លីនុស ទ័រវ៉ាល់

លីនុស ទ័រវ៉ាល់
Linus Torvalds.jpeg
ទ័រវ៉ាល់​កាល​ពី​ឆ្នាំ ២០០២[១]
កើត លីនុស ប៊ែ​នេឌិក​ ទ័រ​វ៉ាល់ (Linus Benedict Torvalds)
(1969-12-28) ធ្នូ 28, 1969 (អាយុ 47)
Helsinki, ហ្វាំង​ឡង់​
លំនៅដ្ឋាន Portland, Oregon, United States
សញ្ជាតិ Finnish, American (naturalized in 2010)[២]
សាលា​ចាស់ សាកលវិទ្យាល័យ ហីល​ស៊ីន​គី
អាជីព Software engineer
និយោជក សមាគម​អ្នក​ប្រើ​ប្រាស់​លីនុច
ត្រូវបានគេស្គាល់ថា Linux kernel, Git
ពន្ធភាព Tove Torvalds (née Monni)
កូន ៣​​នាក់
មាតាបិតា នីល ទ័រវ៉ាល់ (father)
អាន់នា ទ័រវ៉ាល់​ (mother)[៣]
សាច់ញាតិ Ole Torvalds (grandfather)
torvalds-family.blogspot.com (outdated)
cs.helsinki.fi/u/torvalds/ (outdated)

លោក លីនុស ប៊ែនេឌិក ទ័រវ៉ាល់ (អង្គគ្លេស៖ Linus Benedict Torvalds កើត​នៅ​ថ្ងៃ​ទី​ ២៨ ធ្នូ ១៩៦៩) គឺ​ជា​ជន​ជាតិ​អាមេរិកាំង​ដើម​កំណើត​ហ្វាំង​ឡង់។ គាត់​ជា​វិស្វករផ្នែក​ទន់ ដែល​ជា​កំលាំង​ចម្បង​នៅ​ពី​ក្រោយការ​ភិវឌ្ឈន៍ Linux kernel។ ក្រោយ​មក​គាត់​បាន​ក្លាយ​ជា​ប្រធាន​ផ្នែកវិស្វកម្ម​នៃ Linux kernel ហើយ​បច្ចុប្បន្ន​គាត់​គឺ​ជា​អ្នក​សម្រប​សម្រួល​គម្រោង​។ ជា​មួយ​គ្នា​នោះ​ដែរ គាត់​ក៍​ជា​អ្នក​​បង្កើតប្រព័ន្ធ​ត្រួត​ពីនិត្យ​ជា​មុន​ដែល​មាន​ឈ្មោះ​ថា Git និង​ He also created the revision control system Git as well as the diving log software Subsurface. គាត់​ត្រូវ​បាន​ទទួល​កិត្តិយស​ជា​មួយ​លោក Shinya Yamanaka នៅ​ឆ្នាំ​២០១២ ក្នុង​រង្វាន់​បច្ចេកវិទ្យា​សហស្សវត្ស​ ដោយ​សភា​បច្ចេកវិទ្យា​នៃប្រទេស​ហ្វាំង​ឡង់ ដោយ​ទទួល​ស្គាល់​នូវ​ការ​បង្កើត​ថ្មី​នៃប្រព័ន្ធ​ប្រតិបត្តិការ​ចំហរកូដ​ដែល​នាំ​ឱ្យ​មាន​ការ​ប្រើ​ប្រាស់​ Linux kernel យ៉ាង​ទំលំ​ទូលាយ[1]។



