|First appearance||Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962)|
|Created by||Stan Lee, Steve Ditko|
|Alter ego||Peter Benjamin Parker|
|Team affiliations||Daily Bugle
New Fantastic Four
Heroes for Hire
|Notable aliases||Ricochet, Dusk, Prodigy, Hornet, Ben Reilly/Scarlet Spider|
ឈ្មោះ លោក ស្តាន លី និង អ្នកនិពន្ឋខាងផ្នែកសិល្បៈ ឈ្មោះស្ទីវ ដីតកូ ។មនុស្សពីងពាងគឺជារឿងដ៍អស្ចារ្យបែប អច្ឆរិយៈដែលអស្ចារ្យហួសពីការស្មាន។ តួអង្គក្នុងរឿងនោះគឺត្រូវបានបង្កើតដោយអ្នកនិពន្ឋ ខាងផ្នែកវីដេអូ ឈ្មោះ លោក ស្តាន លី និង អ្នក និពន្ឋខាងផ្នែកសិល្បៈ ឈ្មោះស្ទីវ ដីតកូ ។ វាជាលើក ទីមួយហើយដែលគាត់បង្កើតវាក្នុងគំនិត រវើរ វាយដែលធ្វើអោយមានភាពងើយឆ្ងល់ ដែលកើតឡើង តាំងពីឆ្នាំ ១៩៦២។ លី ហើងនិង ឌីតកូ បាន គឺត្រូវ មានផ្ទៃពោះដែលជាតួអង្គនោះ ហើយត្រូវបានបោះ បង់ចោលក្លាយជាក្មេងកំព្រា ហើយត្រូវបានយក ទៅចិញ្ចឹមដោយពូគាត់ឈ្មោះថា បេន និងមីងឈ្មោះថា ម៉ាយ ហើយនៅពេលធំដល់វ័យជំទង់ មានការតស៊ូ ព្យាយាមជាច្រើនរួមបញ្ចូលទាំងការវាយគ្នា ការប្រកួត ប្រជែកដើម្បីរកប្រាក់និងដូរនូវសំលៀកបំពាក់។ នកបង្កើតនូវមនុស្សពីងពាងនេះឡើងគឺផ្ដល់អោយគាត់ នូវ កំលាំងក្លាំងក្លា រហ័សរហួនមានភាពខុសប្លែក ពីមនុស្សធម្មតា ដែលជាមនុស្សម្នាក់បែបអច្ឆរិយៈ ភាពរហ័សរហួននោះគឺបានតោងផ្ចាប់នូវផ្ទៃខាងក្រៅ នៃអាគារ និងបាញ់នូវសំណាញ់ពីងពាង ដែលប្រើឧបករណ៍ ផ្ទាល់ខ្លួនដែលជាការបង្កើតថ្មីដែលយើងហៅថា សំណាញ់ពីងពាង ហើយមាប្រតិកម្មយ៉ាងលឿន សកម្មភាពគ្រោះថ្នាក់ ជាមួយវិញ្ញាណរបស់ពីង ពាង ដែលអាចធ្វើអោយគាត់តស៊ូប្រយុទ្ឋជាមួយ សត្រូវបានយ៉ាងខ្លាំងក្លា។នៅពេលដែលមនុស្សពីង ពាងលេចឡើងលើកទីមួយនៃដើមសតវត្សន៍១៩៦០ ក្មេងៗវ័យជំទង់ដែលចូលចិត្ត សូពើហេរ៉ូនោះ សៀវភៅ រឿងកំប្លែងដែលគួរអោយសើចចុកពោះនោះគឺត្រូវបានបង្ខំ អោយបោះបង់ចោល ក្នុងបញ្ចីខាងក្រៅដែលធ្លាប់តែមាន ប្រជាប្រិភាព ។ មនុស្សពីពាង ដែលនៅក្នុងឈុតមួយដែល មានការបាក់ផ្ទាំងដី ដោយតួអង្គភីតទ័រ ផាកកឺ ក្នុងឈុតនោះ ដែលជាក្មេងវ័យជំទង់ម្នាក់ជាសិស្សដែលរៀននៅវិទ្យាល័យ ដែលគិតស្រមៃតែខ្លួនឯង ជាមួយនិងការបោះបង់ចោល នូវអ្វីដែលមិនពេញចិត្តតែម្នាក់ឯងដោយខ្លួនឯង សំរាប់ក្មេងអ្នកអានប្រហែលជាអាចមានទាក់ទង ក្នុងរឿងទាំងនេះ ។ ខុសប្លែកពីយុវវ័យពីមុនដែលចូលចិត្ត វីរបុរសដូចជា '''ប៉ាក់លី''' '''រ៉ូបីន''' មនុស្សពីងពាង គឺវាមិនមានគុនប្រយោជន៍ទេដែលដឹកនាំយុវវ័យដូច អនុសេនីយ៍ឯក អាមេរិចកាំង និង មនុស្សប្រជៀវ ហើយនិងត្រូវ បានសិក្សាដោយខ្លួនឯង ជាមួយកំលាំងខ្លាំងអស្ចារ្យដែលអាចក្លាច មកមានភាពទំនួលខុសត្រូវដ៍ខ្ពស់ ដូចជាខ្សែបន្ទាត់មួយរួមបញ្ចូល និងប្រអប់ហើយនិងអក្សរក្រុមចុងក្រោយនៃ ខ្សែរឿង មនុស្សពីង ពាងទីមួយប៉ុន្ដែនៅក្រោយមកយើងអាចសន្មត់ នៃប្រតិកម្មទៅលើ ភាពម្ចាស់ការដូចពួរបស់គាត់ ប៉េន។អ្វីដែលអស្ចារ្យមានភាពល្បី ពេញនិងយមដូច រឿងមនុស្សពីងពាងដែលមានសៀវភៅជា ប្រភេទកំប្លែងសើចចុនពោះជាច្រើន ដែលមានដំណើររឿងវែង និងមានចំណងជើងថា មនុស្សពីងពាងដែលគួរអោយងើយឆ្ងល់ និងសរសើរ ដែលមានអាយុកាលរាប់រយឆ្នាំកន្លងមកហើយ តួអង្គមនុស្សពីងពាង គឺត្រូវបានលេចចេញឡើងដោយស្ថិតក្នុងសភាពគួរអោយអៀនខ្មាស ដែលធ្វើអោយឆ្ងល់ដល់សិស្សនៅវិទ្យាល័យ ក៍ប៉ុន្ដែការចាកចេញពីសិស្សនៅវិទ្យាល័យ ទៅរៀបការធ្វើ ជាគ្រូនៅវិទ្យាល័យ នៅក្នុងចុងទសវត្សទី១០០ ឬ នៅតែម្នាក់ឯងប្រកមមុខរបរដោយខ្លួនឯង ដូចជា អ្នកថតរូប ទៅតាមបែបផែនរបស់គាត់ដែលដើរតួរជាយុវវ័យ។ ក៍ដួចជានៅឆ្នាំ២០១១នេះ គាត់គឺជា សមាជិកម្នាក់ដែលបូកបន្ថែមក្នុងចំណោម អ្នកសងសឹក និង អ្នកអស្ចារ្យទាំងបួន ភាអស្ចារ្យទង់នាវាឬទូករបស់ក្រុម សូពើហេរ៉ូ ។ ក្នុងរឿងកំប្លែងសើចចុកពោះ មនុស្សពីពាងគឺជាញឹកញាប់សំដៅទៅលើសត្វពីងពាង សំណាញ់ពីងពាង អ្នកលូនលើជញ្ចាំង រឺក៍ ក្បាលសំណាញ់ព។ មនុស្សពីងពាងគឺមានប្រជាប្រិយភាពលំដាប់លេខមួយនិងទទួលបានជោគជ័យក្នុងការផ្សាយពាណិជ្ជកម្មជាង សូបពើហេរ៉ូទៅទៀត។ ក៍ដូចជាភាពអស្ចារ្យទង់ទូកឬនាវារបស់តួអង្គហើយនិង ក្រុមហ៊ុនដែល ទទួលបានផលចំរើនច្រើន គាត់បានលេចឡើងនៅក្នុងទំរង់ជាច្រើននៃប្រព័ន្ធផ្សព្ចផ្សាយ រួមបញ្ចូលទាំង រូបភាពដែលមានជីវិតរស់រវើកជាច្រើន និង សកម្មភាពជាក់ស្ដែង ការបង្ហាញតាមរយៈ កញ្ចក់ទូរទស្សន៍ សហជីពនូវពត៍មាន រឿងកប្លែកសើចចុកពោះ និង ប្រភេទនៃខ្សែភាពយន្ដដែលដើរ តួរឯកជា ថូបេយ មេកហ្គឺ ដែលដូចជាភាពរួសរាយរាក់ទាក់ដល់អ្នកជិតខាង ហឺរ៉ូដែលខ្សែភាពយន្ដលើកទីមួយមាន បីឈុត។ កន្លែងផ្ទុកសំលៀកបំពាក់គឺត្រូវការប្ដូរនៅគ្រប់ពេលដើរតួសំដែងទាំងអស់នៃ មនុស្សពីងពាង នៅក្នុងគំរោងនៃឈុតឆាកដែលត្រូវសំដែងក្នុងខ្សែភាពយន្ដ។ តារាឬតួអង្គ រីវ ខេមមេយក៍ដូចជាមនុស្ស ពីងពាងដែរនៅក្នុងឆ្នាំ២០១០ ប្រត វេយ ជាដូតន្រ្ដីរបស់មនុស្សពីងពាង មានឈ្មោះថា Turn Off the Dark។ រឿងមនុស្សពីងពាងមានលក្ខណៈ3D ពិតៗជាក់ស្ដែងដែល IGNស្ថិតនៅលំដាប់កំពូលទី១០០ នៃសៀវភៅរឿងកំប្លែង ហេរ៉ូ នៅគ្រប់ពេលទាំងអស់នៅក្នុងឆ្នាំ២០១១។
