សម្តេច Dalai Lama ទី 14

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Tenzin Gyatso
Dalailama1 20121014 4639.jpg
កើត (1935-07-06) 6 កក្កដា 1935 (អាយុ 83)
Taktser, Amdo, Tibet
លំនៅដ្ឋាន India
ចំណងជើង The 14th Dalai Lama
អ្នកកាន់តំណែងមុន Thubten Gyatso
ហត្ថលេខា Dalai Lama's Signature.svg

សម្តេចសង្ឃដាឡៃឡាម៉ាទី 14 (ឈ្មោះសាសនា Tenzin Gyatso ដែលមានអាយុតិចជាងលោក Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso កើត Lhamo Thondup ថ្ងៃទី 6 ខែកក្កដាឆ្នាំ 1935)[១]គឺជាសម្តេចសង្ឃដាឡៃឡាម៉ាបច្ចុប្បន្ន។ សម្តេចសង្ឃ Dalai Lamas គឺជាព្រះសង្ឃដ៏សំខាន់នៃសាលា Gelug ដែលជាសាលារៀនថ្មីបំផុតនៃពុទ្ធសាសនាទីបេដែលត្រូវបានដឹកនាំជាផ្លូវការដោយហ្គេនដេនត្រាឡា។ ចាប់តាំងពីពេលដែលសម្តេច Dalai Lama ទី 5 ដល់ឆ្នាំ 1959 រដ្ឋាភិបាលកណ្តាលទីបេគឺលោក Ganden Phodrang បានវិនិយោគលើតំណែងរបស់សម្តេចសង្ឃដាឡៃឡាម៉ាជាមួយនឹងកាតព្វកិច្ចខាងបព្វជិតភាព។[២][៣]

សង្ឃដាឡៃឡាម៉ាទី 14 បានកើតនៅក្នុងភូមិ Taktser នៃ Amdo នៅទីបេហើយត្រូវបានគេជ្រើសរើសថាជា tulku នៃ Dalai Lama ទី 13 នៅក្នុងឆ្នាំ 1937 និងបានទទួលស្គាល់ជាផ្លូវការថាជាសម្តេច Dalai Lama ទី 14 នៅក្នុងការប្រកាសជាសាធារណៈនៅក្បែរទីក្រុង Bumchen នៅឆ្នាំ 1939 ។ សម្តេចសង្ឃដាឡៃឡាម៉ាត្រូវបានគេប្រារព្ធឡើងនៅឡាសានៅថ្ងៃទី 22 ខែកុម្ភៈឆ្នាំ 1940 ហើយនៅទីបំផុតគាត់បានបំពេញភារកិច្ចខាងនយោបាយនៅថ្ងៃទី 17 ខែវិច្ឆិកាឆ្នាំ 1950 នៅអាយុ 15 ឆ្នាំបន្ទាប់ពីសាធារណរដ្ឋប្រជាមានិតចិនបានបញ្ចូលទីបេ។ រដ្ឋាភិបាលរបស់សាលា Gelug បានគ្រប់គ្រងតំបន់មួយដែលត្រូវគ្នាទៅនឹងតំបន់ស្វយ័តទីបេដែលគ្រាន់តែជា PRC ដែលទើបនឹងចាប់ផ្ដើមមានបំណងអះអាងការគ្រប់គ្រងលើវា។[៤]

ក្នុងអំឡុងការបះបោរទីបេឆ្នាំ 1959 សង្ឃដាឡៃឡាម៉ាបានភៀសខ្លួនទៅប្រទេសឥណ្ឌាជាកន្លែងដែលគាត់រស់នៅបច្ចុប្បន្នជាជនភៀសខ្លួន។ Dalai Lama ទី 14 បានទទួលរង្វាន់ណូបែលសន្តិភាពក្នុងឆ្នាំ 1989. គាត់បានធ្វើដំណើរជុំវិញពិភពលោកហើយបាននិយាយអំពីសុខុមាលភាពរបស់ប្រជាជនទីបេបរិស្ថានបរិស្ថានសេដ្ឋកិច្ចសិទិ្ធស្ត្រីការមិនចូលហឹង្សាការសន្ទនាអន្តរភាវូបនីយកម្មរូបវិទ្យាតារាវិទ្យាពុទ្ធសាសនានិងវិទ្យាសាស្រ្តវិទ្យាសាស្ត្រសរសៃប្រសាទផ្នែកខួរក្បាល សុខភាពបន្តពូជនិងផ្លូវភេទរួមជាមួយប្រធានបទជាច្រើននៃការបង្រៀនព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនាមហាយាននិងវជរយាន។

Early life and background[កែប្រែ]

Lhamo Thondup[៥] កើតនៅថ្ងៃទី 6 ខែកក្កដាឆ្នាំ 1935 ទៅគ្រួសារកសិករធ្វើកសិកម្មនិងសេះនៅភូមិតូចមួយឈ្មោះថា Taktser ឬ Chija Tagtser ក្នុងភាសាចិននៅជ្រុងនៃតំបន់ប្រពៃណីទីបេនៃ Amdo ។ គ្រួសាររបស់គាត់ត្រូវបានគេទាញយករ៉ែ Monguor ។ គាត់គឺជាបងប្អូនម្នាក់ក្នុងចំណោមបងប្អូន 7 នាក់ដើម្បីរស់រានមានជីវិត។ កូនច្បងគឺបងស្រីរបស់គាត់ឈ្មោះ Tsering Dolma ដែលមានអាយុ 18 ឆ្នាំ។ បងប្រុសច្បងរបស់គាត់ Thupten Jigme Norbu ត្រូវបានគេទទួលស្គាល់នៅពេលគាត់មានអាយុ 8 ឆ្នាំជាការចាប់កំណើតរបស់ Lama Taktser Rinpoche ។ បងស្រីរបស់គាត់ឈ្មោះថាជេតសុនផេម៉ាបានចំណាយពេលពេញវ័យរបស់គាត់នៅលើគម្រោងភូមិកុមារទីបេ។ សម្ដេចសង្ឃដាឡៃឡាម៉ាបាននិយាយថាភាសាទីមួយរបស់គាត់គឺ "ភាសាស៊ីនដែលខូច" ដែលជាភាសាចិនដែលជាទម្រង់នៃភាសាចិនកណ្តាលហើយគ្រួសាររបស់គាត់មិនបាននិយាយភាសាទីបេទេ។[៦][៧][៨][៩] or Chija Tagtser,[១០][៦][១១][១២][១៣]

The Dalai Lama as a boy

បន្ទាប់ពីមានសញ្ញានិងចក្ខុវិស័យបានរាយការណ៍ក្រុមស្វែងរកចំនួនបីត្រូវបានបញ្ជូនទៅភាគខាងជើងភាគខាងកើតនិងភាគអាគ្នេយ៍ដើម្បីកំណត់ទីតាំងថ្មីនៅពេលដែលក្មេងប្រុសដែលក្លាយទៅជាសម្តេច Dalai Lama ទី 14 មានអាយុប្រហែលជាពីរឆ្នាំ។ លោកស្សាប៊ីលហ្គូល (Sir Basil Gould) ប្រតិភូអង់គ្លេសនៅឡាសា (Lhasa) នៅឆ្នាំ 1936 បានទាក់ទងនឹងកំណត់ត្រារបស់គាត់នៅភាគខាងជើងឆៀងខាងកើតជាមួយលោកសាន់ប៊ែលបឺរ (Charles Bell) អតីតអ្នករស់នៅចក្រភពអង់គ្លេសនៅឡាសានិងជាមិត្តរបស់ស្តេចដាឡៃឡាម៉ាទី 13 ។ ក្នុងចំណោមស្នាដៃជាច្រើនទៀតប្រមុខនៃរូបកាយសម្តេច Dalai Lama ទី 13 នៅទិសខាងត្បូងខាងកើតបានងាកទៅរកទិសខាងជើងខាងកើតដោយបញ្ជាក់ថាវាត្រូវបានបកប្រែជាទិសដៅដែលអ្នកស្នងតំណែងរបស់ព្រះអង្គនឹងត្រូវបានរកឃើញ។ Regent Reting Rinpoche មិនយូរប៉ុន្មានមានចក្ខុវិស័យមួយនៅឯបឹងដ៏ពិសិដ្ឋនៃឡាហមឡាតូសូដែលគាត់បានបកប្រែថាជា Amdo ជាតំបន់ស្វែងរក។ ចក្ខុវិស័យនេះត្រូវបានបកប្រែផងដែរដើម្បីសំដៅទៅលើវត្តអារាមដ៏ធំមួយដែលមានដំបូលក្រណាត់និងក្បឿងមុំខៀវនិងផ្លូវដែលហើរពីវាទៅដល់ភ្នំមួយនៅខាងកើតទល់មុខដែលឈរនៅផ្ទះតូចមួយដែលមានអន្ទាក់ខុសគ្នា។ ក្រុមនេះដែលដឹកនាំដោយលោក Kewtsang Rinpoche បានទៅជួប Panchen Lama ជាលើកដំបូងដែលត្រូវបានជាប់នៅក្នុង Jyekundo នៅភាគខាងជើង Kham ។ Panchen Lama បានស៊ើបអង្កេតការបង្កើតកូនក្មេងមិនធម្មតានៅក្នុងតំបន់ដែលមិនធ្លាប់មានចាប់តាំងពីការសម្តេច Dalai Lama ទី 13 ។ គាត់បានឱ្យឈ្មោះកេវសានឈ្មោះក្មេងប្រុសបីនាក់ដែលគាត់បានរកឃើញហើយបានកំណត់ថាជាបេក្ខជន។ ក្នុងរយៈពេល 1 ឆ្នាំ Panchen Lama បានស្លាប់។ បេក្ខជនពីរនាក់ក្នុងចំណោមបេក្ខជនបីនាក់របស់គាត់ត្រូវបានគេបំបែកចេញពីបញ្ជីប៉ុន្តែកុមារទីបីដែលជាកូន "មិនខ្លាច" ដែលមានការសន្យាច្រើនបំផុតគឺមកពីភូមិ Taktser ដែលជាចក្ខុវិស័យនៅលើភ្នំមួយនៅចុងបញ្ចប់នៃផ្លូវដែលនាំទៅរក Taktser ពីវត្តអារាម Kumbum ដ៏អស្ចារ្យជាមួយនឹងដំបូលពណ៌បៃតង។ នៅទីនោះពួកគេបានរកឃើញផ្ទះមួយដែលបានបកស្រាយពីចក្ខុវិស័យ - ផ្ទះដែលឡាហោដុនដុដរស់នៅ។[១៤][១៤][១៥]

