ពាណិជ្ជកម្មអន្តរជាតិ (អង់គ្លេស ៖ International trade) គឺជាការផ្លាស់ប្ដូរនៃcapital, ទំនិញ និងសេវាកម្ម ឆ្លងកាត់តាមព្រំដែនអន្តរជាតិ ឬទឹកដីប្រទេស។ In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP). While international trade has been present throughout much of history (see Silk Road, Amber Road), its economic, social, and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries.
Industrialization, advanced transportation, globalization, multinational corporations, and outsourcing are all having a major impact on the international trade system. Increasing international trade is crucial to the continuance of globalization. Without international trade, nations would be limited to the goods and services produced within their own borders.
International trade is, in principle, not different from domestic trade as the motivation and the behavior of parties involved in a trade do not change fundamentally regardless of whether trade is across a border or not. The main difference is that international trade is typically more costly than domestic trade. The reason is that a border typically imposes additional costs such as tariffs, time costs due to border delays and costs associated with country differences such as language, the legal system or culture.
Another difference between domestic and international trade is that factors of production such as capital and labor are typically more mobile within a country than across countries. Thus international trade is mostly restricted to trade in goods and services, and only to a lesser extent to trade in capital, labor or other factors of production. Trade in goods and services can serve as a substitute for trade in factors of production.
Instead of importing a factor of production, a country can import goods that make intensive use of that factor of production and thus embody it. An example is the import of labor-intensive goods by the United States from China. Instead of importing Chinese labor, the United States imports goods that were produced with Chinese labor. One report in 2010 suggested that international trade was increased when a country hosted a network of immigrants, but the trade effect was weakened when the immigrants became assimilated into their new country.
International trade is also a branch of economics, which, together with international finance, forms the larger branch of international economics. For more, see The Observatory of Economic Complexity.
Largest countries by total international trade[កែប្រែ]
|Rank||Country||Total International Trade
(Billions of USD)
|Date of |
|-||European Union||4,567.0||2011 est.|
|1||United States||3,969.0||2012 est.|
|6||United Kingdom||1,127.0||2012 est.|
|7||South Korea||1,068.7||2012 est.|
|11||Hong Kong||938.4||2012 est.|
Top traded commodities (exports)[កែប្រែ]
|Rank||Commodity||Value in US$('000)||Date of |
|1||Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, etc.||$2,183,079,941||2012|
|2||Electrical, electronic equipment||$1,833,534,414||2012|
|3||Machinery, nuclear reactors, boilers, etc.||$1,763,371,813||2012|
|4||Vehicles other than railway, tramway||$1,076,830,856||2012|
|5||Plastics and articles thereof||$470,226,676||2012|
|6||Optical, photo, technical, medical, etc. apparatus||$465,101,524||2012|
|8||Iron and steel||$379,113,147||2012|
|10||Pearls, precious stones, metals, coins, etc.||$348,155,369||2012|
- List of countries by current account balance
- List of countries by imports
- List of countries by exports
- List of international trade topics
- List of economists
- Kusum Mundra (October 18, 2010). "Immigrant Networks and U.S. Bilateral Trade: The Role of Immigrant Income". papers.ssrn. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
Mundra, Kusum, Immigrant Networks and U.S. Bilateral Trade: The Role of Immigrant Income. IZA Discussion Paper No. 5237. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1693334 ... this paper finds that the immigrant network effect on trade flows is weakened by the increasing level of immigrant assimilation.
- Jones, Ronald W. (1961). "Compartive Advantage and the Theory of Tariffs". The Review of Economic Studies. 28 (3): 161–175. doi:10.2307/2295945.
- McKenzie, Lionel W. (1954). "Specialization and Efficiency in World Production". The Review of Economic Studies. 21 (3): 165–180.
- Samuelson, Paul (2001). "A Ricardo-Sraffa Paradigm Comparing the Gains from Trade in Inputs and Finished Goods". Journal of Economic Literature. 39 (4): 1204–1214. doi:10.1257/jel.39.4.1204.
Data on the value of exports and imports and their quantities often broken down by detailed lists of products are available in statistical collections on international trade published by the statistical services of intergovernmental and supranational organisations and national statistical institutes:
- United Nations Commodity Trade Database
- WTO Statistics Portal
- Statistical Portal: OECD
- European Union International Trade in Goods Data
- European Union International Trade in Services Data (sub-collection of the Balance of payment statistics)
- European Union Exports and Imports (sub-collection of the National accounts statistics)
- Food and Agricultural Trade Data by FAO
- Brazilian Trade Data
The definitions and methdological concepts applied for the various statistical collections on international trade often differ in terms of definition (e.g. special trade vs. general trade) and coverage (reporting thresholds, inclusion of trade in services, estimates for smuggled goods and cross-border provision of illegal services). Metadata providing information on definitions and methods are often published along with the data.
Other data sources[កែប្រែ]
- Resources for data on trade, including the gravity model
- Asia-Pacific Trade Agreements Database (APTIAD)
- Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT)
- International Trade Resources
- World Integrated Trade Solution (WITS)
- The Expected Benefits of Trade Liberalization for World Income and Development: Opening the "Black Box" of Global Trade Modeling by Antoine Bouët (2008)
- The McGill Faculty of Law runs a Regional Trade Agreements Database that contains the text of almost all preferential and regional trade agreements in the world. ptas.mcgill.ca
- Interactive Ricardian Model Simulator
- Consumers for World Trade Education Fund electronic trade library
- International trade, Encyclopædia Britannica
- Benefits of International Trade
- Should trade be considered a human right?
- Penn Program on Regulation's Import Safety Page
- Historical documents on international trade, finance, and economics available on FRASER