|អត្ថបទនេះ ត្រូវការបកប្រែ ទៅជាភាសាខ្មែរ។
អត្ថបទនេះត្រូវបានសរសេរជាភាសាផ្សេង ដែលមិនមែនជាភាសាខ្មែរ។ បើសិនជាអត្ថបទទុកសម្រាប់អ្នកអានមកពី សហគមន៍នៃភាសាមួយនេះ វាគួរតែចែកចាយទៅវិគីភីឌាជាភាសានោះ. សូមមើល បញ្ជីនៃគម្រោងវិគីភីឌាទាំងអស់។
សូមមើល ច្រកចូលអត្ថបទនេះ លើក្រុមទំព័រដែលត្រូវការបំណកប្រែទៅជាភាសាខ្មែរ ដើម្បីពិភាក្សា ។ ប្រសិនបើ អត្ថបទមិនត្រូវបានសរសេរជាភាសាខ្មែរឡើងវិញទេ ក្នុងរយៈពេលពីរអាទិត្យទៀត អត្ថបទនឹងត្រូវចុះបញ្ជីដើម្បីលុបចោល និង/ឬ ប្ដូរវាទៅកាន់វិគីភីឌាជាភាសាដើមរបស់វាវិញ ។
បើសិនជាលោកអ្នក គ្រាន់តែចង់បិទស្លាកទំព័រនេះត្រូវការបំណកប្រែ សូមបញ្ចូល
ទៅខាងក្រោម នៃផ្នែក នៃក្រុមទំព័រនេះត្រូវការបំណកប្រែទៅជាភាសាខ្មែរ ។
ក្នុងឆ្នាំ១៩៦២ ជាមួយនិងភាពជោគជ័យនៃ មនុស្សអច្ឆរិយៈទាំងបួនដែលរួមមានទាំងភាពអច្ឆរិយៈនិងកំប្លែងដែលនិពន្ធដោយលោក ស្តាន លី ដែលបោះចោលនូវគំនិតរបស់ រឿងស៉ូប ពោះហេរ៉ូ។ គាត់បាននិយាយថាគំនិតនៅក្នុង រឿងមនុស្សពីងពាងដែលបានធ្វើអោយភ្ញាក់ផ្អើលឡើងពីយុវវ័យ ហើយទាមទារចង់បាននូវសៀវភៅរឿងថែមទៀតផង និងប្រាថ្នាចង់ក្លាយជាតួអង្គក្នុងរឿងជាមួយក្មេងៗវ័យជំទង់រូបរាងភិនភាគដូច នឹងមនុស្សពីងពាង។ នៅក្នុងស្វ័យជីវប្រវត្តិរបស់គាត់ លី
In 1962, with the success of the Fantastic Four, Marvel Comics editor and head writer Stan Lee was casting about for a new superhero idea. He said that the idea for Spider-Man arose from a surge in teenage demand for comic books, and the desire to create a character with whom teens could identify.:1 In his autobiography, Lee cites the non-superhuman pulp magazine crime fighter The Spider as a great influence,:130 and in a multitude of print and video interviews, Lee stated he was further inspired by seeing a spider climb up a wall—adding in his autobiography that he has told that story so often he has become unsure of whether or not this is true.[note ១] Looking back on the creation of Spider-Man, 1990s Marvel editor-in-chief Tom DeFalco stated he did not believe that Spider-Man would have been given a chance in today's comics world, where new characters are vetted with test audiences and marketers.:9 At that time, however, Lee had to get only the consent of Marvel publisher Martin Goodman for the character's approval.:9 In a 1986 interview, Lee described in detail his arguments to overcome Goodman's objections.[note ២] Goodman eventually agreed to let Lee try out Spider-Man in the upcoming final issue of the canceled science-fiction and supernatural anthology series Amazing Adult Fantasy, which was renamed Amazing Fantasy for that single issue, #15 (Aug. 1962).:95
Comics historian Greg Theakston says that Lee, after receiving Goodman's approval for the name Spider-Man and the "ordinary teen" concept, approached artist Jack Kirby. Kirby told Lee about an unpublished character on which he collaborated with Joe Simon in the 1950s, in which an orphaned boy living with an old couple finds a magic ring that granted him superhuman powers. Lee and Kirby "immediately sat down for a story conference" and Lee afterward directed Kirby to flesh out the character and draw some pages. Steve Ditko would be the inker.[note ៣] When Kirby showed Lee the first six pages, Lee recalled, "I hated the way he was doing it! Not that he did it badly -- it just wasn't the character I wanted; it was too heroic".:12 Lee turned to Ditko, who developed a visual style Lee found satisfactory. Ditko recalled:
One of the first things I did was to work up a costume. A vital, visual part of the character. I had to know how he looked ... before I did any breakdowns. For example: A clinging power so he wouldn't have hard shoes or boots, a hidden wrist-shooter versus a web gun and holster, etc. ... I wasn't sure Stan would like the idea of covering the character's face but I did it because it hid an obviously boyish face. It would also add mystery to the character....