យោងទៅតាមសម្តេច Dalai Lama ទី 14 នៅពេលនោះភូមិ Taktser ឈរនៅលើ "ព្រំដែនពិតប្រាកដ" រវាងតំបន់អាម៉ូអានិងប្រទេសចិន។ នៅពេលដែលក្រុមការងារបានមកលេងដែលធ្វើជាអ្នកធ្វើធម្មយាត្រាមេដឹកនាំរបស់ខ្លួនគឺសេរ៉ាឡាម៉ាធ្វើពុតជាអ្នកបំរើនិងអង្គុយដាច់ដោយឡែកពីគ្នានៅក្នុងផ្ទះបាយ។ គាត់បានកាន់ក្រដាសប្រាក់ចាស់ដែលជាកម្មសិទ្ធិរបស់ស្តេចដាឡៃឡាម៉ាទី 13 ហើយក្មេងប្រុស Lhamo Dhondup ដែលមានអាយុ 2 ឆ្នាំបានមកជិតហើយសុំវា។ ព្រះសង្ឃបាននិយាយថា "បើអ្នកដឹងថាខ្ញុំជានរណាអ្នកអាចមានវាបាន" ។ កុមារបាននិយាយថា "សេរ៉ាឡាម៉ាស៊ាឡាម៉ា" ហើយនិយាយជាមួយគាត់ក្នុងពាក្យសំដីរបស់ឡាសាក្នុងភាសាមួយដែលម្តាយរបស់ក្មេងប្រុសនេះមិនអាចយល់បាន។ នៅពេលក្រោយដែលគណបក្សនេះវិលត្រឡប់ទៅផ្ទះវិញពួកគេបានបង្ហាញពីគោលបំណងពិតរបស់ពួកគេហើយបានសុំការអនុញ្ញាតឱ្យក្មេងប្រុសត្រូវធ្វើតេស្តជាក់លាក់។ ការធ្វើតេស្តមួយបានបង្ហាញគាត់នូវគូវត្ថុផ្សេងៗគ្នាដែលមួយជាកម្មសិទ្ធិរបស់ដាឡៃឡាម៉ាទី 13 និងមួយទៀតមិនមាន។ ក្នុងគ្រប់ករណីទាំងអស់លោកបានជ្រើសរើសវត្ថុផ្ទាល់របស់ដាលៃឡាម៉ាហើយបានច្រានចោលអ្នកដទៃ។ ដូច្នេះវាគឺជា Panchen Lama ដែលបានរកឃើញដំបូងនិងបានកំណត់អត្តសញ្ញាណទី 14 Dalai Lama ។

House where the 14th Dalai Lama was born in Taktser, Amdo

ចាប់តាំងពីឆ្នាំ 1936 មេបញ្ជាការមូស្លឹមម៉ាប៊ូហ្វាងមេដឹកនាំមូស្លីម Hui 'Ma Clique បានគ្រប់គ្រង Qinghai ជាអភិបាលរបស់ខ្លួនស្ថិតនៅក្រោមអាជ្ញាធរកណ្តាលនៃសាធារណរដ្ឋចិន។ យោងតាមបទសម្ភាសន៍ជាមួយសម្តេចសង្ឃដាឡៃឡាម៉ាទី 14 នៅឆ្នាំ 1930 លោកម៉ាប៊ូភួងបានចាប់យកជ្រុងខាងជើងភាគអាគ្នេយ៍នៃអាម៉ូដូក្នុងនាមរដ្ឋាភិបាលទន់ខ្សោយឈៀងកៃសកហើយបានបញ្ចូលវាទៅក្នុងខេត្តឈីងហៃរបស់ចិន។ មុនពេលទៅ Taktser, Kewtsang បានទៅម៉ា Bufang ដើម្បីបង់ការគោរពរបស់គាត់។ នៅពេលដែលលោក Ma Bufang បានឮថាបេក្ខជនម្នាក់ត្រូវបានគេរកឃើញនៅក្នុង Taktser គាត់បាននាំគ្រួសារនេះទៅឱ្យគាត់នៅស៊ីននីង។ ដំបូងគាត់បានទាមទារភស្តុតាងថាក្មេងប្រុសនេះគឺជាសម្តេចសង្ឃដាឡៃឡាម៉ាប៉ុន្តែរដ្ឋាភិបាលឡាសាទោះបីជាលោក Kewtsang បានជូនដំណឹងថានេះជារឿងមួយក៏ដោយបានប្រាប់លោក Kewtsang ថាគាត់ត្រូវទៅទីក្រុងឡាសាដើម្បីធ្វើតេស្តបន្ថែមទៀតជាមួយបេក្ខជនផ្សេងទៀត។ ពួកគេដឹងថាប្រសិនបើគេត្រូវបានប្រកាសថាជាសម្តេចសង្ឃដាឡៃឡាម៉ារដ្ឋាភិបាលចិននឹងទទូចសុំឱ្យបញ្ជូនកងទ័ពដ៏ធំមួយជាមួយលោកដែលនឹងស្នាក់នៅក្នុងទីក្រុងឡាសាហើយបដិសេធមិនផ្លាស់ប្តូរ។ លោក Ma Bufang និងលោក Kumbum Monastery បន្ទាប់មកបានបដិសេធមិនអនុញ្ញាតឱ្យគាត់ចាកចេញទេលុះត្រាតែគាត់ត្រូវបានប្រកាសថាជាសម្តេចសង្ឃដាឡៃឡាម៉ាប៉ុន្តែបានទាមទារប្រាក់ត្រលប់មកវិញចំនួន 100.000 ដុល្លារដើម្បីឱ្យពួកគេត្រូវបានគេចែករំលែកដើម្បីឱ្យពួកគេទៅកាន់ឡាសា ។[១៦][១៥][១៧][១៨]

Kewtsang បានរៀបរាប់ពីបញ្ហានេះប៉ុន្តែគ្រួសារត្រូវបានអនុញ្ញាតអោយផ្លាស់ទីពី Xining ទៅ Kumbum តែបន្ទាប់មកតម្រូវការបន្ថែមទៀតត្រូវបានធ្វើឡើងសម្រាប់តម្លៃលោះចំនួន 330.000 ដុល្លារទៀត។ មួយរយពាន់នាក់សម្រាប់មន្រ្តីរដ្ឋាភិបាល, មេបញ្ជាការនិងជាប្រមុខ Kumbum, ម្ភៃពាន់នាក់សម្រាប់ការអមការពារនិងដប់ពាន់នាក់សម្រាប់លោក Ma Bufang ខ្លួនគាត់បាននិយាយថា។[១៩]

ជម្លោះការទូតរយៈពេលពីរឆ្នាំមុនពេលវាត្រូវបានទទួលយកដោយឡាសាថាការលោះត្រូវបង់ដើម្បីចៀសវាងចិនចូលរួមនិងនាំខ្លួនគាត់ទៅកាន់ឡាសាដោយកងទ័ពដ៏ច្រើន។[២០] ទន្ទឹមនឹងនេះដែរក្មេងប្រុសនេះត្រូវបានរក្សាទុកនៅឯ Kumbum ដែលនៅទីនោះបងប្រុស 2 នាក់របស់គាត់កំពុងរៀនសូត្រជាព្រះសង្ឃហើយត្រូវបានគេទទួលស្គាល់ថាជាសង្ឃ។[២១] ការទូទាត់ប្រាក់ចំនួន 300.000 ដុល្លារត្រូវបានលើកកម្ពស់ដោយឈ្មួញជនជាតិម៉ូស្លីមធ្វើដំណើរឆ្ពោះទៅកាន់ទីក្រុងមេកានៅក្នុងរាត្រីដ៏ធំមួយតាមឡាសា។ ពួកគេបានបង់ប្រាក់ឱ្យលោកម៉ាប៊ូភឺក្នុងនាមរដ្ឋាភិបាលទីបេប្រឆាំងនឹងប័ណ្ណសន្យាដែលត្រូវបានគេរំដោះដោយមានចំណាប់អារម្មណ៍នៅក្នុងទីក្រុងឡាសា។[២១][២២] តម្លៃ 20.000 ដុល្លារសម្រាប់អ្នកគាំទ្រម្នាក់ត្រូវបានគេទម្លាក់ចាប់តាំងពីអ្នកជំនួញអ៊ីស្លាមបានអញ្ជើញពួកគេឱ្យចូលរួមចរាចររបស់ពួកគេដើម្បីការពារ។ លោក Ma Bufang បានបញ្ជូនទាហាន 20 នាក់របស់គាត់ជាមួយពួកគេហើយត្រូវបានបង់ប្រាក់ពីភាគីទាំងពីរចាប់តាំងពីរដ្ឋាភិបាលចិនបានផ្តល់ឱ្យគាត់នូវទឹកប្រាក់ចំនួន 50.000 ដុល្លារទៀតសម្រាប់ការចំណាយនៃការធ្វើដំណើរនេះ។ លើសពីនេះទៅទៀតរដ្ឋាភិបាលឥណ្ឌាបានជួយដល់ពួកទីបេឱ្យបង្កើនមូលនិធិលោះតាមរយៈការផ្តល់សម្បទាននាំចូល។[២២]

