ថ្នាំបង្ការោគ ឬ វ៉ាក់សាំង (អក្សារឡាតាំង vaccine) គឺជាការរៀបចំជីវសាស្ត្រមួយដែលធ្វើឲ្យប្រសើរឡើងនូវប្រព័ន្ធភាពសាុំទៅនឹងជម្ងឺណាមួយ។ វ៉ាក់សាំង ជាទូទៅ មានផ្ទកនូវភ្នាក់ងារ that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters.
Vaccines may be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g. vaccines against cancer are also being investigated; see cancer vaccine).
The term vaccine derives from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cow pox (Latin variola vaccinia, adapted from the Latin vaccīn-us, from vacca, cow), to inoculate humans, providing them protection against smallpox.
Landmarks in history of vaccines[កែប្រែ]
|1000||Chinese practicing variolation|
|1545||Smallpox epidemic in India|
|1578||Whooping cough epidemic in Paris|
|1625||Early smallpox in North America|
|1661||Kangxi Emperor gives royal support for inoculation.|
|1676||Thomas Sydenham documents Measles infection|
|1676||"The Indian Plague" in Iroquois documented by Louis de Buade de Frontenac|
|1694||Queen Mary II dies of smallpox on 28 December.|
|1699||Yellow Fever outbreak in the American Colonies.|
|1718||Lady Mary Montagu had her 6-year old son variolated in Constantinople by Dr. Charles Maitland|
|1721||Lady Mary Montagu had her 2-year old daughter variolated in England by Dr. Charles Maitland|
|1736||Benjamin Franklin’s 4-year-old son dies of smallpox.|
|1740||Friedrich Hoffmann gives first description of rubella|
|1757||Francis Home demonstrates infectious nature of measles|
|1760||Edward Jenner learns about smallpox protection from a milkmaid|
|1796||Edward Jenner introduces smallpox vaccine|
|1800||Benjamin Waterhouse brings smallpox vaccination to United States|
|1817||Cholera pandemic begins|
|1817||Panum studies epidemiology of measles in Faroe Islands|
|1854||Filippo Pacini isolates Vibrio cholerae|
|1874||A compulsory smallpox vaccination and revaccination law goes into in effect in Germany|
|1880||Louis Pasteur develops attenuated fowl cholera vaccine|
|1881||Louis Pasteur and George Sternberg independently discover Pneumococcus|
|1882||Koch isolates tubercle bacilli|
|1882||Louis Pasteur successfully prevents rabies in Joseph Meister by post-exposure vaccination|
|1888||Institut Pasteur inaugurated on 14 November|
|1890||Shibasaburo Kitasato and Emil von Behring immunize guinea pigs with heat-treated diphtheria toxin|
|1892||Pfeiffer discovers Pfeiffer influenza bacillus|
|1894||First major documented polio outbreak in the United States occurs in Rutland County, Vermont|
|1896||Koch discovers Cholera vibrio|
|1899||Yellow fever plagues Panama Canal workers resulting in transfer of project rights from France to United States|
|1900||Walter Reed discovers cause of yellow fever after studying it in Cuba|
|1906||Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou isolate Bordetella pertussis|
|1908||Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper discover poliovirus|
|1924||BCG is introduced as live tuberculosis vaccine|
|1935||Max Theiler develops live attenuated 17D yellow fever vaccine|
|1945||Chick embryo allantoic fluid-derived influenza vaccine is developed|
|1949||John Enders cultivates poliovirus in tissue culture|
|1955||Jonas Salk introduces injectable inactivated polio vaccine|
|1961||Albert Sabin develops oral live attenuated polio vaccine|
|1960-1969||Live attenuated vaccines for Measles, Mumps and Rubella are developed|
|1974-1984||Polysaccharide vaccines for Meningococcus, Pneumococcus and Hemophilus are developed|
|1981||Smallpox declared eradicated worldwide|
|1981||Hepatitis B vaccine is licenced|
|1983||Hemophilus influenzae carbohydrate-protein conjugate is developed|
|1986||Yeast-derived recombinant hepatitis B vaccine is licensed|
|1994||Polio declared eliminated from Americas|
|2002||Polio declared eradicated from Europe|
|2006||First HPV vaccine is licensed|
|2012||Polio declared eliminated from India|
Vaccine development has several trends:
- Until recently,[when?] most vaccines were aimed at infants and children, but adolescents and adults are increasingly being targeted.