លោក ទ័រវ៉ាល់ កើត​នៅ​ទី​ក្រុង Helsinki ប្រទេស​ហ្វាំង​ឡង់។ គាត់​ជា​កូន​ប្រុស​របស់​អ្នក​សារព័ត៌មាន​ Anna និង Nils Torvalds និង​ជា​ចៅ​របស់​អ្នក​កវី​ Ole Torvalds។ ឪពុកម្ដាយ​របស់​គាត់​គឺ​ជា​អ្នក​មូលវិវដ្ដ​នៅ​សាកលវិទ្យាល័យ​ Helsinki នៅ​ទសវត្ស​ឆ្នាំ​ ១៩៦០។ គ្រួសារ​របស់​គាត់​ស្ថិត​នៅ​ក្នុង​ក្រុម​ជនជាតិភាគតិច​ដែល​និយាយ​ភាសា​ស្វីស​Torvalds was born in Helsinki, Finland. He is the son of journalists Anna and Nils Torvalds,[៤] and the grandson of poet Ole Torvalds. Both of his parents were campus radicals at the University of Helsinki in the 1960s. His family belongs to the Swedish-speaking minority (5.5% of Finland's population). Torvalds was named after Linus Pauling, the Nobel Prize–winning American chemist, although in the book Rebel Code: Linux and the Open Source Revolution, Torvalds is quoted as saying, "I think I was named equally for Linus the Peanuts cartoon character", noting that this makes him half "Nobel-prize-winning chemist" and half "blanket-carrying cartoon character".[៥]

Torvalds attended the University of Helsinki between 1988 and 1996, graduating with a master's degree in computer science from NODES research group.[៦] His academic career was interrupted after his first year of study when he joined the Finnish Army, selecting the 11-month officer training program to fulfill the mandatory military service of Finland. In the army he held the rank of second lieutenant, with the role of a ballistic calculation officer.[៧] In 1990, he resumed his university studies, and was exposed to UNIX for the first time, in the form of a DEC MicroVAX running ULTRIX.[៨] His M.Sc. thesis was titled Linux: A Portable Operating System.[៩]

His interest in computers began with a Commodore VIC-20.[១០] After the VIC-20 he purchased a Sinclair QL, which he modified extensively, especially its operating system. He programmed an assembly language and a text editor for the QL, as well as a few games.[១១][១២] He is known to have written a Pac-Man clone named Cool Man. On January 5, 1991[១៣] he purchased an Intel 80386-based IBM PC[១៤] before receiving his MINIX copy, which in turn enabled him to begin work on Linux.[៥][១៥]

Later years[កែប្រែ]

After a visit to Transmeta in late 1996,[៣] Torvalds accepted a position at the company in California, where he would work from February 1997 until June 2003. He then moved to the Open Source Development Labs, which has since merged with the Free Standards Group to become the Linux Foundation, under whose auspices he continues to work. In June 2004, Torvalds and his family moved to Portland, Oregon, to be closer to the OSDL's Beaverton, Oregon–based headquarters.

From 1997 to 1999 he was involved in 86open helping to choose the standard binary format for Linux and Unix. In 1999 he was named by the MIT Technology Review TR100 as one of the top 100 innovators, under the age of 35, in the world.[១៦]

In 1999 Red Hat and VA Linux, both leading developers of Linux-based software, presented Torvalds with stock options in gratitude for his creation.[១៧] That same year both companies went public and Torvalds' share value temporarily shot up to roughly $20 million.[១៨][១៩]

His personal mascot is a penguin nicknamed Tux,[២០] which has been widely adopted by the Linux community as the mascot of the Linux kernel.[២១]

Although Torvalds believes "open source is the only right way to do software", he also has said that he uses the "best tool for the job", even if that includes proprietary software.[២២] He was criticized for his use and alleged advocacy of the proprietary BitKeeper software for version control in the Linux kernel. Torvalds subsequently wrote a free-software replacement for BitKeeper called Git.

In 2008 Torvalds stated that he used the Fedora distribution of Linux because it had fairly good support for the PowerPC processor architecture, which he had favoured at the time.[២៣] His usage of Fedora was confirmed in a later 2012 interview.[២៤]

Currently, the Linux Foundation sponsors Torvalds so he can work full-time on improving Linux.[២៥]

The Linus/Linux connection[កែប្រែ]

Initially, Torvalds wanted to call the kernel he developed Freax (a combination of "free", "freak", and the letter X to indicate that it is a Unix-like system), but his friend Ari Lemmke, who administered the FTP server where the kernel was first hosted for download, named Torvalds' directory linux.[២៦]

Authority and trademark[កែប្រែ]

As of 2006, approximately two percent of the Linux kernel was written by Torvalds himself.[១៩] Because thousands have contributed to the Linux kernel, this percentage is one of the largest contributions to it. However, he stated in 2012 that his own personal contribution is mostly merging code written by others, with little programming.[២៧] Torvalds retains the highest authority to decide which new code is incorporated into the standard Linux kernel.[២៨]

Torvalds owns the "Linux" trademark and monitors the use of it,[២៩] chiefly through the Linux Mark Institute.

