ព្យុះហៃយ៉ាន

ដោយវិគីភីឌា
Haiyan (Yolanda) TY
Haiyan Nov 10 2013 0330Z (alternate).jpg
Satellite image
JTWC wp3113.gif
Storm track
Current storm status
Typhoon (JMA)
Current storm status
Category 1 typhoon (1-min mean)
គិតត្រឹម៖ 13:00 UTC November 10
ទីតាំង៖ 17°48′N 109°00′E / 17.8°N 109°E / 17.8; 109
East of Hainan Island, China
ខ្យល់៖ 80 knots (150 km/h; 90 mph) sustained (10-min mean)
80 knots (150 km/h; 90 mph) sustained (1-min mean)
gusting to 100 knots (185 km/h; 115 mph)
សម្ពាធ៖ ៩៥៥ hPa (២៨,២ inHg)
ចលនា-ទិសដៅ៖ NW at ១៨ kn (៣៣ km/h; ២១ mph)

ព្យុះហៃយ៉ាន (Typhoon Haiyan,ចិនpetrel)[១] នៅក្នុងខែវិច្ឆិកា ២០១៣ ដែលត្រូវបានឲ្យឈ្មោះថា Typhoon Yolanda នៅក្នុងប្រទេសហ្វីលីពីន, is one of the strongest tropical cyclones ever recorded. The thirtieth named storm, thirteenth typhoon, and fifth super-typhoon of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season, Haiyan originated as an area of low pressure east-southeast of Pohnpei in the western Pacific Ocean on November 2. Tracking generally westward, the disturbance steadily developed within an environment of light wind shear and warm sea surface temperatures, becoming a tropical depression early the following day. After becoming a tropical storm and attaining the name Haiyan at 0000 UTC on November 4, the system began a period of rapid intensification that brought it to typhoon intensity by 1800 UTC on November 5. With an expanding and deepening central dense overcast and clear eye visible on satellite, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) upgraded Haiyan to a super typhoon—a typhoon in which maximum sustained winds attain or exceed 240 km/h (150 mph)—early on November 6. After entering PAGASA's region of responsibility, the JTWC upgraded Haiyan to a Category 5 equivalent on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale.

Steered by a subtropical ridge to the cyclone's north, the eye of Haiyan passed over the northern portion of Palau, where extensive wind damage was observed. Thereafter, it continued to intensify; at 1200 UTC on November 7, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) upgraded the storm's maximum ten-minute sustained winds to 235 km/h (145 mph), the highest in relation to the cyclone. At 1800 UTC, the JTWC estimated the system's one-minute sustained winds to 315 km/h (195 mph), unofficially making Haiyan the fourth most intense tropical cyclone ever observed. Several hours later, the eye of the cyclone made its first landfall in the Philippines at Guiuan, Eastern Samar, without any change in intensity; if verified, this would make Haiyan the strongest tropical cyclone to make a landfall on record, which may surpass the old record of 305 km/h (190 mph) set by Hurricane Camille in 1969. On November 8, the cyclone entered the South China Sea and was downgraded to a Category 4 typhoon by the JTWC. Readings indicated that Typhoon Haiyan dropped to Category 3 as it traversed the South China Sea, with gusts of up to ២១០ km/h (១៣០ mph) and 1-minute sustained winds of up to ១៩០ km/h (១២០ mph).

The cyclone caused widespread devastation in the Philippines, particularly on Samar Island and Leyte, where at least 10,000 people were feared to have died in the city of Tacloban alone.

ប្រវត្តិឧត្តុនិយម[កែប្រែ]

