អាជ្ញាបណ្ណ Creative Commons

ដោយវិគីភីឌា
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This video explains how Creative Commons licenses can be used in conjunction with commercial licensing arrangements.
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Creative Commons licenses are explained in many languages and used around the world, such as pictured here in Cambodia.

អាជ្ញាបណ្ណ Creative Commons is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work. A CC license is used when an author wants to give people the right to share, use and build upon a work that they have created. CC provides an author flexibility (for example, they might choose to allow only non-commercial uses of their own work) and protects the people who use or redistribute an author's work, so they don’t have to worry about copyright infringement, as long as they abide by the conditions that are specified in the license by which the author distributes the work.

There are several types of CC licenses. The licenses differ by several combinations that condition the terms of distribution. They were initially released on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons, a U.S. non-profit corporation founded in 2001.


ប្រភេទនៃអាជ្ញាបណ្ណ[កែប្រែ]

The CC licenses all grant the "baseline rights", such as the right to distribute the copyrighted work worldwide, without changes, at no charge.[១] The details of each of these licenses depends on the version, and comprises a selection of four conditions:

រូបសម្គាល់ សិទ្ធិ បរិយាយ
Attribution Attribution (BY) Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform the work and make derivative works based on it only if they give the author or licensor the credits in the manner specified by these.
Share-alike Share-alike (SA) Licensees may distribute derivative works only under a license identical to the license that governs the original work. (See also copyleft.)
Non-commercial Non-commercial (NC) Licensees may copy, distribute, display, and perform the work and make derivative works based on it only for noncommercial purposes.
Non-derivative No Derivative Works (ND) Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform only verbatim copies of the work, not derivative works based on it.

The last two clauses are not free content licenses, according to definitions such as DFSG or the Free Software Foundation, and cannot be used in contexts that require these freedoms, such as Wikipedia.

Mixing and matching these conditions produces sixteen possible combinations, of which eleven are valid Creative Commons licenses and five are not. Of the five invalid combinations, four include both the "nd" and "sa" clauses, which are mutually exclusive; and one includes none of the clauses. Of the eleven valid combinations, the five that lack the "by" clause have been retired because 98% of licensors requested attribution, though they do remain available for reference on the website.[២][៣][៤] This leaves six regularly used licenses:

រូបសម្គាល់ បរិយាយ អក្សរកាត់
CC-by icon Attribution alone BY
CC-by-ND icon Attribution + NoDerivatives BY-ND
CC-by-SA icon Attribution + ShareAlike BY-SA
CC-by-NC icon Attribution + Noncommercial BY-NC
CC-by-NC-ND icon Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives BY-NC-ND
CC-by-NC-SA icon Attribution + Noncommercial + ShareAlike BY-NC-SA

For example, the Creative Commons Attribution (BY) license allows one to share and remix (create derivative works), even for commercial use, so long as attribution is given.[៥]


សិទ្ធិ[កែប្រែ]

Attribution[កែប្រែ]

Since 2004, all current licenses require attribution of the original author.[៣] The attribution must be given to "the best of [one's] ability using the information available".[៦] Generally this implies the following:

  • Include any copyright notices (if applicable). If the work itself contains any copyright notices placed there by the copyright holder, those notices must be left intact, or reproduced in a way that is reasonable to the medium in which the work is being re-published.
  • Cite the author's name, screen name, or user ID, etc. If the work is being published on the Internet, it is nice to link that name to the person's profile page, if such a page exists.
  • Cite the work's title or name (if applicable), if such a thing exists. If the work is being published on the Internet, it is nice to link the name or title directly to the original work.
  • Cite the specific CC license the work is under. If the work is being published on the Internet, it is nice if the license citation links to the license on the CC website.
  • Mention if the work is a derivative work or adaptation, in addition to the above, one needs to identify that their work is a derivative work, e.g., “This is a Finnish translation of [original work] by [author].” or “Screenplay based on [original work] by [author].”

Non-commercial licenses[កែប្រែ]

The "non-commercial" option included in some Creative Commons licenses is controversial in definition,[៧] as it's sometimes unclear what can be considered a noncommercial setting, and application, since its restrictions differ from the principles of open content promoted by other permissive licenses.[៨]

Zero / Public domain[កែប្រែ]

Besides licenses, Creative Commons also offers a way to release material into the public domain through CC0,[៩] a legal tool for waiving as many rights as legally possible, worldwide. Development of CC0 began in 2007[១០] and the tool was released in 2009.[១១][១២]

In 2010, Creative Commons announced its Public Domain Mark,[១៣] a tool for labeling works already in the public domain. Together, CC0 and the Public Domain Mark replace the Public Domain Dedication and Certification,[១៤] which took a U.S.-centric approach and co-mingled distinct operations.

