The word Sanskrit (संस्कृतम्) written in Devanagari.
|អ្នកនិយាយ ពីកំណើត||Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "២".|
No native script.|
Written in Devanāgarī, various Brāhmī-based alphabets,Thai in vocabularies, and Latin script
one of the 22 scheduled languages of India
ភាសាសំស្ក្ឫត (संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam សំស្ក្ឫតម៑ [sə̃skɹ̩t̪əm], ចេញមកពីពាក្យដើមថា संस्कृता वाक् សំស្ក្ឫតា វាក៑ , "សម្តីឥតខ្ចោះ"), គឺជាភាសាដែលស្ថិតនៅក្នុងអម្បូរភាសា ឥណ្ឌូ-អារ្យ័ន(Indo-Aryan) , គឺជាភាសាដំបូងសម្រាប់ប្រើក្នុងពិធីខាងសាសនា នៃសាសនា ហិន្ទូ (Hinduism ព្រាហ្មញ្ញសាសនា) ព្រមទាំងជាភាសាសម្រាប់ប្រើក្នុងអក្ឞរឝាស្ត្រ និងជាភាសាដែលប្រើនៅក្នុងអត្ថបទរបស់អ្នកប្រាជ្ញ នៅក្នុងសាសនា ពុទ្ធសាសនា(Buddhism) និង ជៃន(Jainism).[note ១] ក្រោយពីការវិវត្តពីភាសាសម័យវេទ បច្ចុប្បន្ននេះភាសាសំស្ក្ឫតត្រូវបានចុះបញ្ជីជាភាសាមួយក្នុងចំណោមភាសាចំនួន ២២ នៃ ភាសាផ្លូវការនៅប្រទេឝឥណ្ឌា ព្រមទាំងជាភាសាផ្លូវការរបស់រដ្ឋឧត្តរខ័ណ្ឌ(Uttarakhand). ភាសាសំស្ក្ឫត បាននិងកំពុងលេចធ្លោនៅក្នុងការឝិក្ឞស្រាវជ្រាវភាសានៅក្នុងចំណោមអម្បូរភាសា ឥណ្ឌូ អឺរ៉ុប (Indo-European)។
ភាសា សំស្ក្ឫតបុរាណ (Classical Sanskrit) គឺជានិយាម(standard) សម្រាប់ប្រើទូទៅដែលបានចុះក្នុង បញ្ជី(register) ដូចដែលបានចែងបញ្ជាក់នៅក្នុងវេយ្យាករណ៍របស់លោក បាណិនី (Pānini, ក្នុងរង្វង់សតវស្សទី ៤ មុនគ្រិស្តសករាជ (BCE)។ សារៈសំខាន់នៃភាសា សំស្ក្ឫត នៅក្នុងវប្បធម៌នៃប្រទេឝឥណ្ឌាទាំងមូល មានភាពស្រដៀងគ្នានឹងភាសា ឡាតាំង (Latin) និង ភាសា ក្រិក (Greek) នៅក្នុងទ្វីបអឺរ៉ុប ហើយភាសាសំស្ក្ឫតបានជះឥទ្ធិពលយ៉ាងខ្លាំងទៅលើភាសាទំនើបជាច្រើននៃ ឧបទ្វីបឥណ្ឌា, ជាពិសេសនៅក្នុងប្រទេឝ ឥណ្ឌា, បាកិស្ថាន, ឝ្រីលង្កា និង នេបាល់។