Storm path

On November 2, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began monitoring a broad area of low pressure located about 425 km (265 mi) east-southeast of Pohnpei, one of the states in the Federated States of Micronesia. The system featured broken banding features alongside steadily consolidating convection. Environmental conditions ahead of the disturbance favored tropical cyclogenesis and dynamic weather forecast models predicted that a well-defined tropical cyclone would form within 72 hours.[២][nb ១] Early on November 3, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) classified the system as a tropical depression.[៤][nb ២] Owing to a consolidating low-level circulation center with building deep convection, the JTWC also classified the system as a tropical depression, shortly after issuing a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert.[៦][៧] Subsequent intensification resulted in the JMA upgrading the system to a tropical storm and assigning it the name Haiyan (ចិន海燕; ន័យចំ "petrel") at 0000 UTC on November 4.[៨] Meanwhile, the JTWC also upgraded it to a tropical storm, when the expansive system was steadily consolidating in an area of weak to moderate vertical wind shear and tracking westward along the southern periphery of a subtropical ridge.[៩] By November 5, the storm began to undergo rapid intensification as a prominent central dense overcast (CDO) with an embedded eye began developing. Owing to the formation of an eye, the JTWC estimated Haiyan to have achieved typhoon status around 0000 UTC that day.[១០][១១] The JMA followed suit 18 hours later,[១២] by which time the JTWC estimated one-minute sustained winds to have reached 195 km/h (120 mph).[១៣]

A small typhoon, with a core roughly 110 km (70 mi) across, rapid intensification continued through November 6 as a 11 km (7 mi) wide pin-hole eye formed. Upper-level outflow favored further strengthening of the system and was further enhanced by a Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough to the northeast.[១៤] Intense banding features along the southern periphery of Haiyan wrapped into the system as well. Early on November 6, the JTWC estimated the system to have achieved super typhoon status.[១៥][nb ៣] That day, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigned the storm the local name Yolanda as it approached their area of responsibility.[១៧] Intensification slowed somewhat during the day, though the JTWC estimated the storm to have attained Category 5-equivalent status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale around 1200 UTC. At this time, Haiyan displayed a 15 km (9 mi) wide eye surrounded by a ring of deep convection.[១៨] Later, the eye of the typhoon passed over the island of Kayangel in Palau.[១៩]

Typhoon Haiyan over the Philippines on November 8

Around 1200 UTC on November 7, Haiyan attained its peak intensity with ten-minute sustained winds of 235 km/h (145 mph) and a barometric pressure of 895 mbar (hPa; 26.43 inHg).[២០] This made it the second-most intense tropical cyclone in the Northwest Pacific Ocean on record, based on wind speeds alone, along with Bess in 1982 and Megi in 2010, only after Tip in 1979.[២១] Six hours later, the JTWC estimated Haiyan to have attained one-minute sustained winds of 315 km/h (195 mph) and gusts up to 378 km/h (235 mph).[២២] This unofficially ranks Haiyan as the fourth-strongest tropical cyclone on record in terms of wind speed, only exceeded by Typhoon Ida (325 km/h) in 1958, Typhoon Violet (335 km/h) in 1961, and Typhoon Nancy (345 km/h) in 1961. However, due to the fact the wind recordings in typhoons were erroneously high during the 1950s and 1960s, Haiyan unofficially ranks as the strongest tropical cyclone on record.[២៣] The storm displayed some characteristics of an annular tropical cyclone, though a strong convective band remained present along the western side of the system.[២២] Satellite estimates at the time, using the Dvorak technique, reached the maximum level on the scale: T#8.0.[២២] The storm's structure exceeded the maximum intensity on the scale as, the "Dvorak technique makes no allowance for an eye embedded so deeply in cloud tops as cold as [cold dark gray],"[nb ៤] as noted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) satellite analysis branch.[២៤] Some automated models initialized its intensity at T#8.1, exceeding the scale's upper bounds.[២៥] Through satellite estimates, NOAA also estimated that Haiyan achieved a minimum pressure between 858 mbar (hPa; 25.34 inHg) and 884 mbar (hPa; 26.11 inHg).[២៥][២៦]

Around 1900 UTC on November 7, Typhoon Haiyan made landfall in Guiuan, Eastern Samar at peak intensity.[២៧] Upon doing so, it became one of the strongest landfalling tropical cyclones on record. In terms of one-minute sustained winds from the JTWC, Haiyan was the most powerful storm to strike land on record.[២៣] Interaction with land caused slight degradation of the storm's structure, though it remained an exceptionally powerful storm when it struck Tolosa, Leyte between 2000 and 2100 UTC.[២៨][២៩] The mountainous terrain of the Philippines disrupted the cyclone's low-level inflow and prompted steady weakening. Convection shallowed somewhat and the eye shrunk and became cloud-filled.[៣០] The typhoon made four additional landfalls as it traversed the Visayas:[៣១] Bantayan Island, Daanbantayan, Panay, and Busuanga Island.[២៨] Haiyan emerged over the South China Sea late on November 8. The storm's core had been substantially disrupted during its passage through the Philippines, with only a partial eyewall remaining intact around a ragged, cloud-filled eye. In contrast to the appearance, the JTWC estimated it to have retained winds of 235 km/h (145 mph) at this time,[៣២] while the JMA estimated winds at 165 km/h (105 mph).[៣៣]