Personal life[កែប្រែ]

Torvalds in 2002

Linus Torvalds is married to Tove Torvalds (née Monni)—a six-time Finnish national karate champion—whom he first met in the autumn of 1993.[៣០] Torvalds was running introductory computer laboratory exercises for students and instructed the course attendants to send him an e-mail as a test, to which Tove responded with an e-mail asking for a date.[៥] Tove and Linus were later married and have three daughters, Patricia Miranda (born 1996), Daniela Yolanda (born 1998), and Celeste Amanda (born 2000),[៣១] two of whom were born in the United States.[៣២] The Linux kernel's reboot system call accepts their dates of birth (written in hexadecimal) as magic values.[៣៣][៣៤]

Torvalds describes himself as "completely a-religiousatheist", adding that "I find that people seem to think religion brings morals and appreciation of nature. I actually think it detracts from both. It gives people the excuse to say, 'Oh, nature was just created,' and so the act of creation is seen to be something miraculous. I appreciate the fact that, 'Wow, it's incredible that something like this could have happened in the first place.'" He later added that while in Europe religion is mostly a personal issue, in America it has become very politicized. When discussing the issue of church and state separation, Torvalds also said, "Yeah, it's kind of ironic that in many European countries, there is actually a kind of legal binding between the state and the state religion."[៣៥]

In 2010, Torvalds became a United States citizen and registered to vote in the United States; he is unaffiliated with any U.S. political party, saying, "I have way too much personal pride to want to be associated with any of them, quite frankly."[៣២]


Internet Hall of Fame[កែប្រែ]

On April 23, 2012 at Internet Society's Global INET conference in Geneva, Switzerland, Torvalds was one of the inaugural inductees into the Internet Hall of Fame, one of ten in the Innovators category and thirty-three overall inductees.[៣៦]

Millennium Technology Prize[កែប្រែ]

On April 20, 2012, Torvalds was declared one of two winners of that year's Millennium Technology Prize,[៣៧] together with Shinya Yamanaka[៣៨] for what is widely described as the equivalent of the Nobel Prize in the technology field.


In 1997, Torvalds received his Master degree (Laudatur Grade) from Department of Computer Science, University of Helsinki. Two years later he received honorary doctor status at Stockholm University, and in 2000 he received the same honor from his alma mater.[៣៩]

In August 2005, Torvalds received the Vollum Award from Reed College.[៤០]


In 1998 Torvalds received an EFF Pioneer Award.[៤១] In 2000 he was awarded the Lovelace Medal from the British Computer Society.[៤២] In 2001, he shared the Takeda Award for Social/Economic Well-Being with Richard Stallman and Ken Sakamura. In 2008, he was inducted into the Hall of Fellows of the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California.[៤៣][៤៤] He was awarded the C&C Prize by the NEC Corporation in 2010 for "contributions to the advancement of the information technology industry, education, research, and the improvement of our lives".[៤៥]


Time magazine has recognized Torvalds multiple times:

InfoWorld presented him with the 2000 Award for Industry Achievement.[៤៨] In 2005 Torvalds appeared as one of "the best managers" in a survey by BusinessWeek.[៤៩] In 2006, Business 2.0 magazine named him one of "10 people who don't matter" because the growth of Linux has shrunk Torvalds' individual impact.[៥០]

In summer 2004, viewers of YLE (the Finnish Broadcasting Company) placed Torvalds 16th in the network's 100 Greatest Finns. In 2010, as part of a series called The Britannica Guide to the World's Most Influential People, Torvalds was listed among The 100 Most Influential Inventors of All Time (ISBN 9781615300037).[៥១]


In 1996, an asteroid (9793 Torvalds) was named after him. In 2003, the naming of an asteroid moon (Linus) was motivated in part by the fact that the discoverer was an enthusiastic user of Linux.


