases often come pre-rooted and contain modifications unsuitable for non-technical users, such as the ability to overclock or over/undervolt the device's processor.[៧៩] CyanogenMod is the most widely used community firmware,[៨០] and acts as a foundation for numerous others.

Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party firmware development. Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this.[៨១] Moreover, modified firmwares such as CyanogenMod sometimes offer features, such as tethering, for which carriers would otherwise charge a premium. As a result, technical obstacles including locked bootloaders and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices. However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the "jailbreaking" of mobile devices,[៨២] manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, including HTC,[៨១] Motorola,[៨៣] Samsung[៨៤][៨៥] and Sony,[៨៦] providing support and encouraging development. As a result of this, over time the need to circumvent hardware restrictions to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlockable bootloaders, similar to the Nexus series of phones, although usually requiring that users waive their devices' warranties to do so.[៨១] However, despite manufacturer acceptance, some carriers in the US still require that phones are locked down.[៨៧]

The unlocking and "hackability" of smartphones and tablets remains a source of tension between the community and industry, with the community arguing that unofficial development is increasingly important given the failure of industry to provide timely updates and/or continued support to their devices.[៨៧]

Security and privacy[កែប្រែ]

App permissions in the Play Store

Android applications run in a sandbox, an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed. Before installing an application, the Play Store displays all required permissions: a game may need to enable vibration or save data to an SD card, for example, but should not need to read SMS messages or access the phonebook. After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept.[៨៨]

The sandboxing and permissions system lessens the impact of vulnerabilities and bugs in applications, but developer confusion and limited documentation has resulted in applications routinely requesting unnecessary permissions, reducing its effectiveness.[៨៩] Several security firms, such as Lookout Mobile Security,[៩០] AVG Technologies,[៩១] and McAfee,[៩២] have released antivirus software for Android devices. This software is ineffective as sandboxing also applies to such applications, limiting their ability to scan the deeper system for threats.[៩៣]

Research from security company Trend Micro lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android malware, where text messages are sent from infected phones to premium-rate telephone numbers without the consent or even knowledge of the user.[៩៤] Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive adverts on the device, or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties.[៩៤] Security threats on Android are reportedly growing exponentially; however, Google engineers have argued that the malware and virus threat on Android is being exaggerated by security companies for commercial reasons,[៩៥][៩៦] and have accused the security industry of playing on fears to sell virus protection software to users.[៩៥] Google maintains that dangerous malware is actually extremely rare.[៩៦] Indeed, a survey conducted by F-Secure showed that only 0.5% of Android malware reported had come from the Google Play store.[៩៧]

Google currently uses their Google Bouncer malware scanner to watch over and scan the Google Play store apps.[៩៨] It is intended to flag up suspicious apps and warn users of any potential issues with an application before they download it.[៩៩] Android version 4.2 Jelly Bean was released in 2012 with enhanced security features, including a malware scanner built into the system, which works in combination with Google Play but can scan apps installed from third party sources as well, and an alert system which notifies the user when an app tries to send a premium-rate text message, blocking the message unless the user explicitly authorises it.[១០០]

Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points. These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like Foursquare, Google Latitude, Facebook Places, and to deliver location-based ads.[១០១] Third party monitoring software such as TaintDroid,[១០២] an academic research-funded project, can, in some cases, detect when personal information is being sent from applications to remote servers.[១០៣]


The source code for Android is available under free and open source software licenses. Google publishes most of the code (including network and telephony stacks)[១០៤] under the Apache License version 2.0,[១០៥][១០៦] and the rest, Linux kernel changes, under the GNU General Public License version 2. The Open Handset Alliance develops the changes to the Linux kernel, in public, with source code publicly available at all times. The rest of Android is developed in private by Google, with source code released publicly when a new version is released. Typically Google collaborates with a hardware manufacturer to produce a 'flagship' device (part of the Google Nexus series) featuring the new version of Android, then makes the source code available after that device has been released.[១០៧]

In early 2011, Google chose to temporarily withhold the Android source code to the tablet-only 3.0 Honeycomb release. The reason, according to Andy Rubin in an official Android blog post, was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the Motorola Xoom,[១០៨] and they did not want third parties creating a "really bad user experience" by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets.[១០៩] The source code was once again made available in November 2011 with the release of Android 4.0.[១១០]

Even though the software is open-source, device manufacturers cannot use Google's Android trademark unless Google certifies that the device complies with their Compatibility Definition Document (CDD). Devices must also meet this definition to be eligible to license Google's closed-source applications, including Google Play.[១១១] As Android is not completely released under a GPL compatible license, e.g. Google's code is under the Apache license,[៨] and also because Google Play allows proprietary software, Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation have been critical of Android and have recommended the usage of alternatives such as Replicant.[១១២][១១៣]


Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in 2007. Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android.[១១៤] The idea of an open source, Linux-based development platform sparked interest,[១១៥] but there were additional worries about Android facing strong competition from established players in the smartphone market, such as Nokia and Microsoft, and rival Linux mobile operating systems that were in development.[១១៦] These established players were skeptical: Nokia was quoted as saying "we don't see this as a threat,"[១១៧] and a member of Microsoft's Windows Mobile team stated "I don't understand the impact that they are going to have."[១១៧]

Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system[១៧] and "one of the fastest mobile experiences available."[១១៨] Reviewers have highlighted the open source nature of the operating system as one of its defining strengths, allowing companies such as Amazon (Kindle Fire), Barnes & Noble (Nook), Ouya, Baidu, and others to fork the software and release hardware running their own customised version of Android. As a result, it has been described by technology website Ars Technica as "practically the default operating system for launching new hardware" for companies without their own mobile platforms.[១៧] This openness and flexibility is also present at the level of the end user: Android allows extensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps are freely available from non-Google app stores and third party websites. These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others.[១៧][១១៩]

Despite its success on smartphones, Android tablet adoption has been slow.[១២០] This is primarily blamed on a chicken or the egg situation where consumers are hesitant to buy an Android tablet due to a lack of high quality tablet apps, but developers are hesitant to spend time and resources developing tablet apps until there's a significant market for them.[១២១][១២២] Other factors included high prices[១២៣] and the dominance of Apple's iPad.[១២២] This began to change in 2012 with the release of the successful Nexus 7 and a push by Google for developers to write better tablet apps.[១២៤] Android tablets are expected to overtake the iPad within a few years.[១២៥]

Market share and rate of adoption[កែប្រែ]

Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of 2009 that Android had a 2.8% share of worldwide smartphone shipments.[១២៦] By the fourth quarter of 2010 this had grown to 33% of the market, becoming the top-selling smartphone platform.[១៦] By the third quarter of 2011 Gartner estimated that more than half (52.5%) of the smartphone market belongs to Android.[១២៧] By the third quarter of 2012 Android had a 75% share of the global smartphone market according to the research firm IDC.[១៩]

In July 2011, Google said that 550,000 new Android devices were being activated every day,[១២៨] up from 400,000 per day in May,[១២៩] and more than 100 million devices had been activated[១៣០] with 4.4% growth per week.[១២៨] In September 2012, 500 million devices had been activated with 1.3 million activations per day.[២០][២១]

Android market share varies by location. In July 2012, Android's market share in the United States was 52%,[១៣១] but this rises to 90% in China.[១៣២]

Usage share of Android versions[កែប្រែ]

Usage share of the different versions as of December 3, 2012

Usage share of the different versions as of February 5, 2013.[១៣៣] Most Android devices to date still run the older OS version 2.3 Gingerbread that was released on December 6, 2010, due to most lower-end devices still being released with it.

Version Code name Release date API level Distribution (February 5, 2013)
4.2 Jelly Bean November 13, 2012 17 1.4%
4.1.x Jelly Bean July 9, 2012 16 12.2%
4.0.x Ice Cream Sandwich December 16, 2011 15 29.0%
3.2 Honeycomb July 15, 2011 13 1.0%
3.1 Honeycomb May 10, 2011 12 0.3%
2.3.3–2.3.7 Gingerbread February 9, 2011 10 45.4%
2.3–2.3.2 Gingerbread December 6, 2010 9 0.2%
2.2 Froyo May 20, 2010 8 8.1%
2.0–2.1 Eclair October 26, 2009 7 2.2%
1.6 Donut September 15, 2009 4 0.2%

Application piracy[កែប្រែ]

There has been some concern about the ease with which paid Android apps can be pirated.[១៣៤] In a May 2012 interview with Eurogamer, the developers of Football Manager stated that the ratio of pirated players vs legitimate players was 9:1 for their game Football Manager Handheld.[១៣៥] However, not every developer agreed that piracy rates were an issue; for example, in July 2012 the developers of the game Wind-up Knight said that piracy levels of their game were only 12%, and most of the piracy came from China, where people cannot purchase apps from Google Play.[១៣៦]

In 2010, Google released a tool for validating authorised purchases for use within apps, but developers complained that this was insufficient and trivial to crack. Google responded that the tool, especially its initial release, was intended as a sample framework for developers to modify and build upon depending on their needs, not as a finished security solution.[១៣៧] In 2012 Google released a feature in Android 4.1 that encrypted paid applications so that they would only work on the device on which they were purchased, but this feature has been temporarily deactivated due to technical issues.[១៣៨]

Copyrights and patents[កែប្រែ]

Both Android and Android phone manufacturers have been involved in numerous patent lawsuits. On August 12, 2010, Oracle sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents related to the Java programming language.[១៣៩] Oracle originally sought damages up to $6.1 billion,[១៤០] but this valuation was rejected by a United States federal judge who asked Oracle to revise the estimate.[១៤១] In response, Google submitted multiple lines of defense, counterclaiming that Android did not infringe on Oracle's patents or copyright, that Oracle's patents were invalid, and several other defenses. They said that Android is based on Apache Harmony, a clean room implementation of the Java class libraries, and an independently developed virtual machine called Dalvik.[១៤២] In May 2012 the jury in this case found that Google did not infringe on Oracle's patents, and the trial judge ruled that the structure of the Java APIs used by Google was not copyrightable.[១៤៣][១៤៤]