Preparations[កែប្រែ]

ប្រទេស Micronesia និង Palau[កែប្រែ]

Upon JTWC’s declaration of Tropical Depression 31W on November 3, a tropical storm warning was issued for Chuuk Lagoon, Losap, and Poluwat in the Federated States of Micronesia. Further west, Faraulep, Satawal, and Woleai, were placed under a typhoon watch while Fananu and Ulul were placed under a tropical storm watch.[៣៤] The following day, the tropical storm warning expanded to include Satawal while a typhoon warning was issued for Woleai.[៣៥] Much of Yap State while the islands of Koror and Kayangel in Palau were placed under a typhoon watch later on November 4.[៣៦] The government issued a mandatory evacuation for Kayangel, and although most residents ignored the warning, they all survived the storm.[១៩] As Haiyan progressed westward, the easternmost advisories were gradually discontinued.[៣៧] As Haiyan intensified into a typhoon on November 5, warnings were raised across Palau and Yap State.[៣៨][៣៩] Government offices in Melekeok were used as an evacuation building for Palau.[៤០] Despite mandatory evacuation orders, most residents on Kayangel remained on the island and rode out the typhoon.[៤១]

ប្រទេសហ្វីលីពិន[កែប្រែ]

Animated enhanced infrared satellite loop of Typhoon Haiyan from peak intensity to landfall in the Philippines

Officials placed police officers in the Bicol Region ahead of the storm.[៤២] In the provinces of Samar and Leyte, classes were canceled, and residents in flood- and landslide-prone areas were required to evacuate.[៤៣] Some of the storm-threatened areas were affected by an earlier earthquake in Bohol.[៤៤] The Philippine President requested the military to deploy planes and helicopters to the region expected to be affected.[៤៥] As Haiyan was moving very fast, PAGASA issued warnings at different levels to about 60 of the 80 provinces, including the capital Metro Manila.[៤៦] The International Charter on Space and Major Disasters was activated, providing for wide charitable satellite coverage.[៤៧]

ប្រទេសវៀតណាម[កែប្រែ]

កាលពី 9 វិច្ឆិកា 2013 (2013 -11-09) the storm was heading to Vietnam, where sustained wind speeds at landfall were forecast to be in the region of 120–130 km/h (75-80 mph), with gusts up to 185 km/h (115 mph). 200,000 people were being evacuated in central Vietnam. Schools were being closed and people living in low-lying coastal areas moved to typhoon shelters on higher ground. Shipping was ordered back to port. Some 170,000 soldiers were mobilised to provide emergency relief. Shortly before, central Vietnam had suffered widespread damage from typhoons Wutip and Nari, but Haiyan was expected to be at least twice as powerful, and likely to cause much damage, particularly to houses to which makeshift repairs were made after the earlier typhoons.[៤៨]

ប្រទេសចិន[កែប្រែ]

The State Flood Control and Drought Relief Headquarters hoisted a level three emergency response in the provinces of Hainan and Guangdong as well as Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The Chinese authority urged these provinces to be vigilant and prepared for Typhoon Haiyan's potential impact. All fishing vessels were urged to return to ports by noon on November 9.[៤៩][៥០]

ផលប៉ះពាល់[កែប្រែ]

ប្រទេស Micronesia និង Palau[កែប្រែ]