As of March 2011, Torvalds has been granted 35 patents worldwide (application and granted patents).[៥២]

Desktop environment criticism[កែប្រែ]

Torvalds also commented in 2005 on the official GNOME developmental mailing lists that he encouraged users to switch to K Desktop Environment 3 rather than use GNOME.[៥៣][៥៤] However, Torvalds thought KDE Plasma Desktop 4.0 was a "disaster" because of its lack of maturity, and so he had switched to GNOME by 2009.[៥៥] Dissatisfied with his perceived loss of productivity, he switched to XFCE after the GNOME 3 release, making another harsh post against GNOME.[៥៦] After improved KDE versions were made, he switched back to KDE Plasma Desktop 4[៥៧] but soon switched back to GNOME 3 stating that "it has been getting less painful"[៥៨] with Frippery and gnome-tweak-tool which he suggested to be merged into GNOME.[៥៩]

Possible NSA approach[កែប្រែ]

In September 2013, Torvalds was asked at the LinuxCon conference whether he was approached by a government agency to add backdoors into GNU/Linux, he responded with a verbal "no" while nodding his head "yes".[៦០]

See also[កែប្រែ]


  1. Robert McMillan (December 2002)។ "The Great Dictator · Linus Torvalds: The Benevolent, Brilliant Keeper of the Kernel"FEATURES (Linux Magazine)។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[១] នៅថ្ងៃ March 4, 2003http://web.archive.org/web/20030304160629/http://www.linux-mag.com/2002-12/linus_01.html។ បានយកមក June 9, 2009 
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named citLinus
  3. ៣,០ ៣,១ "Linux Online – Linus Torvalds Bio"។ Linux.org។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[២] នៅថ្ងៃ 2004-06-26http://web.archive.org/web/20040626044423/http://www.linux.org/info/linus.html។ បានយកមក March 13, 2010 
  4. Torvalds
  5. ៥,០ ៥,១ ៥,២ Moody, Glyn (2002)។ Rebel Code: Linux and the Open Source Revolution។ Perseus Books Group។ ទំ. 336។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-7382-0670-9http://www.perseusbooksgroup.com/perseus/book_detail.jsp?isbn=0738206709 
  6. "NODES research group"។ Cs.helsinki.fi។ October 16, 2008http://www.cs.helsinki.fi/group/nodes/។ បានយកមក March 13, 2010 
  7. Torvalds, p. 29
  8. Torvalds, p. 53
  9. "Staff"។ The Linux Foundationhttp://www.linuxfoundation.org/about/staff។ បានយកមក April 24, 2012 
  10. Torvalds, pp. 6–7
  11. Torvalds, pp. 41–46
  12. Torvalds, Linus: GMOVE. Program listing. In MikroBitti 11/1986, p. 63.
  13. "Linux News"។ Abc.se។ January 5, 1991http://www.abc.se/~m9339/linux/linuxdoc/linuxnews03a.html។ បានយកមក March 13, 2010 
  14. Torvalds, p. 60
  15. Linus Benedict Torvalds (August 25, 91 20:57:08 GMT). "What would you like to see most in minix?". comp.os.minix. (Web link). Retrieved ២០១៧-០៩-២០. "I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones."
  16. "1999 Young Innovators Under 35: Linus Torvalds, 29"Technology Review។ 1999http://www.technologyreview.com/tr35/profile.aspx?TRID=495។ បានយកមក August 14, 2011 
  17. ១៧,០ ១៧,១ Gumbel, Peter (November 13, 2006)។ "Linus Torvalds"Time។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[៣] នៅថ្ងៃ November 17, 2006http://web.archive.org/web/20061117114838/http://www.time.com/time/europe/hero2006/torvalds.html។ បានយកមក March 13, 2010 [តំណភ្ជាប់ខូច]
  18. Gary Rivlin។ "Leader of the Free World"។ Wiredhttp://www.wired.com/wired/archive/11.11/linus_pr.html។ បានយកមក June 14, 2008 