In addition to lawsuits against Google directly, various proxy wars have been waged against Android indirectly by targeting manufacturers of Android devices, with the effect of discouraging manufacturers from adopting the platform by increasing the costs of bringing an Android device to market.[១៤៥] Both Apple and Microsoft have sued several manufacturers for patent infringement, with Apple's ongoing legal action against Samsung being a particularly high-profile case. In October 2011 Microsoft said they had signed patent license agreements with ten Android device manufacturers, whose products account for 55% of the worldwide revenue for Android devices.[១៤៦] These include Samsung and HTC.[១៤៧] Samsung's patent settlement with Microsoft includes an agreement that Samsung will allocate more resources to developing and marketing phones running Microsoft's Windows Phone operating system.[១៤៥]

Google has publicly expressed its frustration for the current patent landscape in the United States, accusing Apple, Oracle and Microsoft of trying to take down Android through patent litigation, rather than innovating and competing with better products and services.[១៤៨] In 2011-2, Google purchased Motorola Mobility for US$12.5 billion, which was viewed in part as a defensive measure to protect Android, since Motorola Mobility held more than 17,000 patents.[១៤៩] In December 2011 Google bought over a thousand patents from IBM.[១៥០]

Beyond smartphones and tablets[កែប្រែ]

The open and customizable nature of Android allows it to be used on other electronics, including laptops and netbooks, smartbooks[១៥១] smart TVs (Google TV) and cameras (Nikon Coolpix S800c and Galaxy Camera).[១៥២][១៥៣] In addition, the Android operating system has seen applications on smart glasses (Project Glass), wristwatches,[១៥៤] headphones,[១៥៥] car CD and DVD players,[១៥៦] mirrors,[១៥៧] portable media players[១៥៨] and landlines.[១៥៩] Ouya, an upcoming videogames console running Android, became one of the most successful Kickstarter campaigns, crowdfunding US$8.5m for its development,[១៦០][១៦១] and was later followed by other Android-based video games consoles such as Project Shield from NVIDIA.

In 2011, Google demonstrated "Android@Home", a new home automaton technology which uses Android to control a range of household devices including light switches, power sockets and thermostats.[១៦២] Prototype light bulbs were announced that could be controlled from an Android phone or tablet, but Android head Andy Rubin was cautious to note that "turning a lightbulb on and off is nothing new," pointing to numerous failed home automation services. Google, he said, was thinking more ambitiously and the intention was to use their position as a cloud services provider to bring Google products into customers' homes.[១៦៣]

See also[កែប្រែ]

Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Portal/images/g' not found.

