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ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រអ៊ុយក្រែន

ពីវិគីភីឌា

អ៊ុយក្រែនកាលពីសម័យបុរេប្រវត្តិ ជាប៉ែកនៃវាលស្តិបប៉ុនតុសដែលបានដើរតួយ៉ាងសំខាន់ក្នុងទំនាក់ទំនងវប្បធម៌អឺរ៉ាស៊ី រួមមានការផ្សាយទៅនូវយុគស្ពាន់ សំរិទ្ធ ការវាតទីនៃភាសាឥណ្ឌូ-អឺរ៉ុប និងការផ្សាំងសត្វសេះ[១][២][៣]

ក៏ជាប៉ែកភាគនៃសកៈក្នុងបុរាណកាលនិងធ្លាប់ជាទីដែលពួកហ្កឺត្ស៍បានតាំងទីលំនៅ​មកពីមុន ក្នុងសម័យកាលទេសន្តរប្រវេសន៍ អ៊ុយក្រែនផងដែរក៏ជាទីស្ថាននៃការវាតទីនៃពួកស្លាវកាលពីដំបូងមកដែរ រហូតមកដល់សម័យប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រជាក់ស្ដែងរួមជាមួយនិងការបង្កើតឡើងនូវរដ្ឋមជ្ឈិមសម័យរុសកៀវ។ ផ្នែកមួយរបស់សៃធៀ (Scythia) នៅសម័យបុរាណ និងតាំងទីលំនៅដោយហ្គេធេ (Gaetae) នៅ​ក្នុង​អំឡុង​ពេល​នៃ​ការ​ធ្វើ​ចំណាក​ស្រុក អ៊ុយក្រែនក៏ជាកន្លែងនៃការពង្រីកពួកស្លាវីដើមឆ្នាំ និងចូលទៅក្នុងប្រវត្តិសាស្រ្តត្រឹមត្រូវជាមួយនឹងការបង្កើតរដ្ឋមជ្ឈិមសម័យរបស់ចក្រភពកៀវ៉ានរុស ដែល​បាន​លេច​ចេញ​ជា​ប្រទេស​ដ៏​មាន​ឥទ្ធិពល​នៅ​មជ្ឈិមសម័យ ប៉ុន្តែ​បាន​បែកបាក់​គ្នា​នៅ​សតវត្សរ៍​ទី 12 បន្ទាប់ពីពាក់កណ្តាលសតវត្សទី 14 ទឹកដីអ៊ុយក្រែនបច្ចុប្បន្នបានស្ថិតនៅក្រោមការគ្រប់គ្រងរបស់មហាអំណាចខាងក្រៅបី:[៤]

  1. ហ្គោលដិនហូរដ៍ (Golden Horde)
  2. ហ្គ្រងដ៍ឌុចឈីនៃលីទុយអានី និងព្រះរាជាណាចក្រប៉ូឡូញ – ក្នុងអំឡុងសតវត្សទី 16 ទឹកដីទាំងនេះស្ថិតនៅក្រោមការគ្រប់គ្រងរបស់មកុដនៃព្រះរាជាណាចក្រប៉ូឡូញ បន្ទាប់មករបស់គ្រឿចក្រភពប៉ូឡូញ-លីទុយអានី (ពីឆ្នាំ 1569)
  3. ចក្រភពខានគ្រីមៀន (Crimean Khanate) (ពីសតវត្សទី 15)

After a 1648 rebellion of the Cossacks against the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky agreed to the Treaty of Pereyaslav in January 1654. The exact nature of the relationship established by this treaty between Cossack Hetmanate and Russia remains a matter of scholarly controversy.[៥] The agreement precipitated the Russo-Polish War of 1654–67. In consequence, by the Treaty of Perpetual Peace, signed in 1686, the eastern portion of Ukraine (east of the Dnieper River) were to come under Russian rule,[៦] 146,000 rubles were to be paid to Poland as compensation for the loss of the Right Bank of Ukraine[៧] and the parties agreed not to sign a separate treaty with the Ottoman Empire.[៨] The treaty was strongly opposed in Poland and was not ratified by the Polish–Lithuanian Sejm (parliament) until 1710.[៩][១០] The legal legitimacy of its ratification has been disputed.[១១] According to Jacek Staszewski, the treaty was not confirmed by a resolution of the Sejm until its 1764 session.[១២]

After the Partitions of Poland (1772–1795) and the Russian conquest of the Crimean Khanate, the Russian Empire and Habsburg Austria were in control of all the territories that constitute present day Ukraine for a hundred years.

A chaotic period of warfare ensued after the Russian Revolutions of 1917. The partially-recognised Ukrainian People's Republic emerged from its own civil war of 1917–1921. The Ukrainian–Soviet War (1917–1921) followed, in which the Bolshevik Red Army established control in late 1919.[១៣] The Ukrainian Bolsheviks, who had defeated the national government in Kyiv, established the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which on 30 December 1922 became one of the founding republics of the Soviet Union. Initial Soviet policy on Ukrainian language and Ukrainian culture made Ukrainian the official language of administration and schools. Policy in the 1930s turned to Russification. In 1932 and 1933, millions of people, mostly peasants, in Ukraine starved to death in a devastating famine, known as Holodomor. It is estimated by Encyclopædia Britannica that 6 to 8 million people died from hunger in the Soviet Union during this period, of whom 4 to 5 million were Ukrainians.[១៤] Nikita Khrushchev was appointed the head of the Ukrainian Communist Party in 1938.

After Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union invaded Poland in September 1939, the Ukrainian SSR's territory expanded westward. Axis armies occupied Ukraine from 1941 to 1944. During World War II the Ukrainian Insurgent Army fought for Ukrainian independence against both Germany and the Soviet Union. In 1945 the Ukrainian SSR became one of the founding members of the United Nations.[១៥] After the death of Stalin in 1953, the Ukrainian Khrushchev as head of the Communist Party of Soviet Union enabled a Ukrainian revival, and in 1954 the republic expanded to the south with the transfer of Crimea from Russia. Nevertheless, political repressions against poets, historians and other intellectuals continued, as in all other parts of the USSR.

Ukraine became independent again when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. This started a period of transition to a market economy, in which Ukraine suffered an eight-year recession.[១៦] Subsequently, however, the economy experienced a high increase in GDP growth. Ukraine was caught up in the worldwide economic crisis in 2008 and the economy plunged. GDP fell 20% from spring 2008 to spring 2009, then leveled off.[១៧]

The prolonged crisis began on 21 November 2013, when then-president Viktor Yanukovych suspended preparations for the implementation of an association agreement with the European Union. This decision resulted in mass protests by pro-Europeans – events which became known as the "Euromaidan" or the "Revolution of Dignity". After months of such protests, the Ukrainian parliament impeached Yanukovych on 22 February 2014. On 22–23 February, the Russo-Ukrainian War started when Russian forces entered Crimea.[១៨] In late February, unrest enveloped the largely Russophone eastern and southern regions of Ukraine, from where Yanukovych had drawn most of his support. A referendum in the largely ethnic Russian Ukrainian autonomous region of Crimea was held and Crimea was de facto annexed by Russia on 18 March 2014. The War in Donbas started in Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine involving pro-Ukrainian and pro-Russian Ukrainians and Russian mercenaries. The crisis negatively influenced the Ukrainian economy. On 24 February 2022, Russia launched a full-scale invasion of the country.

បុរេប្រវត្តិ[កែប្រែ]

Archaeological cultures associated with proto-Slavs and early Slavs: Chernoles culture (before 500 BC), Zarubintsy culture (300 BC to AD 100), Przeworsk culture (300 BC to AD 400), Prague-Korchak horizon (6th to 7th century, Slavic expansion)

ស្លាកស្នាមមកតាំងទីនៅអ៊ុយក្រែនដោយសមាជិកពួក ហូម៉ូ ត្រូវបានគេចងក្រងជាឯកសារក្នុងបុរេប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រដ៏វែងឆ្ងាយ។ ការតាំងទីលំនៅនៅអ៊ុយក្រែនដោយសមាជិករបស់ពួកហូម៉ូត្រូវបានកត់ត្រាចូលទៅក្នុងបុរេប្រវត្តិឆ្ងាយ ពួកនេអង់ឌែតាល់មានជាប់ពាក់ព័ន្ធនឹងស្ថានីយ៍បុរាណវិទ្យាម៉ុលដូវ៉ាជាច្រើន (៤៥.០០០–៤៣.០០០ មុ.គ.) ដែលរួមមានការស្ថិតនៅនៃឆ្អឹងដំរីម៉ាម៉ូត។ ពួកនេអង់ឌែតាល់ត្រូវបានផ្សារភ្ជាប់ជាមួយនឹងទីតាំងបុរាណវិទ្យាម៉ូឡូដូវ៉ា (45,000–43,000 មុ.គ.) ដែលរាប់បញ្ចូលទាំងលំនៅដ្ឋានឆ្អឹងដ៏ធំសម្បើមមួយ[១៩][២០] ស្លាកស្នាមតាំងទីលំនៅរបស់ពួកហ្ក្រាវ៉ែតចុះកាលបរិច្ឆេទត្រលប់ទៅដល់ឆ្នាំ៣២.០០០ មុ.គ. ត្រូវបានគេកំនាយនិងសិក្សារកឃើញនៅស្ថានីយ៍គុហាប៊ូរ៉ាន-កាយ៉ារបស់ជួរភ្នំគ្រីម៉េ។​ ការតាំងទីលំនៅពួកហ្ក្រាវ៉ែតដែលមានអាយុកាល 32,000 មុន គ.ស ត្រូវបានគេរកឃើញ ហើយបានសិក្សានៅក្នុងរូងភ្នំប៊ូរ៉ាន់-កាយ៉ារបស់ភ្នំគ្រីមៀ[២១][២២]

ប្រហែល៩០.០០០ ឆ្នាំកន្លងទៅ ទន្លេស៊ីបេរខាងលិចនានាត្រូវបានបិទខ្ទប់ដោយសន្លឹកទឹកកកនិង ប្រហែល 90,000 ឆ្នាំមុន ទន្លេស៊ីបេរីខាងលិចត្រូវបានបិទដោយផ្ទាំងទឹកកក ហើយបានបញ្ចេញចោលតាមរយៈបឹងអារ៉ាល់ សមុទ្រកាសព្យែន និងអាងម៉ានីចចូលទៅក្នុងសមុទ្រខ្មៅ ដូច្នេះបង្កើតបានជាទន្លេដែលវែងជាងគេលើពិភពលោក[២៣]

Extent of the Chalcolithic Yamna or "pit grave" culture, 3rd millennium BC

ឯកសារយោង[កែប្រែ]

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  9. Jerzy Jan Lerski; Piotr Wróbel; Richard J. Kozicki (1996). Historical dictionary of Poland, 966-1945. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 183. ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-313-26007-0. https://books.google.com/books?id=S6aUBuWPqywC&q=Eternal+Peace+Treaty+1686&pg=PA183. 
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