វ៉ាក់សាំង

ដោយវិគីភីឌា

ថ្នាំបង្ការោគវ៉ាក់សាំង (អក្សារឡាតាំង vaccine) គឺជាការរៀបចំជីវសាស្ត្រមួយដែលធ្វើឲ្យប្រសើរឡើងនូវប្រព័ន្ធភាពសាុំទៅនឹងជម្ងឺណាមួយ។ វ៉ាក់សាំង ជាទូទៅ មានផ្ទកនូវភ្នាក់ងារ that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters.

Vaccines may be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g. vaccines against cancer are also being investigated; see cancer vaccine).

The term vaccine derives from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cow pox (Latin variola vaccinia, adapted from the Latin vaccīn-us, from vacca, cow), to inoculate humans, providing them protection against smallpox.[១]


Landmarks in history of vaccines[កែប្រែ]


Trends[កែប្រែ]

Vaccine development has several trends:[៣]

  • Until recently,[when?] most vaccines were aimed at infants and children, but adolescents and adults are increasingly being targeted.[៣][៤]
  • Combinations of vaccines are becoming more common; vaccines containing five or more components are used in many parts of the world.[៣] In 2013, Biofarma has released new product called Pentabio which is combination vaccine of Diptheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hepatitis B and Haemophilus Influenzae Type B for baby/infant of Indonesia Immunization Program.[៥]
  • New methods of administering vaccines are being developed,[when?] such as skin patches, aerosols via inhalation devices, and eating genetically engineered plants.[៣]
  • Vaccines are being designed to stimulate innate immune responses, as well as adaptive.[៣]
  • Attempts are being made to develop vaccines to help cure chronic infections, as opposed to preventing disease.[៣]
  • Vaccines are being developed to defend against bioterrorist attacks such as anthrax, plague, and smallpox.[៣]
  • Appreciation for sex and pregnancy differences in vaccine responses "might change the strategies used by public health officials".[៦]
  • Scientists are now trying to develop synthetic vaccines by reconstructing the outside structure of a virus.[៧]

Principles that govern the immune response can now be used in tailor-made vaccines against many noninfectious human diseases, such as cancers and autoimmune disorders.[៨] For example, the experimental vaccine CYT006-AngQb has been investigated as a possible treatment for high blood pressure.[៩] Factors that have impact on the trends of vaccine development include progress in translatory medicine, demographics, regulatory science, political, cultural, and social responses.[១០]

មើលផងដែរ[កែប្រែ]

ឯកសារយោង[កែប្រែ]

  1. Stefan Riedel, MD, PhD (January 2005)។ [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". "Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination"]។ Proceedings (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 18 (1): 21–25។ PMC 1200696Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". 
  2. "German Vaccination Law"Internet Archivehttp://archive.org/details/vaccinationlawa00germgoog។ បានយកមក 29 November 2012 
  3. ៣,០ ៣,១ ៣,២ ៣,៣ ៣,៤ ៣,៥ ៣,៦ Plotkin SA (2005)។ "Vaccines: past, present and future"។ Nat Med 11 (4 Suppl): S5–11។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1038/nm1209អ.ស.ផ.ម. 15812490 
  4. Carlson B (2008)។ "Adults now drive growth of vaccine market"Genet Eng Biotechnol News 28 (11): 22–3http://www.genengnews.com/articles/chitem.aspx?aid=2490 
  5. "Bio Farma Urges OIC Countries to become Self-Reliant in Vaccine"។ June 18, 2013http://en.acnnewswire.com/press-release/english/13434/bio-farma-urges-oic-countries-to-become-self-reliant-in-vaccine។ បានយកមក June 19, 2013 
  6. Klein SL, Jedlicka A, Pekosz A (May 2010)។ "The Xs and Y of immune responses to viral vaccines"។ Lancet Infect Dis 10 (5): 338–49។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70049-9អ.ស.ផ.ម. 20417416 
  7. "Safer vaccine created without virus"។ March 28, 2013http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/03/28/world/safer-vaccine-created-without-virus/#.UhTT55JSjNV។ បានយកមក March 28, 2013 
  8. Spohn G, Bachmann MF (2008)។ "Exploiting viral properties for the rational design of modern vaccines"។ Expert Rev Vaccines 7 (1): 43–54។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1586/14760584.7.1.43អ.ស.ផ.ម. 18251693 
  9. Samuelsson O, Herlitz H (2008)។ "Vaccination against high blood pressure: a new strategy"។ Lancet 371 (9615): 788–9។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60355-4អ.ស.ផ.ម. 18328909 
  10. Poland GA, Jacobson RM, Ovsyannikova IG (2009)។ [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". "Trends affecting the future of vaccine development and delivery: the role of demographics, regulatory science, the anti-vaccine movement, and vaccinomics"]។ Vaccine 27 (25–26): 3240–4។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.069PMC 2693340អ.ស.ផ.ម. 19200833Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". 

តំណភ្ជាប់ខាងក្រៅ[កែប្រែ]

ទំព័រគំរូ:Z148 ទំព័រគំរូ:External media

ទំព័រគំរូ:Major Drug Groups ទំព័រគំរូ:Vaccines