  • 4.3



  1. "Android Code Analysis". Retrieved ខែមិថុនា 1, 2012.
  2. "Philosophy and Goals". Android Open Source Project. Google. Retrieved ខែមេសា 21, 2012.
  3. "Announcing the Android 1.0 SDK, release 1". ខែកញ្ញា 23, 2008. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 21, 2012.
  4. "[Android 6.01hits AOSP] 4.2.1 in AOSP". ខែវិច្ឆិកា 27, 2012. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 27, 2012.
  5. "Android 4.2.1 Jelly Bean heads to AOSP". Android Community. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 27, 2012.
  6. "MIPS gets sweet with Honeycomb". Eetimes.com. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 20, 2012.
  7. ៧,០ ៧,១ Shah, Agam (ខែធ្នូ 1, 2011). "Google's Android 4.0 ported to x86 processors". Computerworld. International Data Group. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 20, 2012.
  8. ៨,០ ៨,១ "Licenses". Android Open Source Project. (in englisch). Open Handset Alliance. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 9, 2012. The preferred license for the Android Open Source Project is the Apache Software License, 2.0. [...] Why Apache Software License? [...] For userspace (that is, non-kernel) software, we do in fact prefer ASL2.0 (and similar licenses like BSD, MIT, etc.) over other licenses such as LGPL. Android is about freedom and choice. The purpose of Android is promote openness in the mobile world, but we don't believe it's possible to predict or dictate all the uses to which people will want to put our software. So, while we encourage everyone to make devices that are open and modifiable, we don't believe it is our place to force them to do so. Using LGPL libraries would often force them to do so.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  9. ៩,០ ៩,១ ៩,២ ៩,៣ ៩,៤ ៩,៥ Elgin, Ben (ខែសីហា 17, 2005). "Google Buys Android for Its Mobile Arsenal". Bloomberg Businessweek. Bloomberg. Archived from the original on ខែកុម្ភៈ 24, 2011. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 20, 2012. In what could be a key move in its nascent wireless strategy, Google (GOOG) has quietly acquired startup Android, Inc., ...
  10. ១០,០ ១០,១ ១០,២ Open Handset Alliance (November 5, 2007)។ "Industry Leaders Announce Open Platform for Mobile Devices"។ Press releasehttp://www.openhandsetalliance.com/press_110507.html។ បានយកមក 2012-02-17 
  11. "T-Mobile G1 Spec". Infosite and comparisons. GSM Arena. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 12, 2012.
  12. "Android Overview". Open Handset Alliance. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 15, 2012.
  13. Shankland, Stephen (ខែវិច្ឆិកា 12, 2007). "Google's Android parts ways with Java industry group". CNET News. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 15, 2012.
  14. "Google Play Matches Apple's iOS With 700,000 Apps".
  15. "Google Play hits 25 billion downloads | Official Android Blog".
  16. ១៦,០ ១៦,១ "Google's Android becomes the world's leading smart phone platform". Canalys. ខែមករា 31, 2011. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 15, 2012.
  17. ១៧,០ ១៧,១ ១៧,២ ១៧,៣ Brodkin, Jon (ខែវិច្ឆិកា 5, 2012). "On its 5th birthday, 5 things we love about Android". Ars Technica. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  18. ១៨,០ ១៨,១ "Custom ROMs For Android Explained - Here Is Why You Want Them". ខែសីហា 20, 2012. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  19. ១៩,០ ១៩,១ "Android Marks Fourth Anniversary Since Launch with 75.0% Market Share in Third Quarter, According to IDC - prUS23771812". Idc.com. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 3, 2012.
  20. ២០,០ ២០,១ "500 million devices activated globally, and over 1.3 million added every single day". official Android Engineering teams. ខែកញ្ញា 12, 2012.
  21. ២១,០ ២១,១ "There Are Now 1.3 Million Android Device Activations Per Day". Techcrunch. ខែកញ្ញា 5, 2012.
  22. Markoff, John (ខែវិច្ឆិកា 4, 2007). "I, Robot: The Man Behind the Google Phone". The New York Times. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 15, 2012.
  23. Kirsner, Scott (ខែកញ្ញា 2, 2007). "Introducing the Google Phone". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on ខែមករា 4, 2010. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 15, 2012.
  24. Vogelstein, Fred (ខែមេសា 2011). "How the Android Ecosystem Threatens the iPhone". Wired. Retrieved ខែមិថុនា 2, 2012.
  25. T-Mobile (September 23, 2003)។ "T-Mobile Brings Unlimited Multiplayer Gaming to US Market with First Launch of Nokia N-Gage Game Deck"។ Press releasehttp://newsroom.t-mobile.com/articles/t-mobile-nokia-N-Gage។ បានយកមក 2012-02-15 
  26. Vance, Ashlee (ខែកក្កដា 27, 2011). "Steve Perlman's Wireless Fix". Bloomberg Businessweek. Bloomberg. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 3, 2012.
  27. Block, Ryan (ខែសីហា 28, 2007). "Google is working on a mobile OS, and it's due out shortly". Engadget. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 17, 2012.
  28. Sharma, Amol; Delaney, Kevin J. (ខែសីហា 2, 2007). "Google Pushes Tailored Phones To Win Lucrative Ad Market". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 17, 2012.
  29. "Google admits to mobile phone plan". directtraffic.org. Google News. ខែមីនា 20, 2007. Archived from the original on ខែកក្កដា 3, 2007. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 17, 2012.
  30. McKay, Martha (ខែធ្នូ 21, 2006). "Can iPhone become your phone?; Linksys introduces versatile line for cordless service". The Record (Bergen County). p. L9. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 21, 2012. And don't hold your breath, but the same cell phone-obsessed tech watchers say it won't be long before Google jumps headfirst into the phone biz. Phone, anyone?
