Energy in France

ពីវិគីភីឌា
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បារាំងជាប្រទេសមានអនុភាពសេដ្ឋកិច្ចពិភពលោកលំដាប់ទី៦បន្ទាប់ពី សហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក ជប៉ុន អាលឺម៉ង់ ចិន និង អង់គ្លេស

អត្ថបទដើមចំបង: Economy of France និង Energy in France

Further information: List of companies of France និង Economic history of France

A member of the G8 group of leading industrialised countries, it is ranked as the world's seventh largest and the EU's second largest economy by purchasing power parity.[១២]With 39 of the 500 biggest companies in the world in 2010, France ranks fourth in the Fortune Global 500, ahead of Germany and the UK.[៣២៧] France joined 11 other EU members to launch the euro in 1999, with euro coins and banknotes completely replacing the French franc (₣) in 2002.[៣២៨]

France derives 75% of its electricity from nuclear power, the highest percentage in the world.[៣២៩]

France has a mixed economy which combines extensive private enterprise[៣៣០][៣៣១] with substantial state enterprise and government intervention. The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, nuclear power and telecommunications.[៣] It has been relaxing its control over these sectors since the early 1990s.[៣] The government is slowly corporatising the state sector and selling off holdings in France Télécom, Air France, as well as in the insurance, banking, and defence industries.[៣] France has an important aerospace industry led by the European consortium Airbus, and has its own national spaceport, the Centre Spatial Guyanais.

France is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone (dark blue), and of the EU single market.

According to the World Trade Organization (WTO), in 2009 France was the world's sixth largest exporter and the fourth largest importer of manufactured goods.[៣៣២] In 2008, France was the third largest recipient of foreign direct investment among OECD countries at $118 billion, ranking behind Luxembourg (where foreign direct investment was essentially monetary transfers to banks located there) and the US ($316 billion), but above the UK ($96.9 billion), Germany ($25 billion), or Japan ($24 billion).[៣៣៣][៣៣៤]

In the same year, French companies invested $220 billion outside France, ranking France as the second largest outward direct investor in the OECD, behind the US ($311 billion), and ahead of the UK ($111 billion), Japan ($128 billion) and Germany ($157 billion).[៣៣៣][៣៣៤]

Financial services, banking and the insurance sector are an important part of the economy. The Paris stock exchange (បារាំង ៖ La Bourse de Paris) is an old institution, created by Louis XV in 1724.[៣៣៥] In 2000, the stock exchanges of Paris, Amsterdam and Bruxelles merged into Euronext.[៣៣៦] In 2007, Euronext merged with the New York stock exchange to form NYSE Euronext, the world's largest stock exchange.[៣៣៦] Euronext Paris, the French branch of the NYSE Euronext group is Europe's 2nd largest stock exchange market, behind the London Stock Exchange.

French companies have maintained key positions in the insurance and banking industries: AXA is the world's largest insurance company. The leading French banks are BNP Paribas and the Crédit Agricole, ranking as the world's first and sixth largest banks in 2010[៣៣៧] (by assets), while the Société Générale group was ranked the world's eighth largest in 2009.

France is the smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among the G8, due to its heavy investment in nuclear power.[៣៣៨] As a result of large investments in nuclear technology, most electricity produced by France is generated by 59 nuclear power plants (75% in 2012).[៣៣៩] In this context, renewable energies are having difficulty taking off.

Agriculture[កែប្រែ][កែប្រែ]

Vineyards near Carcassonne France has historically been a large producer of agricultural products.[៣៤០] Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and EU subsidies have combined to make France the leading agricultural producer and exporter in Europe[៣៤១] (representing 20% of the EU's agricultural production[៣៤២]) and the world's third biggest exporter of agricultural products.[៣៤៣]

Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as internationally recognized processed foods are the primary French agricultural exports. Rosé wines are primarily consumed within the country, but champagne and Bordeaux wines are major exports, being known worldwide. EU agriculture subsidies to France have decreased in recent years, but still amounted to $8 billion in 2007.[៣៤៤] That same year, France sold 33.4 billion euros of transformed agricultural products.[៣៤៥]

Agriculture is thus an important sector of France's economy: 3.8% of the active population is employed in agriculture, whereas the total agri-food industry made up 4.2% of French GDP in 2005.[៣៤២]

Labour market[កែប្រែ]