In an early recollection of the character's creation, Ditko described his and Lee's contributions in a mail interview with Gary Martin published in Comic Fan #2 (Summer 1965): "Stan Lee thought the name up. I did costume, web gimmick on wrist & spider signal." At the time, Ditko shared a Manhattan studio with noted fetish artist Eric Stanton, an art-school classmate who, in a 1988 interview with Theakston, recalled that although his contribution to Spider-Man was "almost nil", he and Ditko had "worked on storyboards together and I added a few ideas. But the whole thing was created by Steve on his own... I think I added the business about the webs coming out of his hands".:14
Kirby disputed Lee's version of the story, and claimed Lee had minimal involvement in the character's creation. According to Kirby, the idea for Spider-Man had originated with Kirby and Joe Simon, who in the 1950s had developed a character called The Silver Spider for the Crestwood comic Black Magic, who was subsequently not used.[note ៤] Simon, in his 1990 autobiography, disputed Kirby's account, asserting that Black Magic was not a factor, and that he (Simon) devised the name "Spider-Man" (later changed to "The Silver Spider"), while Kirby outlined the character's story and powers. Simon later elaborated that his and Kirby's character conception became the basis for Simon's Archie Comics superhero the Fly. Artist Steve Ditko stated that Lee liked the name Hawkman from DC Comics, and that "Spider-Man" was an outgrowth of that interest. The hyphen was included in the character's name to avoid confusion with DC Comics' Superman.
Simon concurred that Kirby had shown the original Spider-Man version to Lee, who liked the idea and assigned Kirby to draw sample pages of the new character but disliked the results—in Simon's description, "Captain America with cobwebs".[note ៥] Writer Mark Evanier notes that Lee's reasoning that Kirby's character was too heroic seems unlikely—Kirby still drew the covers for the first issues of Spider-Man. Likewise, Kirby's given reason that he was "too busy" to also draw Spider-Man in addition to his other duties seems false, as Kirby was, in Evanier's words, "always busy".:127 Neither Lee's nor Kirby's explanation explains why key story elements like the magic ring were dropped; Evanier states that the most plausible explanation for the sudden change was that Goodman, or one of his assistants, decided that Spider-Man as drawn and envisioned by Kirby was too similar to the Fly.:127
Author and Ditko scholar Blake Bell writes that it was Ditko who noted the similarities to the Fly. Ditko recalled that, "Stan called Jack about the Fly", adding that "[d]ays later, Stan told me I would be penciling the story panel breakdowns from Stan's synopsis". It was at this point that the nature of the strip changed. "Out went the magic ring, adult Spider-Man and whatever legend ideas that Spider-Man story would have contained". Lee gave Ditko the premise of a teenager bitten by a spider and developing powers, a premise Ditko would expand upon to the point he became what Bell describes as "the first work for hire artist of his generation to create and control the narrative arc of his series". On the issue of the initial creation, Ditko states, "I still don't know whose idea was Spider-Man". Kirby noted in a 1971 interview that it was Ditko who "got Spider-Man to roll, and the thing caught on because of what he did". Lee, while claiming credit for the initial idea, has acknowledged Ditko's role, stating, "If Steve wants to be called co-creator, I think he deserves [it]". Writer Al Nickerson believes "that Stan Lee and Steve Ditko created the Spider-Man that we are familiar with today [but that] ultimately, Spider-Man came into existence, and prospered, through the efforts of not just one or two, but many, comic book creators".
In 2008, an anonymous donor bequeathed the Library of Congress the original 24 pages of Ditko art of Amazing Fantasy #15, including Spider-Man's debut and the stories "The Bell-Ringer", "Man in the Mummy Case", and "There Are Martians Among Us".
A few months after Spider-Man's introduction in Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962), publisher Martin Goodman reviewed the sales figures for that issue and was shocked to find it to have been one of the nascent Marvel's highest-selling comics.:97 A solo ongoing series followed, beginning with The Amazing Spider-Man #1 (March 1963). The title eventually became Marvel's top-selling series:211 with the character swiftly becoming a cultural icon; a 1965 Esquire poll of college campuses found that college students ranked Spider-Man and fellow Marvel hero the Hulk alongside Bob Dylan and Che Guevara as their favorite revolutionary icons. One interviewee selected Spider-Man because he was "beset by woes, money problems, and the question of existence. In short, he is one of us.":223 Following Ditko's departure after issue #38 (July 1966), John Romita, Sr. replaced him as penciler and would draw the series for the next several years. In 1968, Romita would also draw the character's extra-length stories in the comics magazine The Spectacular Spider-Man, a proto-graphic novel designed to appeal to older readers but which lasted only two issues. Nonetheless, it represented the first Spider-Man spin-off publication, aside from the original series' summer annuals that began in 1964.
An early 1970s Spider-Man story led to the revision of the Comics Code. Previously, the Code forbade the depiction of the use of illegal drugs, even negatively. However, in 1970, the Nixon administration's Department of Health, Education, and Welfare asked Stan Lee to publish an anti-drug message in one of Marvel's top-selling titles.:239 Lee chose the top-selling The Amazing Spider-Man; issues #96–98 (May–July 1971) feature a story arc depicting the negative effects of drug use. In the story, Peter Parker's friend Harry Osborn becomes addicted to pills. When Spider-Man fights the Green Goblin (Norman Osborn, Harry's father), Spider-Man defeats the Green Goblin, by revealing Harry's drug addiction. While the story had a clear anti-drug message, the Comics Code Authority refused to issue its seal of approval. Marvel nevertheless published the three issues without the Comics Code Authority's approval or seal. The issues sold so well that the industry's self-censorship was undercut and the Code was subsequently revised.:239
In 1972, a second monthly ongoing series starring Spider-Man began: Marvel Team-Up, in which Spider-Man was paired with other superheroes and villains. In 1976, his second solo series, The Spectacular Spider-Man began running parallel to the main series. A third series featuring Spider-Man, Web of Spider-Man, launched in 1985, replacing Marvel Team-Up. The launch of a fourth monthly title in 1990, the "adjectiveless" Spider-Man (with the storyline "Torment"), written and drawn by popular artist Todd McFarlane, debuted with several different covers, all with the same interior content. The various versions combined sold over 3 million copies, an industry record at the time. There have generally been at least two ongoing Spider-Man series at any time. Several limited series, one-shots, and loosely related comics have also been published, and Spider-Man makes frequent cameos and guest appearances in other comic series.:279
The original Amazing Spider-Man ran through issue #441 (Nov. 1998). Writer-artist John Byrne then revamped the origin of Spider-Man in the 13-issue limited series Spider-Man: Chapter One (Dec. 1998 - Oct. 1999, with an issue #0 midway through and some months containing two issues), similar to Byrne's adding details and some revisions to Superman's origin in DC Comics' The Man of Steel. Running concurrently, The Amazing Spider-Man was restarted with vol. 2, #1 (Jan. 1999). With what would have been vol. 2, #59, Marvel reintroduced the original numbering, starting with #500 (Dec. 2003).