On Kayangel in Palau, a high storm surge damaged several houses,[៤០] while strong winds downed trees.[១៩] Despite residents' refusal to evacuate, no fatalities or major injuries took place on the island. Helicopters were flown to the island to survey damage and provide relief supplies. The government planned to evacuate those who were left homeless from the island.[៤១] Koror, Babeldaob and Kayangel each lost access to water and power.[១៩] In Koror, winds reaching as high as 120 km/h (75 mph) blew out rooftops and downed trees and power lines. A causeway linking an offshore hospital to the main island was temporarily shut down after being inundated by water.[៥១] On the northern end of Babeldaob, Haiyan damaged schools and buildings.[៤០] Lying closest to Haiyan at the time of the typhoon's passage, Kayangel was flooded in its entirety, and all homes were destroyed. Though no people were killed there, 69 others were displaced by the storm.[៥១]

ប្រទេសហ្វីលីពីន[កែប្រែ]

In Surigao City, ២៨១,៩ mm (១១,១០ in) of rainfall was recorded, much of which fell in under 12 hours.[៥៣]

Haiyan made its initial landfall in Guiuan, Eastern Samar at 4:45 am (local time), 2045 (UTC), with a wind speed of 196 mph (315 km/h), making the super-typhoon the strongest storm ever to make landfall in the world.[៥៤][៥៥] PAGASA also recorded that Haiyan made landfall on the Visayas region six times.[៥៦] Storm surges were also recorded in many places. In the island of Leyte and Samar, PAGASA measured 5-6 meter (15–19 ft) waves.[៥៧]

កាលពី 10 វិច្ឆិកា 2013 (2013 -11-10), 151 deaths had been confirmed by the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC).[៥៨] But a report later in the day quoted an official in Samar who confirmed the death of 300 from the storm in the island alone.[៥៩]

In Tacloban, Leyte, the terminal building of Tacloban Airport was destroyed by a storm surge up to the height of the second story. The storm surge was predicted at up to 5.2 meters (17 feet) [៦០]. Airport manager Efren Nagrama said water levels rose up to four metres (13 ft) in the airport. [៦១] The typhoon produced waves up to 15 meters (45 feet)[៦២]. There was widespread devastation from the storm surge, with many buildings being destroyed, trees knocked over or broken, and cars piled up.[៦២] The low-lying areas on the eastern side of Tacloban city had been most badly affected, with the low-lying populated areas near the coast completely washed away. Flooding also extended for one kilometer inland on the east coast of the province.[៦២] Early estimates were that more than 1,000 people had died in Tacloban city within Leyte province, with 200 more in Samar province.[៦៣][៦២] [៦៤] [៦៥] 70 to 80% of the province of Leyte has been destroyed, and the governor estimates there are at least 10,000 people dead. [៦៦][៦៧] On the western coast of Samar the storm surge was not so significant. [៦៨]

Many people are facing there second night without shelter. There is looting in department stores and many people are getting desperate. Most families in Samar and Leyte have lost some family members or relatives, and families are coming in from out lying provinces looking for relatives that may have been washed away. Many children have lost their lives in the flood water. Government help is only now just starting to trickle into Tacloban city. [៦៩]

Although wind speeds were extreme the major cause of damage and loss of life appears to have been storm surge. The major focus of devastation appears to have been on the east coast of Samar and Leyte, with a particular focus on Tacloban, because of the focusing effects of the bay between Samar and Leyte, and the large population in low lying areas. [៧០] The devastation in Tacloban has been described by journalists on the ground as "off the scale, and apocalyptic". [៦៩]

There is little communication in the city, and no mobile phone coverage. Up the east coast of the Leyte there are numerous towns and villages that are completely cut off without any assistance. The extent of the devastation is unknown. Large parts of Leyte and Samar are without power and may have no power for a month. [៦៩]

Leyte is one of the poorest places in the Philippines. Many people are subsistence farmers, shopkeepers, fishermen or laborers who have few resources to deal with the crisis. Without immediate assistance, Leyte may face disaster.