In 2011, Free Software Foundation added CC0 to its free software licenses, making CC0 a recommended way of dedicating software to the public domain.[១៥]

In February 2012 CC0 was submitted for OSI approval process [១៦] but due to problems, it was rejected. The OSI FAQ [១៧] concludes "At this time, we do not recommend releasing software using the CC0 public domain dedication" because of the reservations of being able to waiver copyright (aka "public domain") from a legal standpoint in all jurisdictions. The OSI FAQ further explains that "CC0 was not explicitly rejected, but the License Review Committee was unable to reach consensus that it should be approved, and Creative Commons eventually withdrew the application". In the withdrawal message [១៨] the Creative Commons representative explained that CC0 was initially developed for the needs of the scientific data community in order to help sharing data freely. It was not designed to replace the "released into the Public Domain" statements sometimes used in the sources code of the software.


Legal review[កែប្រែ]

The legal implications of large numbers of works having Creative Commons licensing is difficult to predict, and there is speculation that media creators often lack insight to be able to choose the license which best meets their intent in applying it.[១៩]

Use of Creative Commons licenses[កែប្រែ]

មើលផងដែរ[កែប្រែ]

ឯកសារយោង[កែប្រែ]

  1. "Baseline Rights"Creative Commons។ June 12, 2008http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Baseline_Rights។ បានយកមក February 22, 2010 
  2. "Retired Legal Tools"Creative Commonshttp://creativecommons.org/retiredlicenses។ បានយកមក May 31, 2012 
  3. ៣,០ ៣,១ "Announcing (and explaining) our new 2.0 licenses"។ Creativecommons.org។ 2004-05-25http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/4216។ បានយកមក 2013-09-20 
  4. "Creative Commons Licenses"Creative Commonshttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/។ បានយកមក February 22, 2010 
  5. "Creative Commons — Attribution 3.0 United States"Creative Commons។ November 16, 2009http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us/។ បានយកមក February 22, 2010 
  6. "Frequently Frequently Asked Questions"Creative Commons។ February 2, 2010http://wiki.creativecommons.org/FFAQ#How_do_I_properly_attribute_a_Creative_Commons_licensed_work.3F។ បានយកមក February 22, 2010 
  7. "Defining Noncommercial report published""។ Creativecommons.orghttp://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/17127។ បានយកមក 2013-09-20 
  8. "The Case for Free Use: Reasons Not to Use a Creative Commons -NC License"។ Freedomdefined.org។ 2013-08-26http://freedomdefined.org/Licenses/NC។ បានយកមក 2013-09-20 
  9. "CC0"Creative Commonshttp://creativecommons.org/choose/zero។ បានយកមក February 22, 2010 
  10. Creative Commons (December 17, 2007)។ "Creative Commons Launches CC0 and CC+ Programs"។ Press releasehttp://creativecommons.org/press-releases/entry/7919។ បានយកមក February 22, 2010 
  11. Baker, Gavin (January 16, 2009)។ "Report from CC board meeting"Open Access Newshttp://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/2009/01/report-from-cc-board-meeting.html។ បានយកមក February 22, 2010 
  12. "Expanding the Public Domain: Part Zero"។ Creativecommons.orghttp://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/13304។ បានយកមក 2013-09-20 
  13. "Marking and Tagging the Public Domain: An Invitation to Comment"។ Creativecommons.org។ 2010-08-10http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/22940។ បានយកមក 2013-09-20 
  14. "Copyright-Only Dedication (based on United States law) or Public Domain Certification"Creative Commons។ August 20. 2009http://creativecommons.org/licenses/publicdomain/។ បានយកមក February 22, 2010 
  15. "Using CC0 for public domain software"Creative Commons។ April 15. 2011http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/27081។ បានយកមក May 10, 2011 
  16. "OSI recognition for Creative Commons Zero License?"http://projects.opensource.org/pipermail/license-review/2012-February/។ បានយកមក 2012-02-01 
  17. "What about the Creative Commons "CC0" ("CC Zero") public domain dedication? Is that Open Source?"http://opensource.org/faq#cc-zero។ បានយកមក 2013-05-25 
  18. "CC withdrawl of CC0 from OSI process"http://projects.opensource.org/pipermail/license-review/2012-February/000231.html។ បានយកមក 2012-02-24 
  19. Katz, Zachary (2005-6)។ "Pitfalls of Open Licensing: An Analysis of Creative Commons Licensing"។ IDEA: The Intellectual Property Law Review 46 (3): 391។ 

តំណភ្ជាប់ខាងក្រៅ[កែប្រែ]

ស្វែងរកបន្ថែមអំពី អាជ្ញាបណ្ណ Creative Commons នៅលើគំរោងផ្សេងៗទៀតរបស់វិគីខាងក្រោម៖
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