  31. Claburn, Thomas (ខែកញ្ញា 19, 2007). "Google's Secret Patent Portfolio Predicts gPhone". InformationWeek. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 17, 2012.[តំណភ្ជាប់ខូច]
  32. Pearce, James Quintana (ខែកញ្ញា 20, 2007). "Google's Strong Mobile-Related Patent Portfolio". mocoNews.net. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 17, 2012.
  33. "T-Mobile Unveils the T-Mobile G1 - the First Phone Powered by Android". HTC. ខែកញ្ញា 23, 2008. Archived from the original on ខែកក្កដា 12, 2011. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 17, 2012. AT&T's first device to run Android was the Motorola Backflip.
  34. Richard Wray (ខែមីនា 14, 2010). "Google forced to delay British launch of Nexus phone". London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 17, 2012.
  35. ៣៥,០ ៣៥,១ "Touch Devices | Android Open Source". Source.android.com. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  36. "Real Racing 2 Speeds Into The Android Market – Leaves Part 1 In The Dust". Phandroid.com. ខែធ្នូ 22, 2011. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  37. "Widgets | Android Developers". Developer.android.com. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  38. "Launcher 7 Brings Windows Phone's Simple, Attractive Interface to Android". Lifehacker.com. ខែឧសភា 20, 2011. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 24, 2012.
  39. "UI Overview | Android Developers". Developer.android.com. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  40. "Notifications | Android Developers". Developer.android.com. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  41. Ganapati, Priya (ខែមិថុនា 11, 2010). "Independent App Stores Take On Google's Android Market". Wired News. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 20, 2012.
  42. "Android Compatibility". Android Open Source Project. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 20, 2012.
  43. "Android Compatibility". Android Developers. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 20, 2012.
  44. "Returning Apps". Google. Retrieved ខែមករា 9, 2012.
  45. Chu, Eric (ខែមេសា 13, 2011). "Android Developers Blog: New Carrier Billing Options on Android Market". android-developers.blogspot.com. Retrieved ខែឧសភា 15, 2011.
  46. "Google Play hits 25 Billion downloads, 675,000 apps and games".
  47. "Tools Overview". Android Developers. ខែកក្កដា 21, 2009.
  48. Yun Qing, Liau. "Phonemakers make Android China-friendly." ZD Net, 15 October 2012.
  49. At http://source.android.com
  50. John McCann  (ខែធ្នូ 13, 2012). "Android 4.1 Jelly Bean source code released | News". TechRadar. Retrieved ខែធ្នូ 20, 2012.
  51. "Building for devices". Android Open Source Project. Retrieved ខែធ្នូ 20, 2012.
  52. Tim Bray (ខែវិច្ឆិកា 24, 2010). "What Android Is". ongoing by Tim Bray. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 15, 2012.
  53.  Androidology – Part 1 of 3 – Architecture Overview [Video]. YouTube. Retrieved on 2007-11-07.
  54. Paul, Ryan (ខែកុម្ភៈ 23, 2009). "Dream(sheep++): A developer's introduction to Google Android". Ars Technica. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 15, 2012.
  55. "Simple DirectMedia Layer for Android". sdl.org. ខែសីហា 12, 2012. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 9, 2012. How the port works, - Android applications are Java-based, optionally with parts written in C, - As SDL apps are C-based, we use a small Java shim that uses JNI to talk to the SDL library, - This means that your application C code must be placed inside an android Java project, along with some C support code that communicates with Java, - This eventually produces a standard Android .apk package
  56. JA2 Stracciatella Feedback » Jagged Alliance 2 Android Stracciatella Port RC2 Release - please test on the Bear's Pit Forum, October 3, 2011
  57. David Meyer (ខែកុម្ភៈ 3, 2010). "Linux developer explains Android kernel code removal". ZDNet. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 20, 2012.
  58. ៥៨,០ ៥៨,១ Greg Kroah-Hartman (ខែកុម្ភៈ 2, 2010). "Android and the Linux kernel community". Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 20, 2012. Google shows no sign of working to get their code upstream anymore. Some companies are trying to strip the Android-specific interfaces from their codebase and push that upstream, but that causes a much larger engineering effort, and is a pain that just should not be necessary.
  59. Brian Proffitt (ខែសីហា 10, 2010). "Garrett's LinuxCon Talk Emphasizes Lessons Learned from Android/Kernel Saga". Linux.com. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 21, 2012.
  60. Brian Proffitt (ខែមេសា 15, 2010). "DiBona: Google will hire two Android coders to work with kernel.org". www.zdnet.com. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 20, 2012.
  61. Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols (ខែកញ្ញា 7, 2010). "Android/Linux kernel fight continues". Computerworld. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 20, 2012.
  62. Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols (ខែសីហា 18, 2011). "Linus Torvalds on Android, the Linux fork". zdnet.com. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 15, 2012.
  63. Chris von Eitzen (ខែធ្នូ 23, 2011). "Android drivers to be included in Linux 3.3 kernel". h-online.com. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 15, 2012.
  64. Jonathan, Corbet. "Autosleep and wakelocks". LWN.