The storm crossed the Visayas region for almost a day, causing widespread flooding. In Cebu and Iloilo, struck by an earthquake two weeks before, cities were also severely devastated.[៧១] During the morning of November 8, media stations across the country were able to broadcast live the destruction of Haiyan. However, before afternoon, all communications on the Visayas region failed. The Presidential Communications Department of President Noynoy Aquino had difficulty contacting Interior and Local Government Secretary Mar Roxas and Defense Secretary Voltaire Gazmin in Iloilo to plan relief.[៧២] Widespread power interruptions, landslides and flash floods were also reported. Major roads were blocked by trees, and impassable. 453 domestic and international airline flights were canceled. Some airports were also closed on November 8 and 9. Ferries were affected. Relief and rescue efforts were underway by 9 November, but some places remained isolated and out of communication due to severe damage.[៧៣]

As national government authorities started to enter the devastated areas on November 9, the Philippine Daily Inquirer reported that the Philippine Red Cross feared a death toll of around 1,200.[៦៤] On November 10, the Governor of Leyte estimated that as many as 10,000 people may have died from the storm. Additionally, Chief Superintendent Elmer Soria state that 70–80 percent of the area in the path of Haiyan on Leyte was destroyed.[៧៤]

មើលផងដែរ[កែប្រែ]

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កំណត់ចំណាំ[កែប្រែ]

  1. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force task force that issues tropical cyclone warnings for the western Pacific Ocean and other regions.[៣]
  2. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) is the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the western Pacific Ocean.[៥]
  3. A super typhoon is defined as a tropical cyclone with one-minute sustained winds of at least 240 km/h (150 mph).[១៦]
  4. Cold dark gray refers to the temperature of cloud tops seen on enhanced infrared satellite imagery and indicates values below −៨០ °C (−១១២ °F).
  5. Total damages figure includes agriculture, infrastructure, casualties, etc. damages.

ឯកសារយោង[កែប្រែ]