នៅថ្ងៃទី 21 ខែកក្កដាឆ្នាំ 1939 គណបក្សនេះបានធ្វើដំណើរឆ្លងកាត់ទីបេក្នុងការធ្វើដំណើរទៅកាន់ឡាសានៅក្នុងរថយន្ដម៉ូស្លីមដ៏ធំមួយជាមួយ Lhamo Thondup ពេលនេះមានអាយុ 4 ឆ្នាំជិះជាមួយបងប្រុសរបស់គាត់នៅក្នុងឡាំងឃីនដែលមានស្លាបពីរក្បាលពីរឆ្នាំបន្ទាប់ពី កំពុងត្រូវបានរកឃើញ។ ភ្លាមៗនៅពេលដែលពួកគេចេញពីតំបន់ Ma Bufang គាត់ត្រូវបានប្រកាសជាផ្លូវការថាជាសម្តេចសង្ឃដាឡៃឡាម៉ាទី 14 ដោយរដ្ឋាភិបាលកណ្តាលទីបេហើយបន្ទាប់ពីធ្វើដំណើរអស់ដប់សបា្ដហ៍គាត់បានមកដល់ឡាសានៅថ្ងៃទី 8 ខែតុលាឆ្នាំ 1939 ។[២៣] ការតែងតាំង (pabbajja) និងការផ្តល់នូវឈ្មោះវត្តអារាមរបស់ Tenzin Gyatso ត្រូវបានគ្រប់គ្រងដោយ Reting Rinpoche ។

ដូចដែលបានលើកឡើងដោយអ្នកយកព័ត៌មានសេដ្ឋកិច្ច Banyan ការចូលរួមរបស់ចិននៅពេលនេះគឺមានកំណត់ណាស់។[២៤] ពួកពុទ្ធសាសនិកទីបេតែងតែសំដៅទៅគាត់ដូចជាយ៉ាស៊ីនណូប៊ុង (បំណងប្រាថ្នាបំពេញបេសកកម្ម) ក្យាបហ្គុន (ព្រះអង្គសង្រ្គោះ) ឬគ្រាន់តែឃុនឌុន (វត្តមាន) ។ អ្នកកាន់សាសនារបស់គាត់ក៏ដូចជាប្រទេសលោកខាងលិចភាគច្រើនតែងហៅគាត់ថាសម្តេចសង្ឃដាឡៃឡាម៉ារចនាប័ទ្មដែលប្រើនៅលើគេហទំព័ររបស់ដាឡៃឡាម៉ា។ យោងទៅតាមសម្តេចសង្ឃដាឡៃឡាម៉ាគាត់មានគ្រូបង្រៀនបន្តបន្ទាប់នៅក្នុងប្រទេសទីបេរាប់បញ្ចូលទាំង Reting Rinpoche, Tathag Rinpoche, Ling Rinpoche និងចុងក្រោយគឺលោក Trijang Rinpoche ដែលបានក្លាយជាគ្រូបង្រៀនវ័យក្មេងនៅពេលគាត់មានអាយុ 19 ឆ្នាំ។[២៥] នៅអាយុ 11 ឆ្នាំគាត់បានជួបនឹងអ្នកឡើងភ្នំជនជាតិអូទ្រីស Heinrich Harrer ដែលក្លាយជាអ្នកបង្ហាត់វីដេអូនិងអ្នកបង្ហាត់បង្រៀនអំពីពិភពលោកនៅខាងក្រៅទីក្រុងឡាសា។ អ្នកទាំងពីរនៅតែជាមិត្តភក្ដិរហូតមកដល់ឆ្នាំ 2006 ។[២៦]

នៅឆ្នាំ 1959 នៅពេលដែលគាត់មានអាយុ 23 ឆ្នាំគាត់បានប្រឡងបញ្ចប់វគ្គសិក្សានៅប្រាសាទ Jokhang ក្នុងទីក្រុងឡាសាក្នុងអំឡុងពិធីបុណ្យម៉ូឡាមឬពិធីបុណ្យប្រចាំឆ្នាំប្រចាំឆ្នាំ។ គាត់បានទទួលកិត្តិយសនិងទទួលបានសញ្ញាបត្រ Lharampa ដែលជាកម្រិតកំរិតខ្ពស់បំផុតដែលមានតម្លៃស្មើនឹងបណ្ឌិតនៅទស្សនវិជ្ជាព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនា។[២៧][២៨]

Life as the Dalai Lama[កែប្រែ]

Lhasa's Potala Palace, today a UNESCO world heritage site, pictured in 2006

Historically the Dalai Lamas or their regents held political and religious leadership over Tibet from Lhasa with varying degrees of influence depending on the regions of Tibet and periods of history. This began with the 5th Dalai Lama’s rule in 1642 and lasted until the 1950s (except for 1705–1750), during which period the Dalai Lamas headed the Tibetan government or Ganden Phodrang. Until 1912 however, when the 13th Dalai Lama declared the complete independence of Tibet, their rule was generally subject to patronage and protection of firstly Mongol kings (1642–1720) and then the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1720–1912).[២៩] In 1939, at the age of four, the present Dalai Lama was taken in a procession of lamas to Lhasa. The Dalai Lama's childhood was then spent between the Potala Palace and Norbulingka, his summer residence, both of which are now UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

China claims that the Kuomintang government ratified the 14th Dalai Lama and that a Kuomintang representative, General Wu Zhongxin, presided over the ceremony. The British Representative Sir Basil Gould was also at the ceremony and bore witness to the falsity of the Chinese claim to have presided over it. He criticised the Chinese account as follows:

The report was issued in the Chinese Press that Mr Wu had escorted the Dalai Lama to his throne and announced his installation, that the Dalai Lama had returned thanks, and prostrated himself in token of his gratitude. Every one of these Chinese claims was false. Mr Wu was merely a passive spectator. He did no more than present a ceremonial scarf, as was done by the others, including the British Representative. But the Chinese have the ear of the world, and can later refer to their press records and present an account of historical events that is wholly untrue. Tibet has no newspapers, either in English or Tibetan, and has therefore no means of exposing these falsehoods.[៣០]

Tibetan scholor Nyima Gyaincain wrote that based on Tibetan tradition, there was no such thing as presiding over an event, but two things are clear, first, the word "主持 (preside or organize)" was used in many places in communication documents. The meaning of the word was different than what we understand today. Second, Wu Zhongxin spent a lot of time and energy on the event, his effect of presiding over or organizing the event was very obvious.[៣១] However, according to Goldstein:

everything the Tibetans did during the selection process was designed to prevent China from playing any role.[៣២]

Chiang Kai Shek ordered Ma Bufang to put his Muslim soldiers on alert for an invasion of Tibet in 1942.[៣៣] Ma Bufang complied, and moved several thousand troops to the border with Tibet.[៣៤] Chiang also threatened the Tibetans with aerial bombardment if they worked with the Japanese. Ma Bufang attacked the Tibetan Buddhist Tsang monastery in 1941.[៣៥] He also constantly attacked the Labrang monastery.[៣៦]

In October 1950 the army of the People's Republic of China marched to the edge of the Dalai Lama's territory and sent a delegation after defeating a legion of the Tibetan army in warlord-controlled Kham. On 17 November 1950, at the age of 15, the 14th Dalai Lama was enthroned formally as the temporal ruler of Tibet.

Cooperation and conflicts with the People's Republic of China[កែប្រែ]

14th Dalai Lama arrives Beijing Railway Station with 10th Panchen Lama, 1954
Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai meeting with Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama to celebrate Tibetan New Year, 1955

Panchen Lama and Dalai Lama had many conflicts in Tibetan history. Dalai Lama's formal rule was brief. He sent a delegation to Beijing, which, without his authorization,[២៨] ratified the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet.[៣៧][៣៨] He worked with the Chinese government: in September 1954, together with the 10th Panchen Lama he went to the Chinese capital to meet Mao Zedong and attend the first session of the National People's Congress as a delegate, primarily discussing China's constitution.[៣៩][៤០] On 27 September 1954, the Dalai Lama was selected as a Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress,[៤១][៤២] a post he officially held until 1964.[៤៣]

In 1956, on a trip to India to celebrate the Buddha's Birthday, the Dalai Lama asked the Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, if he would allow him political asylum should he choose to stay. Nehru discouraged this as a provocation against peace, and reminded him of the Indian Government's non-interventionist stance agreed upon with its 1954 treaty with China.[២៨]

Exile to India[កែប្រែ]

Abandoned former quarters of the Dalai Lama at the Potala. The empty vestment placed on the throne symbolises his absence

At the outset of the 1959 Tibetan uprising, fearing for his life, the Dalai Lama and his retinue fled Tibet with the help of the CIA's Special Activities Division,[៤៤] crossing into India on 30 March 1959, reaching Tezpur in Assam on 18 April.[៤៥] Some time later he set up the Government of Tibet in Exile in Dharamshala, India,[៤៦] which is often referred to as "Little Lhasa". After the founding of the government in exile he re-established the approximately 80,000 Tibetan refugees who followed him into exile in agricultural settlements.[២៧] He created a Tibetan educational system in order to teach the Tibetan children the language, history, religion, and culture. The Tibetan Institute of Performing Arts was established[២៧] in 1959 and the Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies[២៧] became the primary university for Tibetans in India in 1967. He supported the refounding of 200 monasteries and nunneries in an attempt to preserve Tibetan Buddhist teachings and the Tibetan way of life.