  65. Raja, Haroon Q. (ខែឧសភា 19, 2011). "Android Partitions Explained: boot, system, recovery, data, cache & misc". Addictivetips.com. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  66. See rooting
  67. Jools Whitehorn . "Android malware gives itself root access | News". TechRadar. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  68. "The truth about Android task killers and why you don't need them". PhoneDog. ខែមិថុនា 26, 2011. Retrieved ខែតុលា 30, 2012.
  69. "Android PSA: Stop Using Task Killer Apps". Phandroid.com. ខែមិថុនា 16, 2011. Retrieved ខែតុលា 30, 2012.
  70. "Updates". Lifehacker.com. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2, 2012.
  71. Isacc, Mike (ខែតុលា 21, 2011). "A deep-dive tour of Ice Cream Sandwich with Android's chief engineer". Ars Technica. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  72. Rubin, Andy (ខែតុលា 29, 2012). "Nexus: The best of Google, now in three sizes". Official Google Blog. Retrieved ខែតុលា 29, 2012.
  73. ៧៣,០ ៧៣,១ ៧៣,២ ៧៣,៣ Cunningham, Andrew (ខែមិថុនា 27, 2012). "What happened to the Android Update Alliance?". Ars Technica. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  74. March 15, 2010 (ខែមីនា 15, 2010). "Make Sure You Know Which Version Of Android Is On That Phone Before Buying It – The Consumerist". Consumerist.com. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 24, 2012.
  75. ៧៥,០ ៧៥,១ ៧៥,២ "Android's smartphone OS upgrade issues need more than a quick fix | Dan Gillmor | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk". Guardian. ខែកញ្ញា 28, 2007. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 24, 2012.
  76. "Security takes a backseat on Android in update shambles". The Register. ខែវិច្ឆិកា 22, 2011. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2, 2012.
  77. "Android Update Alliance examined, results since Google I/O found lacking". SlashGear. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  78. McFerran, Damien (ខែមេសា 17, 2012). "Best custom ROMs for the Samsung Galaxy S2 | Reviews | CNET UK". Reviews.cnet.co.uk. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  79. Isaac, Mike (ខែមេសា 11, 2011). "Android OS Hack Gives Virtual Early Upgrade | Gadget Lab". Wired.com. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  80. "CyanogenMod Has Now Been Installed On Over 2 Million Devices, Doubles Install Numbers Since January". Androidpolice.com. ខែឧសភា 28, 2012. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  81. ៨១,០ ៨១,១ ៨១,២ "Unlock Bootloader". Retrieved ខែតុលា 30, 2011. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "htcdev" defined multiple times with different content
  82. Sadun, Erica (ខែកក្កដា 26, 2010). "LoC rules in favor of jailbreaking". Tuaw.com. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  83. Monday, October 24th, 2011 (ខែតុលា 24, 2011). "Motorola Offers Unlocked Bootloader Tool". Techcrunch.com. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  84. "CyanogenMod 7 for Samsung Galaxy S2 (II): Development Already Started!". Inspired Geek. ខែមិថុនា 8, 2011.
  85. "CyanogenMod coming to the Galaxy S 2, thanks to Samsung". Android Central. ខែមិថុនា 6, 2011.
  86. Forian, Daniel. "Sony Ericsson supports independent developers – Developer World". Developer.sonyericsson.com. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  87. ៨៧,០ ៨៧,១ Kopstein, Joshua (ខែវិច្ឆិកា 20, 2012). "Access Denied: why Android's broken promise of unlocked bootloaders needs to be fixed". The Verge. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 24, 2012.
  88. "Android Security Overview". Android Open Source Project. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 20, 2012.
  89. Felt, Adrienne Porte; Chin, Erika; Hanna, Steve; Song, Dawn; Wagner, David. "Android Permissions Demystified" (PDF). Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 20, 2012.
  90. "Lookout Mobile Security". Lookout. Retrieved ខែកក្កដា 5, 2012.
  91. "Antivirus for Android Smartphones". AVG. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  92. "McAfee Mobile Security for Android". Mcafeemobilesecurity.com. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  93. http://www.extremetech.com/computing/104827-android-antivirus-apps-are-useless-heres-what-to-do-instead/2 Android antivirus apps are useless, here's what to do instead — access April 10, 2012
  94. ៩៤,០ ៩៤,១ Protalinski, Emil (ខែកក្កដា 17, 2012). "Android malware numbers explode to 25,000 in June 2012". ZDNet. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  95. ៩៥,០ ៩៥,១ "Mobile malware exaggerated by "charlatan" vendors, says Google engineer". PC Advisor. ខែវិច្ឆិកា 24, 2011. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  96. ៩៦,០ ៩៦,១ "Android 4.2 brings new security features to scan sideloaded apps". Android Central. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  97. http://www.phonearena.com/news/Android-malware-perspective-only-0.5-comes-from-the-Play-Store_id36696
  98. Chirgwin, Richard. "Google Bouncer flaw". Tech news site and blog. The Register. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 20, 2012.
  99. Whittaker, Zack (ខែតុលា 15, 2012). "Google building malware scanner for Google Play: report". ZDNet. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  100. "Exclusive: Inside Android 4.2's powerful new security system | Computerworld Blogs". Blogs.computerworld.com. ខែវិច្ឆិកា 1, 2012. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  101. Steve Lohr (ខែឧសភា 8, 2011). "Suit Opens a Window Into Google". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  102. "AppAnalysis.org: Real Time Privacy Monitoring on Smartphones". Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 21, 2012.