ទម្រង់ដើមនៃភាសាសំស្ក្ឫតបុរាណ (pre-Classical form) ត្រូវបានគេស្គាល់ថាជាភាសាសំស្ក្ឫតសម័យវេទ (Vedic Sanskrit), ដោយមានភាសានៃគម្ពីរឫគវេទ (Rigveda) មានអាយុចាស់ជាងគេ ហើយមានរក្ឞាទុកនូវទម្រង់បុរាណរបស់ភាសានេះ ដែលទម្រង់មូលដ្ឋានចំណាស់បំផុតរបស់វាមានលេចឡើងចាប់តាំងពីឆ្នាំ 1500 មុនគ្រិស្តសករាជ (BCE)។ នេះសបញ្ជាក់ថាភាសាសំស្ក្ឫតនៃគម្ពីរ ឫគវេទ (Rigvedic Sanskrit) គឺជាភស្តុតាងចំណាស់ជាងគេនៃអម្បូរភាសា [[ឥណ្ឌូ-អឺរ៉ុប (Indo-EU)]], ហើយវាក៏ជាសមាជិកមុនគេមួយដែលមានភស្តុតាងច្បាស់លាស់នៃអម្បូរភាសា ឥណ្ឌូ-អឺរ៉ុប, គឺជាអម្បូរភាសាដែលរាប់ទាំងភាសា អង់គ្លេស និង ភាសាភាគច្រើននៃទ្វីបអឺរ៉ុប ។
កម្រង(corpus)នៃអក្ឞរឝាស្ត្រភាសាសំស្ក្ឫតប្រមូលផ្តុំនូវប្រពៃណីខាងកំណាព្យកាព្យឃ្លោងដ៏សម្បូរបែប ព្រមទាំង នាដឝាស្ត្រសំស្ក្ឫត និង វិទ្យាឝាស្ត្រ, បច្ចេកទេស, ទស្សនវិទ្យា និង អត្ថបទ ធម៌ ផងដែរ ។ ភាសាសំស្ក្ក្ឫតនៅតែទទួលបានការពេញនិយមនិងបន្តប្រើប្រាស់ជាទូទៅនៅក្នុងភាសាខាងពិធីនៃលទ្ធិព្រាហ្មណ៍ និង ការប្រតិបត្តិពុទ្ធសាសនា នៅក្នុងរូបភាពជាបទចម្រៀងស្តុ តី(hymns) និង ធម៌សូត្រថ្វាយបង្គំព្រះ(mantra) ។ ការប្រើភាសាសំស្ក្ក្ឫតសម្រាប់និយាយប្រាឝ្រ័យទាក់ទងគ្នាក៏នៅតែឃើញមាននៅក្នុងស្ថាប័នបុរាណមួយចំនួននៅក្នុងប្រទេឝឥណ្ឌា ហើយគេក៏សង្កេតឃើញមានការខិតខំប្រឹងប្រែងស្តារឡើងវិញនូវការប្រើប្រាស់ភាសាសំស្ក្ក្ឫត ។
- ១ ឈ្មោះ
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- ៣ សូរវិទ្យា
- ៤ ប្រព័ន្ធសំណេរ
- ៥ វេយ្យាករណ៍
- ៦ ឥទ្ធិពល
- ៧ សូមមើលផងដែរ
- ៨ Notes
- ៩ Citations
- ១០ References
- ១១ Further reading
- ១២ External links
គុណនាមដែលក្លាយមកពីកិរិយាឝព្ទនៅក្នុងភាសាសំស្ក្ឫត (verbal adjective) សំស្្កឫត- អាចបកប្រែថា "ដាក់បញ្ចូលគ្នា, បង្កើតឡើង, កើតរូបរាងឡើងយ៉ាងល្អឬយ៉ាងពេញលេញ; សម្រឹតសម្រាំង, បំពាក់ដោយគ្រឿងលម្អ, អធិប្បាយន័យយ៉ាងខ្ពង់ខ្ពស់" ។ ពាក្យនេះក្លាយមកពីឫសពាក្យ សំស្ការៈ- មានន័យថា "ដាក់បញ្ចូលគ្នា, ផ្សំផ្គុំ, រៀបចំ, រៀបរៀង", ដែលមានឫសពាក្យ ស័ម- មានន័យថា "ជាមួយគ្នា" (ដូចពាក្យថាsame ក្នុងភាសាអង់គ្លេសដែរ) និង ឫសពាក្យ (ស)ការ- មានន័យថា "ធ្វើ, បង្កើត" ។
The term in the generic meaning of "made ready, prepared, completed, finished" is found in the Rigveda. Also in Vedic Sanskrit, as nominalized neuter saṃskṛtám, it means "preparation, prepared place" and thus "ritual enclosure, place for a sacrifice".