- Combinations of vaccines are becoming more common; vaccines containing five or more components are used in many parts of the world. In 2013, Biofarma has released new product called Pentabio which is combination vaccine of Diptheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hepatitis B and Haemophilus Influenzae Type B for baby/infant of Indonesia Immunization Program.
- New methods of administering vaccines are being developed,[when?] such as skin patches, aerosols via inhalation devices, and eating genetically engineered plants.
- Vaccines are being designed to stimulate innate immune responses, as well as adaptive.
- Attempts are being made to develop vaccines to help cure chronic infections, as opposed to preventing disease.
- Vaccines are being developed to defend against bioterrorist attacks such as anthrax, plague, and smallpox.
- Appreciation for sex and pregnancy differences in vaccine responses "might change the strategies used by public health officials".
- Scientists are now trying to develop synthetic vaccines by reconstructing the outside structure of a virus.
Principles that govern the immune response can now be used in tailor-made vaccines against many noninfectious human diseases, such as cancers and autoimmune disorders. For example, the experimental vaccine CYT006-AngQb has been investigated as a possible treatment for high blood pressure. Factors that have impact on the trends of vaccine development include progress in translatory medicine, demographics, regulatory science, political, cultural, and social responses.
- Flying syringe
- The Horse Named Jim
- Immunization registry
- List of vaccine ingredients
- List of vaccine topics
- OPV AIDS hypothesis, a refuted hypothesis that the AIDS pandemic emerged from polio vaccine manufacture.
- Reverse vaccinology
- TA-CD, a vaccine which negates the effects of cocaine
- Stefan Riedel, MD, PhD (January 2005)។ [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". "Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination"]។ Proceedings (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 18 (1): 21–25។ PMC 1200696។ Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".។
- "German Vaccination Law"។ Internet Archive។ http://archive.org/details/vaccinationlawa00germgoog។ បានយកមក 29 November 2012។
- Plotkin SA (2005)។ "Vaccines: past, present and future"។ Nat Med 11 (4 Suppl): S5–11។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1038/nm1209។ អ.ស.ផ.ម. 15812490។
- Carlson B (2008)។ "Adults now drive growth of vaccine market"។ Genet Eng Biotechnol News 28 (11): 22–3។ http://www.genengnews.com/articles/chitem.aspx?aid=2490។
- "Bio Farma Urges OIC Countries to become Self-Reliant in Vaccine"។ June 18, 2013។ http://en.acnnewswire.com/press-release/english/13434/bio-farma-urges-oic-countries-to-become-self-reliant-in-vaccine។ បានយកមក June 19, 2013។
- Klein SL, Jedlicka A, Pekosz A (May 2010)។ "The Xs and Y of immune responses to viral vaccines"។ Lancet Infect Dis 10 (5): 338–49។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70049-9។ អ.ស.ផ.ម. 20417416។
- "Safer vaccine created without virus"។ March 28, 2013។ http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/03/28/world/safer-vaccine-created-without-virus/#.UhTT55JSjNV។ បានយកមក March 28, 2013។
- Spohn G, Bachmann MF (2008)។ "Exploiting viral properties for the rational design of modern vaccines"។ Expert Rev Vaccines 7 (1): 43–54។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1586/147605184.108.40.206។ អ.ស.ផ.ម. 18251693។
- Samuelsson O, Herlitz H (2008)។ "Vaccination against high blood pressure: a new strategy"។ Lancet 371 (9615): 788–9។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60355-4។ អ.ស.ផ.ម. 18328909។
- Poland GA, Jacobson RM, Ovsyannikova IG (2009)។ [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". "Trends affecting the future of vaccine development and delivery: the role of demographics, regulatory science, the anti-vaccine movement, and vaccinomics"]។ Vaccine 27 (25–26): 3240–4។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.069។ PMC 2693340។ អ.ស.ផ.ម. 19200833។ Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".។
- Vaccines and Antisera នៅគម្រោងបញ្ជីរាយឈ្មោះបើកទូលាយ
- WHO Vaccine preventable diseases and immunization
- The History of Vaccines, from the College of Physicians of Philadelphia
- University of Oxford Vaccinology Programme: a series of short courses in vaccinology