The Dalai Lama appealed to the United Nations on the rights of Tibetans. This appeal resulted in three resolutions adopted by the General Assembly in 1959, 1961, and 1965,[២៧] all before the People's Republic was allowed representation at the United Nations.[៤៧] The resolutions called on China to respect the human rights of Tibetans.[២៧] In 1963, he promulgated a democratic constitution which is based upon the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, creating an elected parliament and an administration to champion his cause. In 1970, he opened the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharamshala which houses over 80,000 manuscripts and important knowledge resources related to Tibetan history, politics and culture. It is considered one of the most important institutions for Tibetology in the world.[៤៨]

In 2016, there were demands from Indian politicians of different political parties and citizens to confer His Holiness The Dalai Lama the prestigious Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian honour of India which has only been awarded to a Non-Indian citizen twice in its history.[៤៩]

International advocacy[កែប្រែ]

The Dalai Lama and Desmond Tutu

At the Congressional Human Rights Caucus in 1987 in Washington, D.C., the Dalai Lama gave a speech outlining his ideas for the future status of Tibet. The plan called for Tibet to become a democratic "zone of peace" without nuclear weapons, and with support for human rights, that barred the entry of Han Chinese.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] The plan would come to be known as the "Strasbourg proposal", because the Dalai Lama expanded on the plan at Strasbourg on 15 June 1988. There, he proposed the creation of a self-governing Tibet "in association with the People's Republic of China." This would have been pursued by negotiations with the PRC government, but the plan was rejected by the Tibetan Government-in-Exile in 1991.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] The Dalai Lama has indicated that he wishes to return to Tibet only if the People's Republic of China agrees not to make any precondition for his return.[៥០] In the 1970s, the then-Paramount leader Deng Xiaoping set China's sole return requirement to the Dalai Lama as that he "must [come back] as a Chinese citizen... that is, patriotism".[៥១]

The Dalai Lama celebrated his seventieth birthday on 6 July 2005. About 10,000 Tibetan refugees, monks and foreign tourists gathered outside his home. Patriarch Alexius II of the Russian Orthodox Church alleged positive relations with Buddhists. However, later that year, the Russian state prevented the Dalai Lama from fulfilling an invitation to the traditionally Buddhist republic of Kalmykia.[៥២] Then President of the Republic of China (Taiwan), Chen Shui-bian, attended an evening celebrating the Dalai Lama's birthday at the Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall in Taipei.[៥៣] In October 2008 in Japan, the Dalai Lama addressed the 2008 Tibetan violence that had erupted and that the Chinese government accused him of fomenting. He responded that he had "lost faith" in efforts to negotiate with the Chinese government, and that it was "up to the Tibetan people" to decide what to do.[៥៤]

30 Taiwanese aborigines protested against the Dalai Lama during his visit to Taiwan after Typhoon Morakot and denounced it as politically motivated.[៥៥][៥៦][៥៧][៥៨]

The Dalai Lama is an advocate for a world free of nuclear weapons, and currently serves on the Advisory Council of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation.

The Dalai Lama has voiced his support for the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, an organisation which campaigns for democratic reformation of the United Nations, and the creation of a more accountable international political system.[៥៩] 

Teaching activities, public talks[កែប្រែ]

The Dalai Lama's main teaching room at Dharamshala
Dalai Lama conferring Kalachakra initiation at Bodh Gaya, India, December 1985
Overview of teaching venue at Bodh Gaya Kalachakra, Dec. 1985

Giving public talks for non-Buddhist audiences and interviews and teaching Buddhism to large public audiences all over the world, as well as to private groups at his residence in India, appears to be the Dalai Lama's main activity.[៦០] Despite becoming 80 years old in 2015 he maintains a busy international lectures and teaching schedule.[៦០] His public talks and teachings are usually webcast live in multiple languages, via an inviting organisation's website, or on the Dalai Lama's own website. Scores of his past teaching videos can be viewed there, as well as public talks, conferences, interviews, dialogues and panel discussions.[៦១]

The Dalai Lama's best known teaching subject is the Kalachakra tantra which, as of 2014, he had conferred a total of 33 times,[៦២] most often in India's upper Himalayan regions but also in western venues like Madison Square Garden in New York, Los Angeles, Washington DC, Barcelona, Graz, Sydney and Toronto.[៦៣] The Kalachakra (Wheel of Time) is one of the most complex teachings of Buddhism, sometimes taking two weeks to confer, and he often confers it on very large audiences, up to 200,000 students and disciples at a time.[៦៣][៦៤]

The Dalai Lama is the author of numerous books on Buddhism,[៦៥] many of them on general Buddhist subjects but also including books on particular topics like Dzogchen,[៦៦] a Nyingma practice.

In Dalai Lama’s essay, "The Ethic of Compassion" (1999), he expresses his belief that if we only reserve compassion for those that we love, we are ignoring the responsibility of sharing these characteristics of respect and empathy with those we do not have relationships with, which cannot allow us to "cultivate love." He elaborates upon this idea by writing that although it takes time to develop a higher level of compassion, eventually we will recognize that the quality of empathy will become a part of life and promote our quality as humans and inner strength.[៦៧]

He frequently accepts requests from students to visit various countries worldwide in order to give teachings to large Buddhist audiences, teachings that are usually based on classical Buddhist texts and commentaries,[៦៨] and most often those written by the 17 pandits or great masters of the Nalanda tradition, such as Nagarjuna,[៦៩][៧០] Kamalashila,[៧១][៧២] Shantideva,[៧៣] Atisha,[៧៤] Ayradeva[៧៥] and so on.

The Dalai Lama refers to himself as a follower of these Nalanda masters,[៧៦] in fact he often asserts that 'Tibetan Buddhism' is based on the Buddhist tradition of Nalanda monastery in ancient India,[៧៧] since the texts written by those 17 Nalanda pandits or masters, to whom he has composed a poem of invocation,[៧៨] were brought to Tibet and translated into Tibetan when Buddhism was first established there and have remained central to the teachings of Tibetan Buddhism ever since.[៧៩]

As examples of other teachings, in London in 1984 he was invited to give teachings on the Twelve Links of Dependent Arising, and on Dzogchen, which he gave at Camden Town Hall; in 1988 he was in London once more to give a series of lectures on Tibetan Buddhism in general, called 'A Survey of the Paths of Tibetan Buddhism'.[៨០] Again in London in 1996 he taught the Four Noble Truths, the basis and foundation of Buddhism accepted by all Buddhists, at the combined invitation of 27 different Buddhist organisations of all schools and traditions belonging to the Network of Buddhist Organisations UK.[៨១]

In India, the Dalai Lama gives religious teachings and talks in Dharamsala[៧៤] and numerous other locations including the monasteries in the Tibetan refugee settlements,[៦៨] in response to specific requests from Tibetan monastic institutions, Indian academic, religious and business associations, groups of students and individual/private/lay devotees.[៨២] In India, no fees are charged to attend these teachings since costs are covered by requesting sponsors.[៦៨] When he travels abroad to give teachings there is usually a ticket fee calculated by the inviting organization to cover the costs involved[៦៨] and any surplus is normally to be donated to recognised charities.[៨៣]

On his frequent tours of India, Asia and the west he is also often invited to give, alongside his Buddhist teachings, public talks for non-Buddhist audiences.[៨៤] His talks and teaching activities in the U.S., for example, have included the following: on his April 2008 U.S. tour, he gave lectures at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, at Rutgers University (New Jersey) and Colgate University (New York)[៨៥] Later in July, the Dalai Lama gave a public lecture and conducted a series of teachings at Lehigh University (Pennsylvania).[៨៦] On 8 May 2011, the University of Minnesota bestowed upon him their highest award, an Honorary Doctor of Letters.[៨៧] and during a return trip to Minnesota on 2 March 2014, he spoke at Macalester College which awarded him an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree.[៨៨]

Dozens of videos of recorded webcasts of the Dalai Lama's public talks on general subjects for non-Buddhists like peace, happiness and compassion, modern ethics, the environment, economic and social issues, gender, the empowerment of women and so forth can be viewed in his office's archive.[៨៩]

Interfaith dialogue[កែប្រែ]

The Dalai Lama met Pope Paul VI at the Vatican in 1973. He met Pope John Paul II in 1980, 1982, 1986, 1988, 1990, and 2003. In 1990, he met a delegation of Jewish teachers in Dharamshala for an extensive interfaith dialogue.[៩០] He has since visited Israel three times, and in 2006 met the Chief Rabbi of Israel. In 2006, he met Pope Benedict XVI privately. He has met the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Robert Runcie, and other leaders of the Anglican Church in London, Gordon B. Hinckley, who at the time was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), as well as senior Eastern Orthodox Church, Muslim, Hindu, Jewish, and Sikh officials. The Dalai Lama is also currently a member of the Board of World Religious Leaders as part of The Elijah Interfaith Institute[៩១] and participated in the Third Meeting of the Board of World Religious Leaders in Amritsar, India, on 26 November 2007 to discuss the topic of Love and Forgiveness.[៩២]