By the end of 2007, Spider-Man regularly appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man, New Avengers, Spider-Man Family, and various limited series in mainstream Marvel Comics continuity, as well as in the alternate-universe series The Amazing Spider-Girl, the Ultimate Universe title Ultimate Spider-Man, the alternate-universe tween series Spider-Man Loves Mary Jane, the alternate-universe children's series Marvel Adventures Spider-Man, and Marvel Adventures: The Avengers.
When primary series The Amazing Spider-Man reached issue #545 (Dec. 2007), Marvel dropped its spin-off ongoing series and instead began publishing The Amazing Spider-Man three times monthly, beginning with #546-549 (each Jan. 2008). The three times monthly scheduling of The Amazing Spider-Man lasted until November 2010 when the comic book was increased from 22 pages to 30 pages each issue and published only twice a month, beginning with #648-649 (each Nov. 2010).
Comic book character[កែប្រែ]
In Forest Hills, Queens, New York City, high school student Peter Parker is a science whiz orphan living with his Uncle Ben and Aunt May. As depicted in Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962), he is bitten by a radioactive spider (erroneously classified as an insect in the panel) at a science exhibit and "acquires the agility and proportionate strength of an arachnid." Along with super strength, he gains the ability to adhere to walls and ceilings. Through his native knack for science, he develops a gadget that lets him fire adhesive webbing of his own design through small, wrist-mounted barrels. Initially seeking to capitalize on his new abilities, he dons a costume and, as "Spider-Man", becomes a novelty television star. However, "He blithely ignores the chance to stop a fleeing thief, [and] his indifference ironically catches up with him when the same criminal later robs and kills his Uncle Ben." Spider-Man tracks and subdues the killer and learns, in the story's next-to-last caption, "With great power there must also come—great responsibility!"
Despite his superpowers, Parker struggles to help his widowed aunt pay rent, is taunted by his peers—particularly football star Flash Thompson—and, as Spider-Man, engenders the editorial wrath of newspaper publisher J. Jonah Jameson. As he battles his enemies for the first time, Parker finds juggling his personal life and costumed adventures difficult. In time, Peter graduates from high school, and enrolls at Empire State University (a fictional institution evoking the real-life Columbia University and New York University)., where he meets roommate and best friend Harry Osborn and first girlfriend Gwen Stacy, and Aunt May introduces him to Mary Jane Watson. As Peter deals with Harry's drug problems, and Harry's father is revealed to be Spider-Man's nemesis the Green Goblin, Peter even attempts to give up his costumed identity for a while. Gwen's Stacy's father, New York City Police detective captain George Stacy is accidentally killed during a battle between Spider-Man and Doctor Octopus (#90, Nov. 1970). In the course of his adventures Spider-Man has made a wide variety of friends and contacts within the superhero community, who often come to his aid when he faces problems that he cannot solve on his own.
In issue #121 (June 1973), the Green Goblin throws Gwen Stacy from a tower of either the Brooklyn Bridge (as depicted in the art) or the George Washington Bridge (as given in the text). She dies during Spider-Man's rescue attempt; a note on the letters page of issue #125 states: "It saddens us to say that the whiplash effect she underwent when Spidey's webbing stopped her so suddenly was, in fact, what killed her." The following issue, the Goblin appears to accidentally kill himself in the ensuing battle with Spider-Man.
Working through his grief, Parker eventually develops tentative feelings toward Watson, and the two "become confidants rather than lovers." Parker graduates from college in issue #185, and becomes involved with the shy Debra Whitman and the extroverted, flirtatious costumed thief Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat, whom he meets in issue #194 (July 1979).
From 1984 to 1988, Spider-Man wore a different costume than his original. Black with a white spider design, this new costume originated in the Secret Wars limited series, on an alien planet where Spider-Man participates in a battle between Earth's major superheroes and villains. Not unexpectedly, the change to a longstanding character's iconic design met with controversy, "with many hardcore comics fans decrying it as tantamount to sacrilege. Spider-Man's traditional red and blue costume was iconic, they argued, on par with those of his D.C. rivals Superman and Batman." The creators then revealed the costume was an alien symbiote which Spider-Man is able to reject the symbiote after a difficult struggle, though the symbiote returns several times as Venom for revenge.
Parker proposes to Watson in The Amazing Spider-Man #290 (July 1987), and she accepts two issues later, with the wedding taking place in The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #21 (1987)—promoted with a real-life mock wedding using actors at Shea Stadium, with Stan Lee officiating, on June 5, 1987. Although David Michelinie, who scripted based on a plot by editor-in-chief Jim Shooter, said in 2007, "I didn't think they actually should [have gotten] married. ... I had actually planned another version, one that wasn't used." In a controversial storyline, Goletz, Andrew, and Glenn Greenberg. Peter becomes convinced that Ben Reilly, the Scarlet Spider (a clone of Peter created by his college professor Miles Warren) is the real Peter Parker, and that he, Peter, is the clone. Peter gives up the Spider-Man identity to Reilly for a time, until Reilly is killed by the returning Green Goblin and revealed to be the clone after all. In stories published in 2005 and 2006 (such as "The Other"), he develops additional spider-like abilities including biological web-shooters, toxic stingers that extend from his forearms, the ability to stick individuals to his back, enhanced Spider-sense and night vision, and increased strength and speed. Peter later becomes a member of the New Avengers, and reveals his civilian identity to the world, furthering his already numerous problems. His marriage to Mary Jane and public unmasking are later erased in the storyline "One More Day" in a Faustian bargain the demon Mephisto, resulting in several adjustments to the timeline, such as the resurrection of Harry Osborn and the return of Peter's mechanical web-shooters and loss of his additional spider-like abilities.
The controversial storyline, "One More Day", rolled back much of the fictional continuity at the behest of editor-in-chief Joe Quesada, who said, "Peter being single is an intrinsic part of the very foundation of the world of Spider-Man". It caused unusual public friction between Quesada and writer Straczynski, who "told Joe that I was going to take my name off the last two issues of the [story] arc" but was talked out of doing so. At issue with Straczynski's climax to the arc, Quesada said, was
...that we didn't receive the story and methodology to the resolution that we were all expecting. What made that very problematic is that we had four writers and artists well underway on [the sequel arc] "Brand New Day" that were expecting and needed "One More Day" to end in the way that we had all agreed it would. ... The fact that we had to ask for the story to move back to its original intent understandably made Joe upset and caused some major delays and page increases in the series. Also, the science that Joe was going to apply to the retcon of the marriage would have made over 30 years of Spider-Man books worthless, because they never would have had happened. ...[I]t would have reset way too many things outside of the Spider-Man titles. We just couldn't go there....