As a term for "refined or elaborated speech" the adjective appears only in Epic and Classical Sanskrit, in the Manusmriti and in the Mahabharata. The language referred to as saṃskṛta "the cultured language" has by definition always been a "sacred" and "sophisticated" language, used for religious and learned discourse in ancient India, and contrasted with the languages spoken by the people, prākṛta- "natural, artless, normal, ordinary".
In order to explain the common features shared by Sanskrit and other Indo-European languages, many scholars have proposed migration hypotheses asserting that the original speakers of what became Sanskrit arrived in what is now India and Pakistan from the north-west some time during the early second millennium BCE. Evidence for such a theory includes the close relationship of the Indo-Iranian tongues with the Baltic and Slavic languages, vocabulary exchange with the non-Indo-European Uralic languages, and the nature of the attested Indo-European words for flora and fauna.
The earliest attested Sanskrit texts are Brahmanical texts of the Rigveda, which date to the mid-to-late second millennium BCE. No written records from such an early period survive. However, scholars are confident that the oral transmission of the texts is reliable: they were ceremonial literature whose correct pronunciation was considered crucial to its religious efficacy.
From the Rigveda until the time of Pāṇini (fl. 4th century BCE) the development of the early Vedic language may be observed in other Vedic texts: the Samaveda, Yajurveda, Atharvaveda, Brahmanas, and Upanishads. During this time, the prestige of the language, its use for sacred purposes, and the importance attached to its correct enunciation all served as powerful conservative forces resisting the normal processes of linguistic change. However, there is a clear, five-level linguistic development of Vedic from the Rigveda to the language of the Upanishads and the earliest Sutras (such as Baudhayana).
The oldest surviving Sanskrit grammar is Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī ("Eight-Chapter Grammar"). It is essentially a prescriptive grammar, i.e., an authority that defines correct Sanskrit, although it contains descriptive parts, mostly to account for some Vedic forms that had become rare in Pāṇini's time.
The term "Sanskrit" was not thought of as a specific language set apart from other languages, but rather as a particularly refined or perfected manner of speaking. Knowledge of Sanskrit was a marker of social class and educational attainment in ancient India and the language was taught mainly to members of the higher castes, through close analysis of Sanskrit grammarians such as Pāṇini. Sanskrit, as the learned language of Ancient India, thus existed alongside the Prakrits (vernaculars), also called Middle Indic dialects, and eventually into the contemporary modern Indo-Aryan languages.
ភាសា សំស្ក្ឫត, ដូចដែលបានឲ្យនិយមន័យដោយលោក បាណិនិ (Pānini), បានវិវត្តចេញពីទម្រង់ដើមនៃភាសា សំស្ក្ឫតក្នុងគម្ពីរវេទ (Veda) ។ The beginning of Vedic Sanskrit can be traced as early as 1500–1200 BCE (for Rig-vedic and Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni). Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit and Classical or "Pāṇinian" Sanskrit as separate 'dialects'. Though they are quite similar, they differ in a number of essential points of phonology, vocabulary, grammar and syntax. Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, a large collection of hymns, incantations (Samhitas), theological and religio-philosophical discussions in the Brahmanas and Upanishads. Modern linguists consider the metrical hymns of the Rigveda Samhita to be the earliest, composed by many authors over several centuries of oral tradition. The end of the Vedic period is marked by the composition of the Upanishads, which form the concluding part of the Vedic corpus in the traditional view; however the early Sutras are Vedic, too, both in language and content. Around the mid-1st millennium BCE, Vedic Sanskrit began the transition from a first language to a second language of religion and learning.