  19. ១៩,០ ១៩,១ "Linus Torvalds: A Very Brief and Completely Unauthorized Biography"The Linux Information Project។ Bellevue Linux Users Group។ January 24, 2006http://www.linfo.org/linus.html។ បានយកមក October 22, 2010 
  20. Re: Linux Logo prototype., a Thu, May 9, 1996 message from Linus Torvalds (torvalds@cs.helsinki.fi)
  21. Why a Penguin?. linux.org
  22. Linus Torvalds at Google, on Git, 9:50–10:00
  23. Richard Morris (July 17, 2008)។ "Linus Torvalds, Geek of the Week"http://www.simple-talk.com/opinion/geek-of-the-week/linus-torvalds,-geek-of-the-week/។ បានយកមក August 3, 2009 
  24. "Interview with Linus Torvalds from Linux Format 163"។ Linux Format។ 29 November 2012http://www.tuxradar.com/content/interview-linus-torvalds-linux-format-163។ បានយកមក 3 February 2014 
  25. About Us. The Linux Foundation. Retrieved on June 19, 2013.
  26. Moody, Glen។ "The Greatest OS That (Never) Was"Wiredhttp://www.wired.com/wired/archive/5.08/linux.html?pg=3&topic=។ បានយកមក 22 July 2013 
  27. "An Interview With Linus Torvalds"។ Tech Crunch។ April 19, 2012http://techcrunch.com/2012/04/19/an-interview-with-millenium-technology-prize-finalist-linus-torvalds/។ បានយកមក April 22, 2012 
  28. Henrik Ingo. Open Life: The Philosophy of Open Source. Ingram, 2005. 42–45.Online version
  29. "Linus Explains Linux Trademark Issues"។ Slashdot.orghttp://slashdot.org/linux/00/01/19/0828245.shtml។ បានយកមក March 13, 2010 
  30. Torvalds, p. 123
  31. "Torvalds' bio on"។ Nndb.comhttp://www.nndb.com/people/444/000022378/។ បានយកមក March 13, 2010 
  32. ៣២,០ ៣២,១ Mike Rogoway (September 14, 2010)។ "Linus Torvalds, already an Oregonian, now a U.S. citizen"The Oregonianhttp://blog.oregonlive.com/siliconforest/2010/09/linus_torvalds_already_an_oreg.html។ បានយកមក September 16, 2010 
  33. Linus Torvalds។ "index : kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git"Linux kernel។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[៤] នៅថ្ងៃ accessed git versionhttps://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/include/uapi/linux/reboot.h?id=607ca46e97a1b6594b29647d98a32d545c24bdff។ បានយកមក May 30, 2013 
  34. "Debian's reboot(2) man page"http://man.flashnux.com/en/debian/6/6.0.1/man2/reboot.2.html។ បានយកមក August 16, 2011 
  35. Marjorie Richardson (November 1, 1999)។ "Interview: Linus Torvalds"Linux Journalhttp://www.linuxjournal.com/article/3655។ បានយកមក April 2, 2011 
  36. "2012 Internet Hall of Fame inductees 2012"Internet Hall of Famehttp://www.internethalloffame.org/inductees/year/2012។ បានយកមក April 24, 2012 
  37. "Linus Torvalds wins the tech. equivalent of a Nobel Prize: the Millennium Technology Prize."។ ZDNet។ April 19, 2012http://www.zdnet.com/blog/open-source/linus-torvalds-wins-the-tech-equivalent-of-a-nobel-prize-the-millennium-technology-prize/10789។ បានយកមក April 24, 2012 
  38. "Yamanaka wins Finnish award for iPS work : National : DAILY YOMIURI ONLINE (The Daily Yomiuri)"Yomiuri Shimbun។ Japan។ April 21, 2012។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[៥] នៅថ្ងៃ 2012-04-22http://web.archive.org/web/20120422081904/http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T120420004348.htm 
  39. Torvalds, p. 28
  40. "Linux creator Linus Torvalds honored with Reed College's Vollum Award"។ Web.reed.edu។ August 24, 2005http://web.reed.edu/news_center/press_releases/2005-2006/082205LinuxCreator.html។ បានយកមក March 13, 2010 
  41. "Torvalds, Stallman, Simons Win 1998 Pioneer Awards"។ W2.eff.orghttp://w2.eff.org/awards/pioneer/1998.php។ បានយកមក March 13, 2010 
  42. Talking to Torvalds, British Computer Society, September 2007.