As one contemporaneous journalist observed, "Spider-Man has a terrible identity problem, a marked inferiority complex, and a fear of women. He is anti-social, castration-ridden, and accident-prone ... [a] functioning neurotic". Agonizing over his choices, always attempting to do right, he is nonetheless viewed with suspicion by the authorities, who seem unsure as to whether he is a helpful vigilante or a clever criminal.
Notes cultural historian Bradford W. Wright,
Spider-Man's plight was to be misunderstood and persecuted by the very public that he swore to protect. In the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man, J. Jonah Jameson, publisher of the Daily Bugle, launches an editorial campaign against the "Spider-Man menace." The resulting negative publicity exacerbates popular suspicions about the mysterious Spider-Man and makes it impossible for him to earn any more money by performing. Eventually, the bad press leads the authorities to brand him an outlaw. Ironically, Peter finally lands a job as a photographer for Jameson's Daily Bugle.:212
From his high-school beginnings to his entry into college life, Spider-Man remained the superhero most relevant to the world of young people. Fittingly, then, his comic book also contained some of the earliest references to the politics of young people. In 1968, in the wake of actual militant student demonstrations at Columbia University, Peter Parker finds himself in the midst of similar unrest at his Empire State University. ... Peter has to reconcile his natural sympathy for the students with his assumed obligation to combat lawlessness as Spider-Man. As a law-upholding liberal, he finds himself caught between militant leftism and angry conservatives.:234-235
Due to Spider-Man being successfully popular in the mainstream comics of the Marvel Universe, publishers have been able to introduce different variations of Spider-Man outside of mainstream comics as well as introducing reimagined stories in many other multiversed spinoffs such as Ultimate Spider-Man, Spider-Man 2099 and Spider-Man: India. Marvel has also made its own parodies of Spider-Man in comics such as Not Brand Echh, which was published in the late 1960s and featured such characters as Peter Pooper alias Spidey-Man, and Peter Porker, the Spectacular Spider-Ham, who appeared in the 1980s. The fictional character has also inspired a number of deratives such as a manga version of Spider-Man drawn by Japanese artist Ryoichi Ikegami as well as Hideshi Hino's The Bug Boy, which has been cited as inspired by Spider-Man. Also the French comic Télé-Junior published strips based on popular TV series. In the late 1970s, the publisher also produced original Spider-Man adventures. Artists included Gérald Forton, who later moved to America and worked for Marvel.
Powers and equipment[កែប្រែ]
A bite from a radioactive spider on a school field trip causes a variety of changes in the body of Peter Parker and gives him superpowers. In the original Lee-Ditko stories, Spider-Man has the ability to cling to walls, superhuman strength, a sixth sense ("spider-sense") that alerts him to danger, perfect balance and equilibrium, as well as superhuman speed and agility. Some of his comic series have him shooting webs from his wrists. Brilliant, Parker excels in applied science, chemistry, and physics. The character was originally conceived by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko as intellectually gifted, but not a genius. However, later writers have depicted the character as a genius. With his talents, he sews his own costume to conceal his identity, and constructs many devices that complement his powers, most notably mechanical web-shooters. This mechanism ejects an advanced adhesive, releasing web-fluid in a variety of configurations, including a single rope-like strand to swing from, a net to bind enemies, a single strand for yanking opponents into objects, strands for whipping foreign objects at enemies, and a simple glob to foul machinery or blind an opponent. He can also weave the web material into simple forms like a shield, a spherical protection or hemispherical barrier, a club, or a hang-glider wing. Other equipment include spider-tracers (spider-shaped adhesive homing beacons keyed to his own spider-sense), a light beacon which can either be used as a flashlight or project a "Spider-Signal" design, and a specially modified camera that can take pictures automatically.
Spider-Man has had a large range of supporting characters introduced in the comics that are essential in the issues and storylines that star him. After his parents died, Peter Parker was raised by his loving aunt, May Parker, and his uncle and father figure, Ben Parker. After Uncle Ben is murdered by a burglar, Aunt May is virtually Peter's only family, and she and Peter are very close.
J. Jonah Jameson is depicted as the publisher of the Daily Bugle and is Peter Parker's boss and as a harsh critic of Spider-Man, always saying negative things about the superhero in the newspaper. Although his publishing editor and confidant Robbie Robertson is alway depicted as a supporter of both Peter Parker and Spider-Man.
Eugene "Flash" Thompson is commonly depicted as Parker's high school tormentor and bully but in some comic issues as a friend as well. Meanwhile Harry Osborn, son of Norman Osborn, is most commonly recognized as Peter's best friend but has also been depicted sometimes as his rival in the comics.
Peter Parker's romantic interests range between his first crush, the fellow high-school student Liz Allan, to having his first date with Jameson's secretary, Betty Brant, the secretary to Daily Bugle newspaper publisher J. Jonah Jameson. After his breakup with Betty Brant, Parker eventually falls in love with his college girlfriend Gwen Stacy, daughter of New York City Police Department detective captain George Stacy, both of whom are later killed by supervillain enemies of Spider-Man. Mary Jane Watson eventually became Peter's best friend and then his wife. Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat, is a reformed cat burglar who had been Spider-Man's girlfriend and partner at one point.
Writers and artists over many years have managed to establish an exciting and notable fictional rogues gallery of classic villains to face Spider-Man. As with Spider-Man, the majority of these villains' powers originate with scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology, trends include a few animal-themed costumes or powers and a few of them having green costume as well.[note ៦] Early on Spider-Man faced supervillains and foes such as the Chameleon (introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man #1, March 1963), the Vulture (#2, May 1963), Doctor Octopus (#3, July 1963), the Sandman (#4, Sept. 1963), the Lizard (#6, Nov. 1963), Electro (#9, Feb. 1964), Mysterio (#13, June 1964), the Green Goblin (#14, July 1964), Kraven the Hunter (#15, Aug. 1964),the Scorpion (#20, Jan. 1965), the Rhino (#41, Oct. 1966)—the first original Lee/Romita Spider-Man villain—the Shocker (#46, March 1967), and the physically powerful and well-connected criminal capo Wilson Fisk, also known as the Kingpin. The Clone Saga reveals a supporting character called Miles Warren turn into the villain called the Jackal, the antagonist of the storyline. After Norman Osborn was killed off, a new more mysterious villain called the Hobgoblin was developed to replace him in #238 until Norman was revised later on. After Spider-Man turned away his dark costume, there revealed a new popular antagonist with Eddie Brock as Venom in issue #298 (May 1988), although he was an ally to Spider-Man with a much darker version of him called Carnage in issue #344. At times these enemies of Spider-Man have formed groups such as the Sinister Six to oppose Spider-Man. The Green Goblin, Doctor Octopus and Venom are generally described or written as one of his greatest and most ruthless enemies.