  1. 'Off The Charts' Super Typhoon Haiyan Hits Philippines National Public Radio, 2013-11-07. Quote: "The name Haiyan comes from China, where the word means "petrel" (the seabird)."
  2. "Significant Tropical Weather Advisory for the Western and South Pacific Oceans"។ Joint Typhoon Warning Center។ November 2, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KpCqHoqW។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  3. "Joint Typhoon Warning Center Mission Statement"Joint Typhoon Warning Center។ United States Navy។ 2011។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[១] នៅថ្ងៃ July 26, 2007http://web.archive.org/web/20070726103400/https://metocph.nmci.navy.mil/jtwc/menu/JTWC_mission.html។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  4. "WWJP25 RJTD 030000"។ Japan Meteorological Agency។ November 3, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KqkZ1bEo។ បានយកមក November 6, 2013 
  5. "Annual Report on Activities of the RSMC Tokyo – Typhoon Center 2000" (PDF)។ Japan Meteorological Agency។ February 2001។ p. 3http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/jma-eng/jma-center/rsmc-hp-pub-eg/AnnualReport/2000/Text/Text2000.pdf។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  6. "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Depression 31W (Thirty-One) Warning Nr 01"Joint Typhoon Warning Center។ United States Navy។ November 3, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KsFzVSZM។ បានយកមក November 6, 2013 
  7. "Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (WTPN22 PGTW 030530)"Joint Typhoon Warning Center។ United States Navyhttp://www.webcitation.org/6KqkMpt9o។ បានយកមក November 6, 2013 
  8. "WTPQ21 RJTD 040000 RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory"។ Japan Meteorological Agency។ November 4, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KsFQg1Vp។ បានយកមក November 6, 2013 
  9. "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 31W (Haiyan) Warning Nr 04"Joint Typhoon Warning Center។ United States Navy។ November 4, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KsFydcwI។ បានយកមក November 6, 2013 
  10. "WTPQ21 RJTD 050000 RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory"។ Japan Meteorological Agency។ November 5, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6Ktj0rYlD។ បានយកមក November 6, 2013 
  11. "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 31W (Haiyan) Warning Nr 08"។ Joint Typhoon Warning Center។ November 5, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KtjQUsLR។ បានយកមក November 6, 2013 
  12. "WTPQ21 RJTD 051800 RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory"។ Japan Meteorological Agency។ November 5, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KvDsNmJ7។ បានយកមក November 6, 2013 
  13. "Typhoon 31W (Haiyan) Warning Nr 011"Joint Typhoon Warning Center។ United States Navy។ November 5, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KvEJuY37។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  14. "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 31W (Haiyan) Warning Nr 11"Joint Typhoon Warning Center។ United States Navy។ November 5, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KvEfC6IU។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  15. "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 31W (Haiyan) Warning Nr 12"Joint Typhoon Warning Center។ United States Navy។ November 6, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KvEexek2។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  16. Gary Padgett, Kevin Boyle, and Simon Clarke (February 21, 2007)។ "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary – October 2006" (Report)។ Typhoon 2000http://www.typhoon2000.ph/garyp_mgtcs/oct06sum.txt។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  17. "Tropical Cyclone Warning: Typhoon "Yolanda" (Haiyan) Severe Weather Bulletin Number One"។ Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration។ November 6, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6Kwnw52sm។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  18. "Prognostic Reasoning for Super Typhoon 31W (Haiyan) Nr 14"Joint Typhoon Warning Center។ United States Navy។ November 6, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KwmydkMk។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  19. ១៩,០ ១៩,១ ១៩,២ ១៩,៣ "Palau assesses damage after Super Typhoon Haiyan"។ Australia Network News។ November 7, 2013http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-11-07/an-super-typhoon-hainan-hits-palau/5075198។ បានយកមក November 7, 2013 