On 6 January 2009, the Dalai Lama inaugurated an interfaith "World Religions-Dialogue and Symphony" conference at Gujarat's Mahuva which was convened by the Hindu preacher Morari Bapu. This conference explored "ways and means to deal with the discord among major religions", according to Morari Bapu.[៩៣][៩៤]

On 12 May 2010 the Dalai Lama, joined by a panel of select scholars, officially launched the Common Ground Project,[៩៥] in Bloomington, Indiana (USA),[៩៦] which was planned by himself and Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad of Jordan during several years of personal conversations. The project is based on the book Common Ground between Islam and Buddhism.[៩៧]

Interest in science, and Mind and Life Institute[កែប្រែ]

The Dalai Lama’s lifelong interest in science[៩៨][៩៩] and technology[១០០] dates from his childhood in Lhasa, Tibet, when he was fascinated by mechanical objects like clocks, watches, telescopes, film projectors, clockwork soldiers[១០០] and motor cars,[១០១] and loved to repair, disassemble and reassemble them.[៩៨] Once, observing the moon through a telescope as a child, he realised it was a crater-pocked lump of rock and not a heavenly body emitting its own light as Tibetan cosmologists had taught him.[៩៨] He has also said that had he not been brought up as a monk he would probably have been an engineer.[១០២] On his first trip to the west in 1973 he asked to visit Cambridge University’s astrophysics department in the UK and he sought out renowned scientists such as Sir Karl Popper, David Bohm and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker,[១០១] who taught him the basics of science.

The Dalai Lama sees important common ground between science and Buddhism in having the same approach to challenge dogma on the basis of empirical evidence that comes from observation and analysis of phenomena.[១០៣]

His growing wish to develop meaningful scientific dialogue to explore the Buddhism and science interface led to invitations for him to attend relevant conferences on his visits to the west, including the Alpbach Symposia on Consciousness in 1983 where he met and had discussions with the late Chilean neuroscientist Francisco J. Varela.[១០១] Also in 1983, the American social entrepreneur and innovator R. Adam Engle,[១០៤] who had become aware of the Dalai Lama's deep interest in science, was already considering the idea of facilitating for him a serious dialogue with a selection of appropriate scientists.[១០៥] In 1984 Engle formally offered to the Dalai Lama's office to organise a week-long, formal dialogue for him with a suitable team of scientists, provided that the Dalai Lama would wish to fully participate in such a dialogue.[១០៦] Within 48 hours the Dalai Lama confirmed to Engle that he was "truly interested in participating in something substantial about science" so Engle proceeded with launching the project.[១០៦] Francisco Varela, having heard about Engle's proposal, then called him to tell him of his earlier discussions with the Dalai Lama and to offer his scientific collaboration to the project.[១០៦] Engle accepted, and Varela assisted him to assemble his team of six specialist scientists for the first 'Mind and Life' dialogue on the cognitive sciences,[១០៧] which was eventually held with the Dalai Lama at his residence in Dharamsala in 1987.[១០១][១០៦] This five-day event was so successful that at the end the Dalai Lama told Engle he would very much like to repeat it again in the future.[១០៨] Engle then started work on arranging a second dialogue, this time with neuroscientists in California, and the discussions from the first event were edited and published as Mind and Life's first book, "Gentle Bridges: Conversations with the Dalai Lama on the Sciences of Mind".[១០៩]

As Mind and Life Institute's remit expanded, Engle formalised the organisation as a non-profit foundation after the third dialogue, held in 1990, which initiated the undertaking of neurobiological research programmes in the U.S.A. under scientific conditions.[១០៨] Over the ensuing decades, as of 2014 at least 28 dialogues between the Dalai Lama and panels of various world-renowned scientists have followed, held in various countries and covering diverse themes, from the nature of consciousness to cosmology and from quantum mechanics to the neuroplasticity of the brain.[១១០] Sponsors and partners in these dialogues have included the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,[១១១] Johns Hopkins University,[១១២] the Mayo Clinic[១១៣] and Zurich University.[១១៤]

Apart from time spent teaching Buddhism and fulfilling responsibilities to his Tibetan followers, the Dalai Lama has probably spent, and continues to spend, more of his time and resources investigating the interface between Buddhism and science through the ongoing series of Mind and Life dialogues and its spin-offs than on any other single activity.[១០០] As the Institute's Cofounder and the Honorary Chairman he has personally presided over and participated in all its dialogues, which continue to expand worldwide.[១១៥]

These activities have given rise to dozens of DVD sets of the dialogues and books he has authored on them such as ‘Ethics for the New Millennium’ and ‘The Universe in a Single Atom’, as well as scientific papers and university research programmes.[១១៦] On the Tibetan and Buddhist side, science subjects have been added to the curriculum for Tibetan monastic educational institutions and scholarship.[១១៧] On the Western side, university and research programmes initiated by these dialogues and funded with millions of dollars in grants from the Dalai Lama Trust include the Emory-Tibet Partnership,[១១៨] Stanford School of Medicine’s Centre for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education (CCARES)[១១៩] and the Centre for Investigating Healthy Minds,[១២០] amongst others.

In particular, the Mind and Life Education Humanities & Social Sciences initiatives have been instrumental in developing the emerging field of Contemplative Science, by researching, for example, the effects of contemplative practice on the human brain, behaviour and biology.[១១៦]

In his 2005 book The Universe in a Single Atom and elsewhere, and to mark his commitment to scientific truth and its ultimate ascendancy over religious belief, unusually for a major religious leader the Dalai Lama advises his Buddhist followers: "If scientific analysis were conclusively to demonstrate certain claims in Buddhism to be false, then we must accept the findings of science and abandon those claims."[១២១] He has also cited examples of archaic Buddhist ideas he has abandoned himself on this basis.[៩៨][១២២]

These activities have even had an impact in the Chinese capital. In 2013 an 'academic dialogue' with a Chinese scientist, a Tibetan 'living Buddha' and a Professor of Religion took place in Beijing. Entitled "High-end dialogue: ancient Buddhism and modern science" it addressed the same considerations that interest the Dalai Lama, described as 'discussing about the similarities between Buddhism and modern science'.[១២៣]

Notes[កែប្រែ]

References[កែប្រែ]