Comic book writer-editor and historian Paul Kupperberg, in The Creation of Spider-Man, calls the character's superpowers "nothing too original"; what was original was that outside his secret identity, he was a "nerdy high school student".:5 Going against typical superhero fare, Spider-Man included "heavy doses of soap-opera and elements of melodrama." Kupperberg feels that Lee and Ditko had created something new in the world of comics: "the flawed superhero with everyday problems." This idea spawned a "comics revolution.":6 The insecurity and anxieties in Marvel's early 1960s comic books such as The Amazing Spider-Man, The Incredible Hulk, and X-Men ushered in a new type of superhero, very different from the certain and all-powerful superheroes before them, and changed the public's perception of them. Spider-Man has become one of the most recognizable fictional characters in the world, and has been used to sell toys, games, cereal, candy, soap, and many other products.
Spider-Man has become Marvel's flagship character, and has often been used as the company mascot. When Marvel became the first comic book company to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1991, the Wall Street Journal announced "Spider-Man is coming to Wall Street"; the event was in turn promoted with an actor in a Spider-Man costume accompanying Stan Lee to the Stock Exchange.:254 Since 1962, hundreds of millions of comics featuring the character have been sold around the world.
Spider-Man joined the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade from 1987 to 1998 as one of the balloon floats, designed by John Romita Sr., one of the character's signature artists. A new, different Spider-Man balloon float is scheduled to appear from at least 2009 to 2011.
In 1981, skyscraper-safety activist Dan Goodwin, wearing a Spider-Man suit, scaled the Sears Tower in Chicago, Illinois, the Renaissance Tower in Dallas, Texas, and the John Hancock Center in Chicago, Illinois.
When Marvel wanted to issue a story dealing with the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the company chose the December 2001 issue of The Amazing Spider-Man. In 2006, Spider-Man garnered major media coverage with the revelation of the character's secret identity, an event detailed in a full page story in the New York Post before the issue containing the story was even released.
In 2008, Marvel announced plans to release a series of educational comics the following year in partnership with the United Nations, depicting Spider-Man alongside UN Peacekeeping Forces to highlight UN peacekeeping missions. A BusinessWeek article listed Spider-Man as one of the top ten most intelligent fictional characters in American comics.
In other media[កែប្រែ]
Spider-Man has appeared in comics, cartoons, movies, coloring books, novels, records, and children's books. On television, he appeared as the main character in the animated series Spider-Man, which aired from 1967–1970 on ABC, the live-action series The Amazing Spider-Man (1978–1979) starring Nicholas Hammond, the syndicated cartoon Spider-Man (1981–1982), Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends (1981–1983), Spider-Man: The Animated Series (1994–1998), Spider-Man Unlimited (1999–2000), Spider-Man: The New Animated Series (2003), and The Spectacular Spider-Man (2008–2009). A new animated series titled Ultimate Spider-Man, based on the alternate-universe comic-book series of the same name, is scheduled to air on Disney XD in 2012.
A tokusatsu show featuring Spider-Man was produced by Toei and aired in Japan. It is commonly referred to by its Japanese pronunciation "Supaidā-Man". Spider-Man also appeared in other print forms besides the comics, including novels, [[children's literature|children's books
- Lee, Stan; Mair, George (2002)។ Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee។ Fireside។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-684-87305-2។ "He goes further in his biography, claiming that even while pitching the concept to publisher Martin Goodman, "I can't remember if that was literally true or not, but I thought it would lend a big color to my pitch.""
- Detroit Free Press interview with Stan Lee, quoted in The Steve Ditko Reader by Greg Theakston (Pure Imagination, Brooklyn, NY; ISBN 1-56685-011-8), p. 12 (unnumbered). "He gave me 1,000 reasons why Spider-Man would never work. Nobody likes spiders; it sounds too much like Superman; and how could a teenager be a superhero? Then I told him I wanted the character to be a very human guy, someone who makes mistakes, who worries, who gets acne, has trouble with his girlfriend, things like that. [Goodman replied,] 'He's a hero! He's not an average man!' I said, 'No, we make him an average man who happens to have super powers, that's what will make him good.' He told me I was crazy".
- Ditko, Steve (2000)។ Roy Thomas។ រៀ.។ Alter Ego: The Comic Book Artist Collection។ TwoMorrows Publishing។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 1893905063។ "'Stan said a new Marvel hero would be introduced in #15 [of what became titled Amazing Fantasy]. He would be called Spider-Man. Jack would do the penciling and I was to ink the character.' At this point still, 'Stan said Spider-Man would be a teenager with a magic ring which could transform him into an adult hero -- Spider-Man. I said it sounded like the Fly, which Joe Simon had done for Archie Comics. Stan called Jack about it but I don't know what was discussed. I never talked to Jack about Spider-Man... Later, at some point, I was given the job of drawing Spider-Man'".
- Jack Kirby in "Shop Talk: Jack Kirby", Will Eisner's Spirit Magazine #39 (February 1982): "Spider-Man was discussed between Joe Simon and myself. It was the last thing Joe and I had discussed. We had a strip called 'The Silver Spider.' The Silver Spider was going into a magazine called Black Magic. Black Magic folded with Crestwood (Simon & Kirby's 1950s comics company) and we were left with the script. I believe I said this could become a thing called Spider-Man, see, a superhero character. I had a lot of faith in the superhero character that they could be brought back... and I said Spider-Man would be a fine character to start with. But Joe had already moved on. So the idea was already there when I talked to Stan".
- Simon, Joe, with Jim Simon. The Comic Book Makers (Crestwood/II, 1990) ISBN 1-887591-35-4. "There were a few holes in Jack's never-dependable memory. For instance, there was no Black Magic involved at all. ... Jack brought in the Spider-Man logo that I had loaned to him before we changed the name to The Silver Spider. Kirby laid out the story to Lee about the kid who finds a ring in a spiderweb, gets his powers from the ring, and goes forth to fight crime armed with The Silver Spider's old web-spinning pistol. Stan Lee said, 'Perfect, just what I want.' After obtaining permission from publisher Martin Goodman, Lee told Kirby to pencil-up an origin story. Kirby... using parts of an old rejected superhero named Night Fighter... revamped the old Silver Spider script, including revisions suggested by Lee. But when Kirby showed Lee the sample pages, it was Lee's turn to gripe. He had been expecting a skinny young kid who is transformed into a skinny young kid with spider powers. Kirby had him turn into... Captain America with cobwebs. He turned Spider-Man over to Steve Ditko, who... ignored Kirby's pages, tossed the character's magic ring, web-pistol and goggles... and completely redesigned Spider-Man's costume and equipment. In this life, he became high-school student Peter Parker, who gets his spider powers after being bitten by a radioactive spider. ... Lastly, the Spider-Man logo was redone and a dashing hyphen added".
