ភពសុក្រ

ដោយវិគីភីឌា
ភពសុក្រ
Venus
  Astronomical symbol of Venus
Venus
Designations
Pronunciation /ˈviːnəs/ ( ស្ដាប់)
Adjective Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean, Venerean
Epoch J2000
Aphelion 108,942,109 km
0.728 231 28 AU
Perihelion 107,476,259 km
0.718 432 70 AU
Semi-major axis 108,208,930 km
0.723 332 AU
Eccentricity 0.006 8
Orbital period 224.700 69 day
0.615 197 0 yr
1.92 Venus solar day
Synodic period 583.92 days[១]
Average orbital speed 35.02 km/s
Inclination 3.394 71° to Ecliptic
3.86° to Sun’s equator
2.19° to Invariable plane[២]
Longitude of ascending node 76.670 69°
Argument of perihelion 54.852 29°
Satellites None[៣]
លក្ខណៈទូទៅនៃសណ្ឋានខាងក្រៅ
Mean radius 6,051.8 ± 1.0 km[៤]
0.949 9 Earths
Flattening 0[៤]
ផ្ទៃដី 4.60×10 km²
0.902 Earths
មាឌ 9.38×10១១ km³
0.857 Earths
ម៉ាស់ 4.868 5×10២៤ kg
0.815 Earths
Mean density 5.204 g/cm³
Equatorial surface gravity 8.87 m/s2
0.904 g
Escape velocity 10.46 km/s
Sidereal rotation
period
-243.018 5 day
Equatorial rotation velocity ៦,៥២ km/h (១,៨១ m/s)
Axial tilt 177.3°[១]
North pole right ascension 18 h 11 min 2 s
272.76°[៥]
North pole declination 67.16°
Albedo 0.65 (geometric) or 0.75 (bond)[១]
សីតុណ្ហភាពផ្ទៃខាងក្រៅ
   Kelvin
   Celsius
min mean max
735 K[១][៧][៨]
461.85 °C
Apparent magnitude up to -4.6[១] (crescent)
-3.8 (full)[៦]
Angular diameter 9.7" – 66.0"[១]
បរិយាកាស
សម្ពាធផ្ទៃខាងក្រៅ 93 bar (9.3 MPa)
Composition ~96.5% Carbon dioxide
~3.5% Nitrogen
0.015% Sulfur dioxide
0.007% Argon
0.002% Water vapor
0.001 7% Carbon monoxide
0.001 2% Helium
0.000 7% Neon
trace Carbonyl sulfide
trace Hydrogen chloride
trace Hydrogen fluoride

ភពសុក្រ អង់គ្លេសVenus គឺជាភពទី២ពីព្រះអាទិត្យ[៩] It is a terrestrial planet because it has a solid, rocky surface. The other terrestrial planets are Mercury, Earth and Mars. Astronomers have known Venus for thousands of years. The ancient Romans named it after their goddess Venus. Venus is the brightest thing in the night sky except for the Moon. It is sometimes called the morning star or the evening star as it is brightest just before the sun comes up in the morning, and just after the sun goes down in the evening. Venus comes closer to the earth than any other planet does.

Venus is sometimes called the sister planet of ផែនដី as they are quite similar in size and gravity. In other ways the two planets are very different. Venus' atmosphere (air) is mostly carbon dioxide with clouds of sulfuric acid.[១០] Sulphuric acid is a chemical that is very poisonous to humans. The thick atmosphere has made it hard to see the surface, and until the twenty-first century many people thought things might live there. The pressure on Venus' surface is 92 times that of Earth. Venus has no moons.

លក្ខណៈទូទៅនៃរូបរាងផ្ទៃខាងក្រៅ[កែប្រែ]

Global view of the surface of Venus (Magellan spacecraft)

Venus is a terrestrial planet so, like the Earth, its surface is made of rock. Venus is much hotter than Earth. All the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere acts like a blanket, trapping heat from the Sun. This effect is called the greenhouse effect and it is very strong on Venus. This makes Venus the hottest planet in the Solar System with an estimated average temperature of ៤៨០ °C (៨៩៦�០ °F).[១១][១២] This is hot enough to melt lead or zinc.

ភូមិសាស្ត្រ[កែប្រែ]

Venus' surface is about 80% smooth, rocky plains. Two higher areas called continents make up the north and south of the planet. The north is called Ishtar Terra and the south is called Aphrodite Terra. They are named after the Babylonian and Greek goddesses of love.[១៣]

បរិយាកាស[កែប្រែ]

Venus' atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas with clouds of sulphuric acid. Because the atmosphere is so thick or dense the pressure is very high. The pressure is 92 times the pressure on Earth, enough to crush many things.

It is impossible to look at the planet's surface from space as the thick cloud layer reflects 60% of the light that hits it. The only way scientists have been able to look is by using infrared and ultraviolet cameras.

ឯកសារយោង[កែប្រែ]

  1. ១,០ ១,១ ១,២ ១,៣ ១,៤ ១,៥ Williams, David R. (April 15, 2005)។ "Venus Fact Sheet"។ NASAhttp://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/venusfact.html។ បានយកមក 2007-10-12 
  2. "The MeanPlane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter"។ 2009-04-03។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[១] នៅថ្ងៃ 2009-04-20http://web.archive.org/20090420194536/home.comcast.net/~kpheider/MeanPlane.gif។ បានយកមក 2009-04-10  (produced with Solex 10 written by Aldo Vitagliano; see also Invariable plane)
  3. Harvey, Samantha (2011-02-16)។ "NASA: Solar System Exploration: Planets: Venus: Moons"។ NASAhttp://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Venus&Display=Moons។ បានយកមក 2011-03-31 
  4. ៤,០ ៤,១ Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Archinal, B. A.; A’hearn, M. F.; et al. (2007)។ "Report of the IAU/IAGWorking Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2006"Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy 90: 155–180។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1007/s10569-007-9072-yhttp://adsabs.harvard.edu/doi/10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y។ បានយកមក 2007-08-28 
  5. "Report on the IAU/IAG Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements of the planets and satellites"។ International Astronomical Union។ 2000http://www.hnsky.org/iau-iag.htm។ បានយកមក 2007-04-12 
  6. Espenak, Fred (1996)។ "Venus: Twelve year planetary ephemeris, 1995–2006"NASA Reference Publication 1349។ NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[២] នៅថ្ងៃ 2012-07-17https://archive.is/5ZCk។ បានយកមក 2006-06-20 
  7. "Venus: Facts & Figures"។ NASAhttp://sse.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Venus&Display=Facts&System=Metric។ បានយកមក 2007-04-12 
  8. "Space Topics: Compare the Planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, The Moon, and Mars"។ Planetary Societyhttp://www.planetary.org/explore/topics/compare_the_planets/terrestrial.html។ បានយកមក 2007-04-12 
  9. ក្នុងប្រព័ន្ធព្រះអាទិត្យរបស់យើង។
  10. "The Atmosphere of Venus"http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/venus/atmosphere.html 
  11. "Venus - an overview"http://filer.case.edu/sjr16/advanced/venus.html 
  12. "Temperature on the Surface of Venus"http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2000/GeorgeRyabov.shtml 
  13. Batson R.M., Russell J.F. (1991), Naming the Newly Found Landforms on Venus, Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, v. 22, p. 65


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