  1. Van Schaik, Sam (2011)។ Tibet: A History។ Yale University Press។ ទំ. 129។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-300-15404-7 
  2. Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Jr., Donald S. (2013). The Princeton dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press. . Entries on "Dalai Lama" and "Dga’ ldan pho brang".
  3. "Definition of Dalai Lama in English"។ Oxford Dictionarieshttp://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/Dalai-Lama។ បានយកមក 2 May 2015។ "The spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism and, until the establishment of Chinese communist rule, the spiritual and temporal ruler of Tibet" 
  4. "From Birth to Exile | The Office of His Holiness The Dalai Lama"។ Dalailama.comhttp://www.dalailama.com/biography/from-birth-to-exile។ បានយកមក 27 November 2011 
  5. Thondup, Gyalo; Thurston, Anne F. (2015)។ The Noodle Maker of Kalimpong: The Untold Story of My Struggle for Tibet។ Gurgaon: Random House Publishers India Private Limited។ ទំ. 20។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-81-8400-387-1។ "Lama Thubten named my new brother Lhamo Thondup." 
  6. ៦,០ ៦,១ Thomas Laird, The Story of Tibet. Conversations with the Dalai Lama, Grove Press: New York, 2006.
  7. Li, T.T. Historical Status of Tibet, Columbia University Press, p. 179.
  8. Bell, Charles, "Portrait of the Dalai Lama", p. 399.
  9. Goldstein, Melvyn C. Goldstein, A history of modern Tibet, pp. 315–317.
  10. A 60-Point Commentary on the Chinese Government Publication: A Collection of Historical Archives of Tibet, DIIR Publications, Dharamsala, November 2008: "Chija Tagtser born holy precious child Lhamo Dhondup [...] the holy reincarnate child in Chija Tagtser."
  11. Thomas Laird, The Story of Tibet: Conversations With the Dalai Lama, p. 262 (2007) "At that time in my village", he said, "we spoke a broken Chinese. As a child, I spoke Chinese first, but it was a broken Xining language which was (a dialect of) the Chinese language." "So your first language", I responded, "was a broken Chinese regional dialect, which we might call Xining Chinese. It was not Tibetan. You learned Tibetan when you came to Lhasa." "Yes", he answered, "that is correct (...)."
  12. The economist, Volume 390, Issues 8618-8624។ Economist Newspaper Ltd.។ 2009។ ទំ. 144https://books.google.com/books?id=ub8aAQAAMAAJ&q=amdo++historic+homeland,+was+under+the+control+of+a+Muslim+warlord,+Ma+Bufang.+The+Dalai+Lama+and+his+family+didn't+learn+Tibetan+until+they+moved+to+Lhasa+in+1939&dq=amdo++historic+homeland,+was+under+the+control+of+a+Muslim+warlord,+Ma+Bufang.+The+Dalai+Lama+and+his+family+didn't+learn+Tibetan+until+they+moved+to+Lhasa+in+1939&hl=en&ei=76ajTZ6RIMHngQes7MCkCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA។ បានយកមក 9 April 2011 
  13. Politically incorrect tourism, The Economist, 26 February 2009: "When the Dalai Lama was born, the region, regarded by Tibetans as part of Amdo, a province of their historic homeland, was under the control of a Muslim warlord, Ma Bufang. The Dalai Lama and his family didn't learn Tibetan until they moved to Lhasa in 1939."
  14. ១៤,០ ១៤,១ Bell 1946, p. 397.
  15. ១៥,០ ១៥,១ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Laird 2006, p. 265
  16. Laird 2006, p. 262.
  17. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named bell398
  18. Richardson 1984, p. 152.
  19. Bell 1946, pp. 398–399.
  20. Richardson 1984, pp. 152–153.
  21. ២១,០ ២១,១ Laird 2006, p. 267.
  22. ២២,០ ២២,១ Richardson 1984, p. 153.
  23. Laird 2006, pp. 268–269.
  24. Banyan។ "The golden urn Even China accepts that only the Dalai Lama can legitimise its rule in Tibet"https://www.economist.com/news/china/21646795-even-china-accepts-only-dalai-lama-can-legitimise-its-rule-tibet-golden-urn។ បានយកមក 29 September 2017 
  25. Lama, Dalai (1990)។ Freedom in exile : the autobiography of the Dalai Lama. (1st រ.រ.)។ New York, NY: HarperCollins។ ទំ. 18។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-06-039116-2 
  26. Peter Graves (host). Dalai Lama: Soul of TibetA&E Television Networks. ពេល 08:00.
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  28. ២៨,០ ២៨,១ ២៨,២ Marcello, Patricia Cronin (2003)។ The Dalai Lama: A Biography។ Greenwood Press។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-313-32207-5https://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0313322074&id=wLzA8YKI-coC&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html។ បានយកមក 5 December 2010 
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  30. Bell 1946, p. 400.
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  34. David P. Barrett; Lawrence N. Shyu (2001)។ China in the anti-Japanese War, 1937–1945: politics, culture and society។ Peter Lang។ ទំ. 240។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-8204-4556-4https://books.google.com/books?ei=ZBghTJLZOIKClAfC_Nxi&ct=result&id=4_BxAAAAMAAJ&dq=ma+bufang+japanese&q=ma+bufang+។ បានយកមក 28 June 2010 
  35. University of Cambridge. Mongolia & Inner Asia Studies Unit (2002)។ Inner Asia, Volume 4, Issues 1–2។ The White Horse Press for the Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unit at the University of Cambridge។ ទំ. 204https://books.google.com/books?ei=yHyqTIztEsT38Aaf2sTZBw&ct=result&id=m1RuAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+three+best+known+of+the+families+in+Gansu+with+the+surname+Ma+were+those+led+by+Ma+Zhan%27ao%2C+Ma+Haiyan+and+Ma+Qianling%2C+and+it+was+the+son+of+Ma+Haiyan.+Ma+Qi+%28+1+869-193+1+%29%2C+who+moved+to+Xining+and+set+up+a+military+force+around+...&q=tsang+monastery+was+attacked+ma+bufang។ បានយកមក 28 June 2010 
  36. Paul Kocot Nietupski (1999)។ Labrang: a Tibetan Buddhist monastery at the crossroads of four civilizations។ Snow Lion Publications។ ទំ. 35។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-1-55939-090-3https://books.google.com/books?id=xGvECiS-uEgC&pg=PA35&dq=ma+lin+muslim&hl=en&ei=NX2qTLHbJoH98AahxJGCDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEEQ6AEwBTgK#v=onepage&q=ma%20lin%20muslim&f=false។ បានយកមក 28 June 2010 
  37. Gyatso, Tenzin, Dalai Lama XIV, interview, 25 July 1981.
  38. Goldstein, Melvyn C., A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951, University of California Press, 1989, pp. 812–813.
  39. Goldstein, M.C., A History of Modern Tibet, Volume 2 – The Calm before the Storm: 1951–1955, p. 493.
  40. Ngapoi recalls the founding of the TAR, Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme, China View, 30 August 2005.
  41. Goldstein, M.C., A History of Modern Tibet, Volume 2 – The Calm before the Storm: 1951–1955, p. 496.
  42. "Chairman Mao: Long Live Dalai Lama!"។ Voyage.typepad.com។ 21 January 2007។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[១] នៅថ្ងៃ 5 May 2010https://web.archive.org/web/20100505143746/http://voyage.typepad.com/china/2007/01/chairman_mao_lo.html។ បានយកមក 2 May 2010 
  43. "Official: Dalai Lama's U.S. award not to affect Tibet's stability"17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (People's Daily)។ 2007-10-16http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90883/6284184.html។ បានយកមក 28 August 2010 
  44. The CIA's Secret War in Tibet, Kenneth Conboy, James Morrison, The University Press of Kansas, 2002.
  45. Richardson (1984), p. 210.
  46. "Witness: Reporting on the Dalai Lama's escape to India." Peter Jackson. Reuters. 27 February 2009.Witness: Reporting on the Dalai Lama's escape to India| Reuters
  47. "Events of 1971"Year in Review (United Press International)។ 1971។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[២] នៅថ្ងៃ 5 May 2009https://www.webcitation.org/5gYCuqxqS?url=http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1971/12295509436546-1/។ បានយកមក 28 August 2010 
  48. "Library of Tibetan Works and Archives"Government of Tibet in Exile។ 1997។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[៣] នៅថ្ងៃ 21 April 2008https://web.archive.org/web/20080421150024/http://www.tibet.com/ltwa.html។ បានយកមក 23 September 2008 
  49. "Bharat Ratna demanded for Dalai Lama – Times of India"http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Bharat-Ratna-demanded-for-Dalai-Lama/articleshow/55877372.cms 
  50. Interview with The Guardian, 5 September 2003
  51. Yuxia, Jiang (2009-03-01)។ "Origin of the title of "Dalai Lama" and its related background"Xinhuahttp://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/01/content_10921943_3.htm។ បានយកមក 28 August 2010 
  52. Fagan, Geraldine. "Russia: How Many Missionaries Now Denied Visas’." Forum 18 News Service. Vol. 7. 2005.
  53. "China keeps up attacks on Dalai Lama"CNN។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[៤] នៅថ្ងៃ 18 December 2006https://web.archive.org/web/20061218161849/http://archives.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/east/04/01/taiwan.dalailama.05/ 
  54. "Dalai Lama admits Tibet failure"Al Jazeera។ 2008-11-03http://english.aljazeera.net/news/asia-pacific/2008/11/200811382944579283.html។ បានយកមក 28 August 2010 
  55. AFP (31 August 2009)។ "Protesters accuse Dalai Lama of staging 'political show' in Taiwan"asiaone newshttp://news.asiaone.com/News/Latest+News/Asia/Story/A1Story20090831-164580.html 
  56. Wang, Amber (31 August 2009)។ "Dalai Lama visits Taiwan typhoon victims"The Sydney Morning Heraldhttp://www.smh.com.au//breaking-news-world/dalai-lama-visits-taiwan-typhoon-victims-20090831-f4p7.html 
  57. Staff Writers (31 August 2009)។ "Dalai Lama visits Taiwan typhoon victims amid Chinese anger"Terra Daily (Kaohsiung, Taiwan (AFP))http://www.terradaily.com/reports/Dalai_Lama_visits_Taiwan_typhoon_victims_amid_Chinese_anger_999.html 