  43. Computer History Museum (June 18, 2008)។ "The Computer History Museum Announces the 2008 Fellow Awards Recipients"។ Press releasehttp://www.computerhistory.org/press/2008-Fellows-Award-Announcement.html។ បានយកមក October 22, 2010 
  44. "Fellow Awards: Linus Torvalds"Computer History Museum។ October 21, 2008http://www.computerhistory.org/fellowawards/hall/bios/Linus,Torvalds/។ បានយកមក October 22, 2010 
  45. Chris von Eitzen (October 21, 2010)។ "Linus Torvalds awarded 2010 C&C Prize"The H (Heinz Heise)http://www.h-online.com/open/news/item/Linus-Torvalds-awarded-2010-C-C-Prize-1122542.html។ បានយកមក October 22, 2010 [តំណភ្ជាប់ខូច]
  46. "The 2010 Time 100"Time។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[៦] នៅថ្ងៃ 2007-01-03http://web.archive.org/web/20070103164600/http://www.time.com/time/time100/poc/century.html។ បានយកមក May 7, 2010 
  47. Lawrence Lessig (April 26, 2004)។ "Linus Torvalds: The Free-Software Champion"Time magazinehttp://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,994026,00.html។ បានយកមក October 3, 2006 
  48. Nicholas Petreley. This year's Award for Industry Achievement goes to the creator of Linux, Linus Torvalds. InfoWorld. Jan 17, 2000. Page 82.
  49. "The Best & Worst Managers Of The Year"Bloomberg BusinessWeek។ January 10, 2005http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/toc/05_02/B39150502manager.htm។ បានយកមក March 13, 2010 
  50. By Business 2.0 Magazine staff (June 22, 2006)។ "10 people who don't matter"។ CNNhttp://money.cnn.com/2006/06/21/technology/10dontmatter.biz2/index.htm។ បានយកមក March 13, 2010 
  51. "Linus Torvalds named one of the 100 most influential inventors"The H។ February 4, 2010http://www.h-online.com/open/news/item/Linus-Torvalds-named-one-of-the-100-most-influential-inventors-922622.html។ បានយកមក February 15, 2010 [តំណភ្ជាប់ខូច]
  52. "Patent Portfolio of Linus Torvalds"directoryinventor.com។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[៧] នៅថ្ងៃ 2011-05-08http://web.archive.org/web/20110508050506/http://www.directoryinventor.com/inventor/4e6957a7ae45d335f53bce424b25391f_1.html 
  53. "Printing dialog and GNOME"។ Mail.gnome.orghttp://mail.gnome.org/archives/usability/2005-December/msg00021.html។ បានយកមក March 13, 2010 
  54. "Linus versus GNOME"។ Desktoplinux.com។ February 23, 2007http://www.desktoplinux.com/news/NS8745257437.html។ បានយកមក March 13, 2010 
  55. Rodney Gedda (January 22, 2009)។ "Q&A: Linux founder Linus Torvalds talks about open-source identity"។ Computerworldhttp://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&taxonomyName=Software&articleId=9126619&taxonomyId=18&pageNumber=5។ បានយកមក April 24, 2012។ "it was a half-baked release (...) I'll revisit it when I reinstall the next machine" 
  56. Linus Torvalds Ditches GNOME 3 For Xfce - Slashdot. Linux.slashdot.org (August 3, 2011). Retrieved on June 19, 2013.
  57. Linus Torvalds។ "Linus Torvalds' post (02/11/2012)"https://plus.google.com/u/0/+LinusTorvalds/posts/DbmEE8kXLDA។ បានយកមក November 2, 2012 
  58. "Torvalds: I want to be nice, and curse less, but it's just not in me"។ The Register។ November 7, 2012http://www.theregister.co.uk/2012/11/07/passion_of_torvalds/។ បានយកមក January 2, 2013 
  59. Nick Heath. (March 4, 2013) Linus Torvalds switches back to Gnome 3.x desktop. ZDNet. Retrieved on June 19, 2013.
  60. Did NSA contact Linus for a backdoor in Linux? (updated)


Further reading[កែប្រែ]

External links[កែប្រែ]