  20. "WTPQ21 RJTD 071200 RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory"។ Japan Meteorological Agency។ November 7, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KyWVA06w។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  21. "Typhoon List"Digital Typhoon។ 2013http://agora.ex.nii.ac.jp/cgi-bin/dt/search_name2.pl?lang=en&sort=maxw&order=dec&stype=number&mtype=se&gid=52ddaed0a578db93a375d77c0615fe1e&basin=wnp&lt=w។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  22. ២២,០ ២២,១ ២២,២ "Prognostic Reasoning for Super Typhoon 31W (Haiyan) Nr 19"Joint Typhoon Warning Center។ United States Navy។ November 7, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KyWsFio5។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  23. ២៣,០ ២៣,១ Jeff Masters (November 7, 2013)។ "Super Typhoon Haiyan: Strongest Landfalling Tropical Cyclone on Record"។ Weather Undergroundhttp://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/comment.html?entrynum=2573។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  24. Michael Turk (November 7, 2013)។ "Typhoon 31W (Haiyan) November 7, 2013 1430z Satellite Bulletin"Satellite Analysis Branch។ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrationhttp://www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/TROP/DATA/2013/bulletins/wpac/20131107143031W.html។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  25. ២៥,០ ២៥,១ "Typhoon 31W (Haiyan) ADT History Listing"Satellite Analysis Branch។ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration។ November 8, 2013http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/TROP/DATA/2013/adt/text/31W-list.txt។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  26. "Position History for 31W"Satellite Analysis Branch។ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration។ November 8, 2013http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/TROP/DATA/2013/tdata/wpac/31W.html។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  27. "Tropical Cyclone Warning: Typhoon "Yolanda" (Haiyan) Severe Weather Bulletin Number Six"។ Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration។ November 7, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KyWeLtJu។ បានយកមក November 9, 2013 
  28. ២៨,០ ២៨,១ "Tropical Cyclone Warning: Typhoon "Yolanda" (Haiyan) Severe Weather Bulletin Number Seven"។ Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration។ November 8, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KyWe0szf។ បានយកមក November 9, 2013 
  29. "Prognostic Reasoning for Super Typhoon 31W (Haiyan) Warning Nr 20"Joint Typhoon Warning Center។ United States Navy។ November 7, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KyWrqrzk។ បានយកមក November 9, 2013 
  30. "Prognostic Reasoning for Super Typhoon 31W (Haiyan) Warning Nr 21"Joint Typhoon Warning Center។ United States Navy។ November 8, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KztnEz75។ បានយកមក November 9, 2013 
  31. "PAGASA: Typhoon Yolanda exits PAR"។ GMA News។ November 9, 2013http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/334732/weather/pagasa-typhoon-yolanda-exits-par។ បានយកមក November 9, 2013 
  32. "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 31W (Haiyan) Warning Nr 23"Joint Typhoon Warning Center។ United States Navy។ November 8, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KztmpYEu។ បានយកមក November 9, 2013 
  33. "WTPQ21 RJTD 082100 RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory"។ Japan Meteorological Agency។ November 8, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KztWJiLk។ បានយកមក November 9, 2013 
  34. Derek L. Williams (November 3, 2013)។ "Tropical Depression 31W Advisory Number 1"National Weather Service Office in Tiyan, Guam។ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrationhttp://www.webcitation.org/6KsG4nNIJ។ បានយកមក November 6, 2013 
  35. Michael P. Ziobro (November 4, 2013)។ "Tropical Storm Haiyan (31W) Advisory Number 4"National Weather Service Office in Tiyan, Guam។ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrationhttp://www.webcitation.org/6KsG3UAFS។ បានយកមក November 6, 2013 
  36. Patrick K. Chan (November 4, 2013)។ "Tropical Storm Haiyan (31W) Advisory Number 5"National Weather Service Office in Tiyan, Guam។ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrationhttp://www.webcitation.org/6KsG3UAFS។ បានយកមក November 6, 2013 
  37. Carl Alan Mcelroy (November 5, 2013)។ "Tropical Storm Haiyan (31W) Advisory Number 6"National Weather Service Office in Tiyan, Guam។ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrationhttp://www.webcitation.org/6KtjEz0QL។ បានយកមក November 6, 2013 
  38. Kenneth R. Kleeschulte and Charles P. Guard (November 5, 2013)។ "Typhoon Haiyan (31W) Advisory Number 8"National Weather Service Office in Tiyan, Guam។ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrationhttp://www.webcitation.org/6KtjCfngw។ បានយកមក November 6, 2013 
  39. Patrick K. Chan (November 5, 2013)។ "Typhoon Haiyan (31W) Advisory Number 9"National Weather Service Office in Tiyan, Guam។ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrationhttp://www.webcitation.org/6KvE6Oq2w។ បានយកមក November 6, 2013 
  40. ៤០,០ ៤០,១ ៤០,២ (PDF) Palau: Typhoon Haiyan - initial damage reports as at 7 November 2013 (Report). ReliefWeb. November 7, 2013. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Map4-Palau_Haiyan-intial_damage.pdf។ បានយកមក November 7, 2013. 
  41. ៤១,០ ៤១,១ "Palau assesses damage after Super Typhoon Haiyan"។ Australian Broadcasting Corporation។ November 7, 2013http://www.webcitation.org/6KxVkSGDN។ បានយកមក November 7, 2013 
  42. Ellalyn B. De Vera and Aaron B. Recuenco (November 6, 2013)។ "Super Typhoon ‘Yolanda’ may hit Visayas Friday"Manila Bulletinhttp://www.mb.com.ph/super-typhoon-yolanda-may-hit-visayas-friday/។ បានយកមក November 7, 2013 
  43. FR Jimenez (November 7, 2013)។ "PNoy, nagbabala sa seryosong peligrong dala ng 'super typhoon' na si 'Yolanda'"GMA Newshttp://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/334469/ulatfilipino/balitangpinoy/pnoy-nagbabala-sa-seryosong-peligrong-dala-ng-super-typhoon-na-si-yolanda។ បានយកមក November 7, 2013 