  58. "Dalai Lama Visits Taiwan"។ 2 September 2009https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB125168355194471405 
  59. "Overview" (ជាen-US)។ Campaign for a UN Parliamentary Assemblyhttp://en.unpacampaign.org/supporters/overview/?mapcountry=allnob&mapgroup=nob 
  60. ៦០,០ ៦០,១ "Schedule"។ Office of the Dalai Lamahttp://www.dalailama.com/teachings/schedule។ បានយកមក 19 May 2015 
  61. "Browse webcasts – Teachings"។ Office of the Dalai Lamahttp://dalailama.com/webcasts/category/1។ បានយកមក 19 May 2015 
  62. Kshipra Simon (21 July 2014)។ "His Holiness Dalai Lama leading the 33rd Kalachakra World Peace Prayer in Ladakh." (Photojournalism)។ New Delhi, India: Demotixhttp://www.demotix.com/news/5330591/33rd-kalachakra-ladakh#media-5330334 
  63. ៦៣,០ ៦៣,១ "Kalachakra Initiations by His Holiness the Dalai Lama"។ Office of Dalai Lamahttp://dalailama.com/teachings/kalachakra-initiations។ បានយកមក 19 May 2015។ "List of" 
  64. Antonia Blumberg (7 July 2014)។ "Dalai Lama Delivers Kalachakra Buddhist Teaching To Thousands Of Devotees"។ Huffington Posthttp://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/07/dalai-lama-kalachakra_n_5564616.html។ "Roughly 150,000 devotees reportedly converged for the event" 
  65. The Dalai Lama។ "Books (on Buddhism) by the Dalai Lama"។ Varioushttp://www.dalailama.com/biography/books/។ បានយកមក 3 May 2015 
  66. "Dzogchen: The Heart Essence of the Great Perfection"។ Shambala Publicationshttp://www.shambhala.com/snowlion_articles/dzogchen-the-heart-essence-of-the-great-perfection/។ បានយកមក 3 May 2015 
  67. Dalai Lama XIV (1999)។ "The Ethic of Compassion."។ Riverhead Books។ ទំ. 123–31។ 
  68. ៦៨,០ ៦៨,១ ៦៨,២ ៦៨,៣ "Schedule"។ World-wide: Office of Dalai Lamahttp://www.dalailama.com/teachings/schedule។ បានយកមក 3 May 2015 
  69. "His Holiness the Dalai Lama in Brisbane"។ 5 January 2015http://www.karuna.org.au/announcements/his-holiness-the-dalai-lama-in-brisbane។ "The Dalai Lama’s Brisbane teaching will be based on the classic text, Nagarjuna’s 'Precious Garland'" 
  70. Donald S Lopez Jr. (24 April 2014)។ "Nagarjuna"។ Encyclopædia Britannicahttp://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/401601/Nagarjuna 
  71. Jamyang Dorjee Chakrishar។ "When Indian Pandit Kamalashila defeated China’s Hashang in Tibet"។ Sherpa World។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[៥] នៅថ្ងៃ 21 May 2015https://web.archive.org/web/20150521052014/http://www.sherpaworld.com/show.php?at=1&sn=6805។ បានយកមក 3 May 2015 
  72. "Dalai Lama teaching Kamalashila text in Australia, 2008"។ Dalai Lama in Australia។ 11 June 2008http://www.dalailamainaustralia.org/pages/?PageID=210។ "by reference to Kamalashila's text, His Holiness the Dalai Lama will demonstrate how the nature of awareness, developed through meditative practices can be transformed into the direct perceptual wisdom necessary to achieve enlightenment itself" 
  73. "Compassion in Emptiness: Dalai Lama Teaches Shantideva" (DVD set)។ Oscilloscope។ 7 May 2011http://www.oscilloscope.net/films/film/51/Compassion-in-Emptiness។ "In 2010, His Holiness traveled to New York City to teach A Commentary on Bodhicitta by Nagarjuna and A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life by Shantideva." 
  74. ៧៤,០ ៧៤,១ Phuntsok Yangchen (1 October 2012)។ "Disciples from over 60 countries attend the Dalai Lama’s teachings"។ Phayul.comhttp://www.phayul.com/news/article.aspx?id=32210។ "The Dalai Lama today began his four-day teachings on Atisha’s [text] 'Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment'" 
  75. "The Dalai Lama's Boston teachings"។ Shambala Publications។ 17 October 2012http://www.shambhala.com/blog/shambhala/the-dalai-lamas-teaching-on-stages-of-meditation។ "Texts mentioned by His Holiness in his talk ... Aryadeva's 400 Stanzas of the Middle Way" 
  76. James Blumenthal, Ph.D (July 2012)។ "The Seventeen Pandits of Nalanda Monastery" (Online Magazine)។ FPMThttp://fpmt.org/mandala/archives/mandala-for-2012/july/the-seventeen-pandits-of-nalanda-monastery/។ បានយកមក 19 May 2015។ "he Dalai Lama frequently refers to himself as a follower of the lineage of the seventeen Nalanda masters today" 
  77. "About the Seventeen Paṇḍitas of Nālandā"។ Bodhimargahttp://www.bodhimarga.org/meditation-teachings/the-nalanda-tradition/។ បានយកមក 19 May 2015។ "they came to shape the very meaning of Buddhist philosophy and religious practice, both in India and Tibet" 
  78. Dalai Lama (15 December 2001)។ "An invocation of the seventeen great sagely adepts of glorious Nalanda" (Poetry)។ Bhikshuni Thubten Chodronhttp://thubtenchodron.org/2001/12/nalanda-prayer/ 
  79. HT Correspondent (7 March 2015)។ "Tibetan language must to keep Nalanda tradition alive: Dalai Lama"។ Dharamsala: Hindustan Timeshttp://www.hindustantimes.com/himachalpradesh/tibetan-language-must-to-keep-nalanda-tradition-alive-dalai-lama/article1-1323860.aspx។ "The unique quality of Tibetan Buddhism is that it is based on ancient India's Nalanda Buddhist tradition" 
  80. "A Survey of the Paths of Tibetan Buddhism"។ Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archivehttp://www.lamayeshe.com/index.php?sect=article&id=421។ បានយកមក 18 May 2015 
  81. Tseten Samdup (7 July 1996)។ "His Holiness the Dalai Lama will visit the UK from July 15-22 1996"។ World Tibet Network Newshttp://www.tibet.ca/en/library/wtn/archive/old?y=1996&m=7&p=7_2។ "For the first time in the West, His Holiness the Dalai Lama will give two exclusive days of teaching on 17 and 18 July 1996 on the Four Noble Truths – the heart of the Buddha's teachings. This has been requested by The Network of Buddhist Organisations – a forum for dialogue and co-operation between Buddhist organisations in the UK." 
  82. "Teachings"។ Office of Dalai Lamahttp://www.dalailama.com/teachings។ បានយកមក 3 May 2015។ "His Holiness has also been giving teachings in India at the request of various Buddhist devotees from Taiwan and Korea" 
  83. "ONLINE DONATION FACILITY IS AVAILABLE"។ Dalai Lama in Australiahttp://www.dalailamainaustralia.org/schedule/detail.aspx?ArtistID=19។ បានយកមក 3 May 2015។ "Should there be any surplus funds from His Holiness' events, that surplus will be disbursed to charitable organizations under the advisement of His Holiness the Dalai Lama" 
  84. Michael Caddell (9 September 2014)។ "His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama to give public talk at Princeton University"។ Princeton Universityhttps://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S41/02/76E28/index.xml?section=topstories។ "The Dalai Lama will give a public talk, "Develop the Heart," at 9:30 a.m. at Jadwin Gymnasium. As a scholar and a monk, the Dalai Lama will highlight the importance of developing compassion and kindness, alongside the intellect, in an academic environment" 
  85. "Dalai Lama Visits Colgate"។ The Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[៦] នៅថ្ងៃ 6 May 2008https://web.archive.org/web/20080506015358/http://www.dalailama.com/news.242.htm។ បានយកមក 23 April 2008 
  86. "Lehigh University: His Holiness the Dalai Lama"។ .lehigh.eduhttp://www3.lehigh.edu/dalaiLama/index.html។ បានយកមក 2 May 2010 
  87. "The Dalai Lama"។ umn.eduhttp://www.dalailama.umn.edu/។ បានយកមក 9 May 2012 
  88. "His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama visits Macalester, speaks to over 3,500"។ The Mac Weeklyhttp://themacweekly.com/2014/03/his-holiness-the-14th-dalai-lama-visits-macalester-speaks-to-over-3500/។ បានយកមក 9 March 2014 
  89. "Public talks" (Video)។ Office of the Dalai Lamahttp://dalailama.com/webcasts/category/4។ បានយកមក 19 May 2015 
  90. Kamenetz, Rodger (1994)The Jew in the Lotus Harper Collins: 1994.
  91. "The Elijah Interfaith Institute – Buddhist Members of the Board of World Religious Leaders"។ Elijah-interfaith.org។ 2006-12-24http://www.elijah-interfaith.org/?id=729។ បានយកមក 17 July 2013 
  92. "Third Meeting of the Board of World Religious Leaders"។ Elijah-interfaith.org។ 2013-04-07។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[៧] នៅថ្ងៃ 27 December 2013https://web.archive.org/web/20131227160915/https://www.elijah-interfaith.org/programs/board-of-world-religious-leaders/third-meeting-of-the-bwrl.html។ បានយកមក 17 July 2013 
  93. "Dalai Lama inaugurates 6-day world religions meet at Mahua"។ Indianexpress.com។ 7 January 2009http://www.indianexpress.com/news/dalai-Lama-inaugurates-6day-world-religions-.../407503។ បានយកមក 2 May 2010 
  94. Canada Tibet Committee។ "Dalai Lama to inaugurate inter-faith conference"។ Tibet.cahttp://www.tibet.ca/en/newsroom/wtn/5137។ បានយកមក 2 May 2010 
  95. "Islam and Buddhism"។ Islambuddhism.com។ 2010-05-12http://islambuddhism.com/។ បានយកមក 17 July 2013 
  96. "Dalai Lama, Muslim Leaders Seek Peace in Bloomington"។ Islambuddhism.com។ 2010-05-31http://islambuddhism.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=22:dalai-lama-muslim-leaders-seek-peace-in-bloomington&catid=6:in-the-news&Itemid=4។ បានយកមក 17 July 2013 
  97. Common Ground Between Islam and Buddhism។ Louisville, KY.: Fons Vitae។ 2010។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-1-891785-62-7 
  98. ៩៨,០ ៩៨,១ ៩៨,២ ៩៨,៣ Tenzin Gyatso (12 November 2005)។ "Our Faith in Science"។ New York Timeshttps://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/12/opinion/12dalai.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&។ "Science has always fascinated me" 
  99. Melissa Rice (3 October 2007)។ "Carl Sagan and the Dalai Lama found deep connections in 1991–92 meetings, says Sagan's widow"។ Cormell University, Cornell Chroniclehttp://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/2007/10/meeting-two-minds-carl-sagan-and-dalai-lama។ "The Dalai Lama, who has had a lifelong interest in science" 