- Mondello, Salvatore (Mar 2004)។ "Spider-Man: Superhero in the Liberal Tradition"។ The Journal of Popular Culture X (1): 232–238។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1976.1001_232.x។ "a teenage superhero and middle-aged supervillains—an impressive rogues' gallery which includes such memorable knaves and grotesques as the Vulture,"
- Lee, Stan; Mair, George (2002)។ Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee។ Fireside។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-684-87305-2។
- DeFalco, Tom; Lee, Stan (2001)។ O'Neill, Cynthia។ រៀ.។ Spider-Man: The Ultimate Guide។ New York: Dorling Kindersley។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 078947946X។
- Daniels, Les (1991)។ Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics។ New York: Harry N. Abrams។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-8109-3821-9។
- Theakston, Greg (2002)។ The Steve Ditko Reader។ Brooklyn, NY: Pure Imagination។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 1-56685-011-8។
- Ditko, Steve (2000)។ Roy Thomas។ រៀ.។ Alter Ego: The Comic Book Artist Collection។ TwoMorrows Publishing។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 1893905063។
- Ditko, Steve; Martin, Gary (1965)។ "Steve Ditko - A Portrait of the Master"។ Comic Fan #2, Summer 1965។ http://www.ditko.comics.org/ditko/artist/arcomicf.html។ បានយកមក 2008-04-03។ [តំណភ្ជាប់ខូច]
- "Spider-Man: The Birth of an Icon"។ thehotspotonline.com។ http://www.thehotspotonline.com/blahblah/articles/spidy.htm។ បានយកមក 2010-04-10។
- Evanier, Mark; Gaiman, Neil (2008)។ Kirby: King of Comics។ Abrams។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 081099447X។
- Bell, Blake. Strange and Stranger: The World of Steve Ditko (2008). Fantagraphic Books.p.54-57.
- Skelly, Tim. "Interview II: 'I created an army of characters, and now my connection to them is lost.'" (Initially broadcast over WNUR-FM on "The Great Electric Bird," May 14, 1971. Transcribed and published in The Nostalgia Journal #27.) Reprinted in The Comics Journal Library Volume One: Jack Kirby, George, Milo ed. May, 2002, Fantagraphics Books. p. 16
- Ross, Jonathon. In Search of Steve Ditko, BBC 4, September 16, 2007.
- Nickerson, Al. "Who Really Created Spider-Man?" P.I.C. News, 5 February 2009. Accessed 2009-02-17. Archived 2009-02-17.
- "Library of Congress Receives Original Drawings for the First Spider-Man Story, 'Amazing Fantasy' #15", Library of Congress press release, April 30, 2008. WebCitation archive. Additionally: Raymond, Matt. "Library of Congress Acquires Spider-Man's 'Birth Certificate'", Library of Congress Blog, April 30, 2008. WebCitation archive.
- Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- Saffel, Steve. Spider-Man the Icon: The Life and Times of a Pop Culture Phenomenon (Titan Books, 2007) ISBN 978-1-84576-324-4, "A Not-So-Spectacular Experiment", p. 31
- Michael Thomas។ "John Byrne: The Hidden Story"។ Comic book resources។ http://www.comicbookresources.com/?page=article&id=151=article។ បានយកមក May 27, 2011។
- Kempton, Sally, "Spiderman's [sic] Dilemma: Super-Anti-Hero in Forest Hills", The Village Voice, April 1, 1965
- Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (a). Amazing Fantasy 15 (August 1962), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Daniels, Les. Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics (Harry N. Abrams, New York, 1991) ISBN 0-8109-3821-9, p. 95
- Saffel, Steve. Spider-Man the Icon: The Life and Times of a Pop Culture Phenomenon (Titan Books, 2007) ISBN 978-1-84576-324-4, p. 21
- Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (a). "Spider-Man"; "Spider-Man vs. The Chameleon"; "Duel to the Death with the Vulture; "The Uncanny Threat of the Terrible Tinkerer!" The Amazing Spider-Man 1-2 (March, May 1963), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Amazing Spider-Man, The (Marvel, 1963 Series) at the Grand Comics Database
- Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (a). "The Menace of the Molten Man!" The Amazing Spider-Man 28 (September 1965), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Saffel, p. 51
- Sanderson, Peter (2007)។ The Marvel Comics Guide to New York City។ New York City: Pocket Books។ ទំ. 30–33។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 1-14653-141-6។ Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "mnyc" defined multiple times with different content
- Lee, Stan (w), Romita, John (a). "The Birth of a Super-Hero!" The Amazing Spider-Man 42 (November 1966), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Saffel, p. 27
- Lee, Stan (w), Romita, John (p), Mickey Demeo (i). "Spider-Man No More!" The Amazing Spider-Man 50 (July 1967), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Lee, Stan (w), Kane, Gil (p), Giacoia, Frank (i). "The Spider or the Man?" The Amazing Spider-Man 100 (September 1971), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Saffel, p. 60
- Saffel, p. 65, states, "In the battle that followed atop the Brooklyn Bridge (or was it the George Washington Bridge?)...." On page 66, Saffel reprints the panel of The Amazing Spider-Man #121, page 18, in which Spider-Man exclaims, "The George Washington Bridge! It figures Osborn would pick something named after his favorite president. He's got the same sort of hangup for dollar bills!" Saffel states, "The span portrayed...is the GW's more famous cousin, the Brooklyn Bridge. ... To address the contradiction in future reprints of the tale, though, Spider-Man's dialogue was altered so that he's referring to the Brooklyn Bridge. But the original snafu remains as one of the more visible errors in the history of comics."
- Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 84, notes, "[W]hile the script described the site of Gwen's demise as the George Washington Bridge, the art depicted the Brooklyn Bridge, and there is still no agreement as to where it actually took place."
- Saffel, p. 65
- Conway, Gerry (w), Kane, Gil (p), Romita, John (i). "The Night Gwen Stacy Died" The Amazing Spider-Man 121 (June 1973), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 85
- Sanderson, Marvel Universe, p. 83
- Shooter, Jim (w), Zeck, Michael (p), Beatty, John, Abel, Jack, and Esposito, Mike (i). "Invasion" Marvel Super-Heroes Secret Wars 8 (December 1984), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Leupp, Thomas. "Behind the Mask: The Story of Spider-Man's Black Costume", ReelzChannel.com, 2007, n.d. WebCitation archive.
- Simonson, Louise (w), LaRocque, Greg (p), Mooney, Jim and Colletta, Vince (i). "'Til Death Do Us Part!" Web of Spider-Man 1 (April 1985), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Saffel, p. 124
- Shooter, Jim and Michelinie, David (w), Ryan, Paul (p), Colletta, Vince (i). "The Wedding" The Amazing Spider-Man Annual 21 (1987), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- ""Life of Reilly", 35-part series, GreyHaven Magazine, 2003, n.d."។ NewComicsReviews.com។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី នៅថ្ងៃ 1996-01-01។ http://web.archive.org/web/19960101-re_/http://www.newcomicreviews.com/GHM/specials/LifeOfReilly/។
- Millar, Mark (w), McNiven, Steve (p), Vines, Dexter (i). "Civil War" Civil War 2 (August 2006), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Straczynski, J. Michael (w), Quesada, Joe (p), Miki, Danny (i). "One More Day Part 4" The Amazing Spider-Man 545 (Dec. 2007), New York, NY: Marvel Comics
- Weiland, Jonah. storyline "The 'One More Day' Interviews with Joe Quesada, Pt. 1 of 5", Newsarama, December 28, 2007. WebCitation archive.