  44. Joey Gabieta, Jani Arnaiz, Nestor Burgos, Doris Bongcac, Carla Gomez, Carmel Loise Matus and Jhunnex Napallacan (November 7, 2013)។ "Evacuation centers, rescue plans set in Visayas for supertyphoon Yolanda"Inquirerhttp://newsinfo.inquirer.net/521667/evacuation-centers-rescue-plans-set-in-visayas-for-supertyphoon-yolanda។ បានយកមក November 7, 2013 
  45. Kristine Angeli Sabillo (November 7, 2013)។ "Aquino: PH ready to face supertyphoon ‘Yolanda’"Inquirerhttp://newsinfo.inquirer.net/522661/aquino-ph-ready-to-face-supertyphoon-yolanda។ បានយកមក November 7, 2013 
  46. ANC (November 7, 2013)។ "'Yolanda' accelerates, signal number 4 up over parts of E. Visayas"ANC and Yahoohttp://anc.yahoo.com/news/yolanda--enters-par-094049873.html។ បានយកមក November 7, 2013 
  47. http://www.disasterscharter.org/web/charter/activation_details?p_r_p_1415474252_assetId=ACT-466
  48. BBC News: Typhoon Haiyan: Hundreds feared dead in Philippines, 9 November 2013
  49. http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90882/8451805.html
  50. http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90882/8451805.html
  51. ៥១,០ ៥១,១ OCHA Flash Update #3 FSM & Palau | Tropical Storm Haiyan (31W) (Report). ReliefWeb. November 7, 2013. http://reliefweb.int/report/palau/ocha-flash-update-3-fsm-palau-tropical-storm-haiyan-31w។ បានយកមក November 7, 2013. 
  52. ៥២,០ ៥២,១ "SitRep No. 11 Effects of Typhoon "Yolanda" (Haiyan)" (PDF)។ National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council។ November 10, 2013http://www.ndrrmc.gov.ph/attachments/article/1125/doc02382320131110212404.pdf។ បានយកមក November 10, 2013 
  53. Eric Leister (November 9, 2013)។ "Official: Super Typhoon Death Toll Could Reach 1,200"AccuWeatherhttp://www.accuweather.com/en/weather-news/super-typhoon-haiyan-a-serious/19561621។ បានយកមក November 9, 2013 
  54. Mullen, Jethro (8 November 2013)។ "Super Typhoon Haiyan, one of strongest storms ever, hits central Philippines"CNNhttp://www.cnn.com/2013/11/07/world/asia/philippines-typhoon-haiyan/index.html។ បានយកមក 8 November 2013 
  55. Williams, Rob (8 November 2013)។ "Typhoon Haiyan: Most powerful storm to ever hit land batters Philippines with 200mph winds"The Independenthttp://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/typhoon-haiyan-most-powerful-storm-to-ever-hit-land-batters-philippines-with-200mph-winds-8926719.html។ បានយកមក 8 November 2013 
  56. Brian K. Sullivan, Cecilia Yap & Joel Guinto (November 8, 2013)។ "Super Typhoon Haiyan Slams Philippines With Category-5 Power"Bloomberghttp://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-11-07/philippines-braces-for-haiyan-seen-as-2013-s-strongest-typhoon.html។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  57. Our Foreign Staff (November 8, 2013)។ "Super Typhoon Haiyan smashes in to Philippines"Telegraphhttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/philippines/10434846/Super-Typhoon-Haiyan-smashes-in-to-Philippines.html។ បានយកមក November 8, 2013 
  58. "NDRRMC - 151 killed by 'Yolanda'" http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/524479/151-killed-by-yolanda-4-5m-people-affected-ndrrmc
  59. Yolanda kills 300, a Samar official confirmed http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/524543/yolanda-kills-300-in-samar-official
  60. "Super Typhoon Haiyan, one of the strongest storms ever seen, hit the Philippines with record force"http://qz.com/144734/super-typhoon-haiyan-one-of-the-strongest-storms-ever-seen-is-about-to-hit-the-philippines 
  61. Reuters។ ""Massive destruction" as Typhoon Haiyan kills at least 1,200 in Philippines, says Red Cross"Reutershttp://www.trust.org/item/20131109132543-2fgb9 
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  64. ៦៤,០ ៦៤,១ November 9 death toll report by the Philippine Daily Inquirer http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/524159/1200-believed-dead-in-philippine-typhoon-red-cross
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  66. "Fears at least 10,000 dead in Philippines as Super Typhoon Haiyan approaches Vietnam"ABC newshttp://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-11-10/super-typhoon-haiyan-approaches-vietnam/5081524 
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  69. ៦៩,០ ៦៩,១ ៦៩,២ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named CNN
  70. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named noah
  71. Mark Tran (November 8, 2013)។ "Philippines rescue services brace for devastation of typhoon Haiyan"The Guardianhttp://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/nov/08/philippines-rescue-services-typhoon-haiyan។ បានយកមក November 9, 2013 
  72. Frances Mangosing (November 8, 2013)។ "Manila loses contact with Roxas, Gazmin in Leyte"Inquirerhttp://newsinfo.inquirer.net/523401/manila-loses-contact-with-roxas-gazmin-in-leyte។ បានយកមក November 9, 2013 
  73. Staffs (November 8, 2013)។ "Super typhoon Haiyan shuts airports, flights cancelled across Philippines"News Australiahttp://www.news.com.au/national/super-typhoon-haiyan-shuts-airports-flights-cancelled-across-philippines/story-e6frfkp9-1226756128903។ បានយកមក November 9, 2013 
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