  100. ១០០,០ ១០០,១ ១០០,២ James Kingsland (3 November 2014)។ "Dalai Lama enlightens and enraptures contemplative scientists in Boston"។ Boston, USA: The Guardianhttps://www.theguardian.com/science/blog/2014/nov/03/dalai-lama-scientists-boston-international-symposium-contemplative-studies។ "Asked how his interest in science originally developed he said he’d been fascinated by technology since childhood, recalling a clockwork toy British soldier with a gun that he played with for a few days before taking apart to see how it worked. He described how as a young man visiting China he was excited to be shown around hydroelectric dams and metal smelting works" 
  101. ១០១,០ ១០១,១ ១០១,២ ១០១,៣ "The Dalai Lama and Western Science"។ Mind and Life Institute។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[៨] នៅថ្ងៃ 19 February 2015https://web.archive.org/web/20150219190156/http://investigatingthemind.org/hhdl.science.html។ បានយកមក 6 May 2015 
  102. Bobbie L Kyle (28 March 2008)។ "10 Things You Didn't Know About the Dalai Lama"។ The U.S. News & World Reporthttps://www.usnews.com/news/world/articles/2008/03/28/10-things-you-didnt-know-about-the-dalai-lama។ "The Dalai Lama has an interest in machines, which he developed as a young boy. As a teenager he repaired a movie projector by himself, without its guide or any instructions. He has been known to say that he would have become an engineer if he hadn't been a monk" 
  103. Curt Newton (1 February 2004)។ "Meditation and the Brain"។ MIT Technology Reviewhttp://www.technologyreview.com/news/402450/meditation-and-the-brain/។ "The Dalai Lama notes that both traditions encourage challenging dogma based on observation and analysis, and a willingness to revise views based on empirical evidence." 
  104. Vincent Horn។ "The Evolution of the Mind and Life Dialogues" (Podcast Interview, transcription)។ Buddhist Geekshttp://www.buddhistgeeks.com/2009/05/bg-122-the-evolution-of-the-mind-and-life-dialogues/។ បានយកមក 9 May 2015។ "This week, Adam Engle, the business mastermind behind the Mind and Life Institute, joins us to discuss both the evolution of the project as well as its larger impact" 
  105. Begley, Sharon (2007)។ "1"។ Train Your Mind, Change Your Brain (2008 Paperback រ.រ.)។ New York: Random House។ ទំ. 19។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-345-47989-1 
  106. ១០៦,០ ១០៦,១ ១០៦,២ ១០៦,៣ Begley, Sharon (2007)។ "1"។ Train Your Mind, Change Your Brain (2008 Paperback រ.រ.)។ New York: Random House។ ទំ. 20–22។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-345-47989-1 
  107. "Mission"។ Mind and Life Institutehttps://www.mindandlife.org/mission/។ បានយកមក 6 May 2015។ "Mind and Life emerged in 1987 from a meeting of three visionaries: Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama — the spiritual leader of the Tibetan people and a global advocate for compassion; Adam Engle, a lawyer and entrepreneur; and Francisco Varela, a neuroscientist" 
  108. ១០៨,០ ១០៨,១ Vincent Horn។ "The Evolution of the Mind and Life Dialogues"។ Buddhist Geekshttp://www.buddhistgeeks.com/2009/05/bg-122-the-evolution-of-the-mind-and-life-dialogues/។ បានយកមក 9 May 2015 
  109. "Gentle Bridges: Conversations with the Dalai Lama on the Sciences of Mind"។ Shambalahttps://www.goodreads.com/book/show/104960.Gentle_Bridges។ បានយកមក 6 May 2015។ "a historic meeting that took place between several prominent Western scientists and the Dalai Lama" 
  110. "Past Dialogues"។ Mind and Life Institutehttps://www.mindandlife.org/dialogues-dalai-lama/។ បានយកមក 6 May 2015 
  111. "The Dalai Lama Centre for Ethics and Transformative Values"។ Massachusetts Institute of Technologyhttp://thecenter.mit.edu/about/mission/។ បានយកមក 7 May 2015។ "The Center focuses on the development of interdisciplinary research and programs in varied fields of knowledge, from science and technology to education and international relations" 
  112. "The Science and Clinical Applications of Meditation"។ Mind and Life XIII។ 2005។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[៩] នៅថ្ងៃ 20 February 2015https://web.archive.org/web/20150220020049/http://investigatingthemind.org/about.sponsors.html។ "Johns Hopkins is one of the world's premier centers for scholarship, research and patient care" 
  113. "His Holiness the Dalai Lama to Give Special Presentation at Mayo Clinic"។ Mayo Clinic។ 20 April 2012http://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/his-holiness-the-dalai-lama-to-give-special-presentation-at-mayo-clinic/?_ga=1.228989404.1318053370.1426080660 
  114. Tenzin Gyatso (12 November 2005)។ "Science at the Crossroads"។ Washington DC: Office of Dalai Lamahttp://www.dalailama.com/messages/buddhism/science-at-the-crossroads។ "I am also grateful to the numerous eminent scientists with whom I have had the privilege of engaging in conversations through the auspices of the Mind and Life Institute which initiated the Mind and Life conferences that began in 1987 at my residence in Dharamsala, India. These dialogues have continued over the years and in fact the latest Mind and Life dialogue concluded here in Washington just this week." 
  115. "Dialogues with the Dalai Lama"។ Mind and Life Institutehttps://www.mindandlife.org/dialogues-dalai-lama/។ បានយកមក 6 May 2015។ "These Dialogues will expand as Mind and Life grows to include Europe, Asia, and beyond" 
  116. ១១៦,០ ១១៦,១ "A 25 Years History of Accomplishment" (PDF)។ Mind and Life Institute។ 2012https://www.dropbox.com/sh/gns1ff0ziu9ikx3/AAAH3rqan1jP_RyksNVOYl0Da/MLI%2025%20years%20of%20Accomplishment.pdf?dl=0។ បានយកមក 6 May 2015 
  117. "The Dalai Lama and Western Science"។ Mind and Life Institute។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[១០] នៅថ្ងៃ 19 February 2015https://web.archive.org/web/20150219190156/http://investigatingthemind.org/hhdl.science.html។ បានយកមក 6 May 2015។ "he has led a campaign to introduce basic science education in Tibetan Buddhist monastic colleges and academic centers, and has encouraged Tibetan scholars to engage with science as a way of revitalizing the Tibetan philosophical tradition" 
  118. "Emory-Tibet Science Initiative receives $1 million grant from Dalai Lama Trust"។ Georgia, USA: Emory University។ 2014។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[១១] នៅថ្ងៃ 18 May 2015https://web.archive.org/web/20150518083919/https://tibet.emory.edu/news-and-media/news/2014/emory-tibet-science-initiative-receives-1-million-grant-from-dalai-lama-trust/index.html។ "For more than 30 years I have been engaged in an ongoing exchange with scientists, exploring what modern scientific knowledge and time-honored science of mind embodied by the Tibetan tradition can bring to each other's understanding of reality" 
  119. "His Holiness the XIVth Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso Founding Patron, CCARE"។ Palo Alto, California: Stanford University School of Medicinehttp://ccare.stanford.edu/about/people/patron-committee/#150។ បានយកមក 7 May 2015។ "He has been a strong supporter of the neurosciences for over two decades. His Holiness is a benefactor of CCARE having personally provided the largest sum he has ever given to scientific research" 
  120. "Our History"។ Madison, Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin-Madison។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[១២] នៅថ្ងៃ 7 May 2015https://web.archive.org/web/20150507230519/http://www.investigatinghealthyminds.org/។ បានយកមក 7 May 2015។ "In 1992, the Dalai Lama personally challenged Dr. Davidson to investigate how well-being could be nurtured through the insights from neuroscience. His Holiness believes that "All humans have an innate desire to overcome suffering and find happiness." This launched a robust series of research studies and new discoveries have emerged about how the mind works and how well-being can be cultivated." 
  121. Lama, Dalai (2005)។ The Universe in a Single Atom (First Large Print រ.រ.)។ New York: Random House។ ទំ. 3។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-375-72845-7 
  122. James Kingsland (3 November 2014)។ "Dalai Lama enlightens and enraptures contemplative scientists in Boston"។ Boston, USA: The Guardianhttps://www.theguardian.com/science/blog/2014/nov/03/dalai-lama-scientists-boston-international-symposium-contemplative-studies។ "He ... had long since abandoned Buddhist ideas about cosmology after reading about the findings of modern astronomers" 
  123. Lethe Guo (18 December 2013)។ "High-end dialogue: ancient Buddhism and modern science"។ China Tibet Online។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[១៣] នៅថ្ងៃ 5 October 2015https://web.archive.org/web/20151005160313/http://eng.tibet.cn/2010zj/zjhd/201312/t20131219_1960457.html។ "crossover between Buddhism and science has become a hot topic in the academic and cultural circles over the recent decades" 

External links[កែប្រែ]

សម្តេច Dalai Lama ទី 14
ប្រសូត/កើត: 6 July 1935
គោរម្យងារពុទ្ធសាសនា
មុនដោយ
Thubten Gyatso
Dalai Lama
1935–present
Recognised in 1937; enthroned in 1940
Incumbent
Heir:
15th Dalai Lama
តំណែងនយោបាយ
មុនដោយ
Ngawang Sungrab Thutob
Regent
Ruler of Tibet
1950–1959
Part of the People's Republic of China from 1951
Position abolished
New office Head of state of the
Central Tibetan Administration

1959–2012
តដោយ
Lobsang Sangay
as Sikyong
Awards and achievements
មុនដោយ
United Nations
Peacekeeping Forces
Laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize
1989
តដោយ
Mikhail Gorbachev