  103. Ganapati, Priya (ខែកញ្ញា 30, 2010). "Study Shows Some Android Apps Leak User Data Without Clear Notifications | Gadget Lab". Wired.com. Retrieved ខែមករា 30, 2012.
  104. Boulton, Clint (ខែតុលា 21, 2008). "Google Open-Sources Android on Eve of G1 Launch". eWeek. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 17, 2012.
  105. Bort, Dave (ខែតុលា 21, 2008). "Android is now available as open source". Android Open Source Project. Archived from the original on ខែកុម្ភៈ 28, 2009. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  106. Ryan Paul (ខែវិច្ឆិកា 6, 2007). "Why Google chose the Apache Software License over GPLv2 for Android". Ars Technica. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  107. "Frequently Asked Questions: What is involved in releasing the source code for a new Android version?". Android Open Source Project. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  108. Bray, Tim (ខែមេសា 6, 2011). "Android Developers Blog: I think I'm having a Gene Amdahl moment". Android-developers.blogspot.com. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  109. Jerry Hildenbrand (ខែមីនា 24, 2011). "Honeycomb won't be open-sourced? Say it ain't so!". Androidcentral.com. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  110. Thom Holwerda (ខែវិច្ឆិកា 14, 2011). "Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich Source Code Released". OSNews. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  111. "Android Open Source Project Frequently Asked Questions: Compatibility". source.android.com. Retrieved ខែមីនា 13, 2011.
  112. Stallman, Richard (ខែកញ្ញា 19, 2011). "Is Android really free software? - Google's smartphone code is often described as 'open' or 'free' – but when examined by the Free Software Foundation, it starts to look like something different". The Guardian. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 9, 2012. the software of Android versions 1 and 2 was mostly developed by Google; Google released it under the Apache 2.0 license, which is a lax free software license without copyleft. [...] The version of Linux included in Android is not entirely free software, since it contains non-free "binary blobs" [...] Android is very different from the GNU/Linux operating system because it contains very little of GNU.
  113. Stallman, Richard (ខែសីហា 5, 2012). "Android and Users' Freedom - Support the Free Your Android campaign". gnu.org. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 9, 2012. Even though the Android phones of today are considerably less bad than Apple or Windows smartphones, they cannot be said to respect your freedom.
  114. "Technology | Q&A: Google's Android". BBC News. ខែវិច្ឆិកា 6, 2007. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  115. Reardon, Marguerite (ខែកុម្ភៈ 11, 2008). "Google Android prototypes debut at MWC | Crave - CNET". News.cnet.com. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  116. "Android's outing at Barcelona - BizTech - Technology". smh.com.au. ខែកុម្ភៈ 12, 2008. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  117. ១១៧,០ ១១៧,១ "Symbian, Nokia, Microsoft and Apple downplay Android relevance". Engadget. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  118. "On its fifth birthday, Android is "closer to our actual vision" for mobile supremacy". MobileSyrup.com. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  119. "Best Android apps for personalizing and customizing your phone". Androidauthority.com. ខែកក្កដា 13, 2012. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  120. Wilson Rothman (ខែតុលា 24, 2012). "Why iPad is stomping Android tabs 24 to 1 - Technology on". Nbcnews.com. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  121. Kevin C. Tofel (ខែមីនា 19, 2012). "What devs say about iPad (but not Android tablets)". Gigaom.com. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  122. ១២២,០ ១២២,១ "Why there aren't more Android tablet apps, by the numbers". ZDNet. ខែមីនា 21, 2012. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  123. Hiner, Jason (ខែមករា 5, 2012). "Why Android tablets failed: A postmortem". TechRepublic. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  124. Cunningham, Andrew (ខែតុលា 8, 2012). "Google to Android devs: make nicer tablet apps, pretty please?". Ars Technica. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 9, 2012.
  125. "iPad And Android Tablet Market Share Margin Narrows Much Faster Than Originally Predicted". TechCrunch. ខែវិច្ឆិកា 28, 2012. Retrieved ខែធ្នូ 1, 2012.
  126. Prince McLean (ខែសីហា 21, 2009). "Canalys: iPhone outsold all Windows Mobile phones in Q2 2009". AppleInsider. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  127. "Gartner Says Sales of Mobile Devices Grew 5.6 Percent in Third Quarter of 2011; Smartphone Sales Increased 42 Percent". ខែវិច្ឆិកា 15, 2011. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  128. ១២៨,០ ១២៨,១ Kumparak, Greg (ខែកក្កដា 14, 2011). "Android Now Seeing 550,000 Activations Per Day". Techcrunch. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  129. Jeffrey Van Camp (ខែមិថុនា 28, 2011). "Google activates 500,000 Android devices a day, may reach 1 million in October". Yahoo News. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  130. Barra, Hugo (ខែឧសភា 10, 2011). "Android: momentum, mobile and more at Google I/O". The Official Google Blog. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  131. Fingas, Jon (ខែកញ្ញា 4, 2012). "ComScore: Android tops 52 percent of US smartphone share, iPhone cracks the 33 percent mark". Engadget.com. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 24, 2012.