- Weiland, Jonah. "The 'One More Day' Interviews with Joe Quesada, Pt. 2 of 5", Newsarama, December 31, 2007. WebCitation archive.
- Sanderson, Peter. Marvel Universe: The Complete Encyclopedia of Marvel's Greatest Characters (Harry N. Abrams, New York, 1998) ISBN 0-8109-8171-8, p. 75
- Daniels, p. 96
- "examples of "Not Brand Echh" comics"។ Dialbforblog.com។ http://www.dialbforblog.com/archives/180/។ បានយកមក 2010-04-10។
- McCarthy, Helen, 500 Manga Heroes and Villains (Barron's Educational Series, 2006), ISBN 978-0-7641-3201-8,[ទំព័រត្រូវការ]
- Lambiek comic shop and studio in Amsterdam, The Netherlands។ "Lambiek Comiclopedia: Gérald Forton"។ Lambiek.net។ http://lambiek.net/artists/f/forton_gerald.htm។ បានយកមក 2010-04-10។
- Gresh, Lois H., and Robert Weinberg. "The Science of Superheroes" (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002) ISBN 0-471-02460-0 (preview)
- Kiefer, Kit; Couper-Smartt, Jonathan (2003)។ Marvel Encyclopedia Volume 4: Spider-Man។ New York: Marvel Comics។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-785-11304-5។
- Lee, Stan, Origins of Marvel Comics (Simon and Schuster/Fireside Books, 1974) p. 137
- Saunders, et al, Marvel Chronicle, p. 119
- DeFalco, Tom (2004)។ Comics Creators on Spider-Man។ Titan Books។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 1840234229។
- "2004" Maximum Carnage (May - August 1963), Marvel Comics, ISBN 0-7851-0987-0
- "Broadway's 'Spider-Man spin's magic'."។ Kansas City Star។ http://www.kansascity.com/2011/05/21/2892683/robert-trussell-broadways-spider.html។ បានយកមក May 26, 2011។
- Goldstein, Hilary (2006-02-01)។ "Spider-Man villain poll"។ IGN។ http://uk.comics.ign.com/articles/684/684904p5.html។ បានយកមក 2006-10-01។
- "The 20 Greatest Spider-Man Villains"។ Blogzarro.com។ http://blogzarro.com/2007/05/20-greatest-spider-man-villains/។ បានយកមក 2010-03-20។
- "Fans : Top Ten : Top Ten Greatest Spider-Man Villains"។ SpiderFan.org។ 2003-09-01។ http://www.spiderfan.org/fans/topten/2003/0901.html។ បានយកមក 2010-03-20។
- Kupperberg, Paul (2007)។ The Creation of Spider-Man។ The Rosen Publishing Group។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 1404207635។ http://books.google.com/?id=4m1IM8L0hr0C&pg=PP1&dq=spiderman+legacy+ditko+lee។
- Fleming, James R. (2006)។ "Review of Superman on the Couch: What Superheroes Really Tell Us about Ourselves and Our Society. By Danny Fingeroth"។ ImageText (University of Florida)។ ល.ត.ម.អ. 1549-6732។ http://www.english.ufl.edu/imagetext/archives/v2_2/reviews/fleming.shtml។ បានយកមក Fleming។
- Knowles, Christopher (2007)។ Our Gods Wear Spandex។ illustrated by Joseph Michael Linsner។ Weiser។ ទំ. 139។
- "Spider-Man Weaving a spell"។ Screen India។ 2002។ http://www.screenindia.com/old/20020524/intcov.html។ បានយកមក 2009-02-13។
- "Spider-Man Returning to Macy's Thanksgiving Day Paradede"[តំណភ្ជាប់ខូច], Associated Press via WCBS (AM), 17 August 2009
- Spurlock, J. David, and John Romita. John Romita Sketchbook. (Vanguard Productions: Lebanon, N.J. 2002) ISBN 1-887591-27-3, p. 45: Romita: "I designed the Spider-Man balloon float. When we went to Macy's to talk about it, Manny Bass was there. He's the genius who creates all these balloon floats. I gave him the sketches and he turned them into reality".
- "Skyscraper Defense"។ http://skyscraperdefense.com/building_climbs.html។ បានយកមក 2011-07-04។
- Yarbrough, Beau (2001-09-24)។ "Marvel to Take on World Trade Center Attack in "Amazing Spider-Man""។ Comic Book Resources។ http://www.comicbookresources.com/?page=article&id=418។ បានយកមក 2008-04-28។
- Staff (2006-06-15)។ "Spider-Man Removes Mask at Last"។ BBC។ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/5084326.stm។ បានយកមក 2006-09-29។
- Brady, Matt (2006-06-14)។ "New York Post Spoils Civil War #2"។ Newsarama។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី នៅថ្ងៃ October 11, 2007។ http://web.archive.org/web/20071011110225/http://newsarama.com/marvelnew/CivilWar/CivilWar2_End.html។ បានយកមក 2008-04-02។
- Lane, Thomas (2008-01-04)។ "Can Spider-Man help UN beat evil?"។ BBC។ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/7172016.stm។ បានយកមក 2008-04-29។
- Pisani, Joseph (June 1, 2006)។ "The Smartest Superheroes"។ Business Week Online។ http://images.businessweek.com/ss/06/05/smart_heroes/index_01.htm។ បានយកមក 2007-11-25។
- "The 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters"។ Empire Online។ http://www.empireonline.com/50greatestcomiccharacters/default.asp?c=5។ បានយកមក 2009-02-08។
- "The 100 Greatest Fictional Characters"។ Fandomania។ http://fandomania.com/100-greatest-fictional-characters-10-6/។ បានយកមក September 23, 2010។
- "Spider-Man (1967)"។ UGO Networks។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី នៅថ្ងៃ 2008-04-24។ http://web.archive.org/web/20080424153033/http://www.ugo.com/comic-con/?cur=spiderman-1967។ បានយកមក 2009-02-13។
- "Ultimate Spider-Man"។ http://www.superherohype.com/features/articles/100587-animated-ultimate-spider-man-coming-to-disney-xd។ បានយកមក 18 November 2010។
- "Japanese Spider-Man"។ http://marvel.com/movies/spider-man.japanese_spiderman។ បានយកមក 18 November 2010។
- មនុស្សពីងពាង at the Marvel Universe wiki
- "Venom: The Sordid History of Spider-Man's Black Costume" at Marvel.com
- Spider-Man at Don Markstein's Toonopedia
- Spider-Man នៅគម្រោងបញ្ជីរាយឈ្មោះបើកទូលាយ
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