  132. "Report: Android Rises to 90% of Smartphone Market in China". Techinasia.com. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 24, 2012.
  133. "Android Platform Versions". Android Developers. ខែមករា 3, 2013. Retrieved ខែមករា 21, 2013. Based on the number of Android devices that have accessed the Play Store within a 14-day period ending on the data collection date noted below.
  134. By Wired UK (ខែឧសភា 3, 2012). "Op-Ed: Android Piracy Is Huge Problem for Game Devs | Game|Life". Wired.com. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  135. Yin, Wesley (ខែមេសា 24, 2012). "Football Manager dev hopes to stick with Android despite 9:1 piracy rate". Eurogamer.net. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  136. Armasu, Lucian (ខែកក្កដា 30, 2012). "Wind-up Kinght developer: Piracy rates on iOS and Android are comparable, China is the main source". Androidauthority.com. Retrieved ខែតុលា 6, 2012.
  137. Paul, Ryan (ខែសីហា 25, 2010). "Android antipiracy cracked, Google says devs used it wrong". Ars Technica. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  138. McAllister, Neil (ខែសីហា 8, 2012). "Android app DRM quietly disabled due to bug". The Register. Retrieved ខែមិថុនា 10, 2012.
  139. Niccolai, James (ខែសីហា 12, 2010). "Update: Oracle sues Google over Java use in Android". Computerworld. International Data Group Inc. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  140. "Oracle seeks up to $6.1 billion in Google lawsuit". Reuters. ខែមិថុនា 18, 2011. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 7, 2011.
  141. "Judge tosses Oracle's $6.1 billion damage estimate in claim against Google". MercuryNews.com. ខែកក្កដា 22, 2011. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 7, 2011.
  142. Singel, Ryan (ខែតុលា 5, 2010). "Calling Oracle Hypocritical, Google Denies Patent Infringement". Wired. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  143. Josh Lowensohn (ខែឧសភា 23, 2012). "Jury clears Google of infringing on Oracle's patents". ZDNet. Retrieved ខែឧសភា 25, 2012.
  144. Joe Mullin (ខែឧសភា 31, 2012). "Google wins crucial API ruling, Oracle's case decimated". Ars Technica. Retrieved ខែមិថុនា 1, 2012.
  145. ១៤៥,០ ១៤៥,១ Newman, Jared (ខែកញ្ញា 28, 2011). "Microsoft-Samsung Patent Deal: Great News for Windows Phones". PCWorld. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  146. "Microsoft collects license fees on 50% of Android devices, tells Google to "wake up"". Ars Technica. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  147. Mikael Ricknäs (ខែកញ្ញា 28, 2011). "Microsoft signs Android licensing deal with Samsung". Computerworld. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  148. Jacqui Cheng (ខែសីហា 3, 2011). "Google publicly accuses Apple, Microsoft, Oracle of patent bullying". Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  149. Casey Johnston (ខែសីហា 15, 2011). "Google, needing patents, buys Motorola wireless for $12.5 billion". Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  150. Paul, Ryan (ខែមករា 4, 2012). "Google buys another round of IBM patents as its Oracle trial nears". Ars Technica. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012. External link in |publisher= (help)
  151. Laura June (ខែកញ្ញា 6, 2010). "Toshiba AC100 Android smartbook hits the United Kingdom". Engadget. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 20, 2012.
  152. "Altek Leo, the 14 megapixel Android cameraphone, headed for Europe in 2011". Engadget. ខែតុលា 3, 2010. Retrieved ខែមករា 4, 2012.
  153. Samsung (ខែសីហា 29, 2012). "Samsung Galaxy Camera". Samsung.com. Retrieved ខែសីហា 30, 2012.
  154. Hollister, Sean (ខែមករា 10, 2012). "Sony Smart Watch (aka Sony Ericsson LiveView 2) hands-on". The Verge. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  155. Rik Myslewski (ខែមករា 12, 2011). "Android-powered touchscreen Wi-Fi headphones". theregister.co.uk. Retrieved ខែមករា 16, 2012.
  156. "Car Player Android-Car Player Android Manufacturers, Suppliers and Exporters on". Alibaba.com. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 20, 2012.
  157. "Android Everywhere: 10 Types of Devices That Android Is Making Better". Androidauthority.com. ខែកុម្ភៈ 26, 2012. Retrieved ខែកញ្ញា 15, 2012.
  158. Will G. (ខែធ្នូ 1, 2011). "Top Android MP3 Players for 2011". Androidauthority.com. Retrieved ខែកុម្ភៈ 16, 2012.
  159. "Archos Smart Home Phone now available - get Android on your landline". Android Central. ខែមករា 19, 2012. Retrieved ខែមករា 30, 2012.
  160. "OUYA interview: Julie Uhrman tackles consoles & critics". Destructoid. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2, 2012.
  161. Erik Kain (ខែមេសា 18, 2012). "An Interview With 'Ouya' Founder Julie Uhrman On A New Breed Of Video Game Console". Forbes. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2, 2012.
  162. "Editorial: Android@Home is the best worst thing that could happen to home automation". Engadget. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2, 2012.
  163. Nilay Patel (ខែកុម្ភៈ 27, 2012). "Home in the clouds: Google's home automation platform to have major services integration". The Verge. Retrieved ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2, 2012.

External links[កែប្រែ]

ទំព័រគំរូ:Android ទំព័រគំរូ:Mobile operating systems ទំព័រគំរូ:Mobile phones ទំព័រគំរូ:Linux ទំព័រគំរូ:Google Inc.