For nearly 2,000 years, a cultural order existed that exerted influence across South Asia, Inner Asia, Southeast Asia, and to a certain extent, East Asia. A significant form of post-Vedic Sanskrit is found in the Sanskrit of the Hindu Epics—the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The deviations from Pāṇini in the epics are generally considered to be on account of interference from Prakrits, or "innovations" and not because they are pre-Paninean. Traditional Sanskrit scholars call such deviations ārṣa (आर्ष), meaning 'of the ṛṣis', the traditional title for the ancient authors. In some contexts, there are also more "prakritisms" (borrowings from common speech) than in Classical Sanskrit proper. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit is a literary language heavily influenced by Middle Indic, based on early Buddhist prakrit texts which subsequently assimilated to the Classical Sanskrit standard in varying degrees.
According to Tiwari (1955), there were four principal dialects of classical Sanskrit: paścimottarī (Northwestern, also called Northern or Western), madhyadeśī (lit., middle country), pūrvi (Eastern) and dakṣiṇī (Southern, arose in the Classical period). The predecessors of the first three dialects are even attested in Vedic Brāhmaṇas, of which the first one was regarded as the purest (Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, 7.6).
There are a number of sociolinguistic studies of spoken Sanskrit which strongly suggest that oral use of Sanskrit is limited, with its development having ceased sometime in the past. Accordingly, says Pollock (2001), "most observers would agree that, in some crucial way, Sanskrit is dead". He describes it in comparison with the "dead" language of Latin:
Both died slowly, and earliest as a vehicle of literary expression, while much longer retaining significance for learned discourse with its universalist claims. Both were subject to periodic renewals or forced rebirths, sometimes in connection with a politics of translocal aspiration… At the same time… both came to be ever more exclusively associated with narrow forms of religion and priestcraft, despite centuries of a secular aesthetic.
The decline of Sanskrit use in literary and political circles was likely due to a weakening of the political institutions that supported it, and to heightened competition with vernacular languages seeking literary-cultural dignity. There was regional variation in the forcefulness of these vernacular movements and Sanskrit declined in different ways across the Indian subcontinent. For example, in Kashmir, Kashmiri was used alongside Sanskrit as the language of literature after the 13th century. Sanskrit works from the Vijayanagara Empire failed to circulate outside their place and time of composition. By contrast, works in Kannada and Telugu flourished.
Despite this presumed "death" of Sanskrit and the literary use of vernacular languages, Sanskrit continued to be used in literary cultures in India, and those who could read vernacular languages could also read Sanskrit. It did mean that Sanskrit was not used to express changing forms of subjectivity and sociality embodied and conceptualized in the modern age. Instead, it was reduced to "reinscription and restatements" of ideas already explored, and any creativity in Sanskrit was restricted to religious hymns and verses. When the British imposed a Western-style education system in India in the nineteenth century, knowledge of Sanskrit and ancient literature continued to flourish as the study of Sanskrit changed from a more traditional style into a form of analytical and comparative scholarship mirroring that of Europe.
On a more public level the statement that Sanskrit is a dead language is misleading, for Sanskrit is quite obviously not as dead as other dead languages and the fact that it is spoken, written and read will probably convince most people that it cannot be a dead language in the most common usage of the term. Pollock’s notion of the “death of Sanskrit” remains in this unclear realm between academia and public opinion when he says that “most observers would agree that, in some crucial way, Sanskrit is dead”—Hanneder (2002:294)
Hanneder (2009) argues that modern works in Sanskrit are either ignored or their "modernity" contested. The Sahitya Akademi has had, since 1967, an award for the best creative work written that year in Sanskrit. In 2009, Satyavrat Shastri became the first Sanskrit author to win the Jnanpith Award, India's highest literary award.
European scholarship in Sanskrit, begun by Heinrich Roth (1620–1668) and Johann Ernst Hanxleden (1681–1731),  is regarded as responsible for the discovery of the Indo-European language family by Sir William Jones. This scholarship played an important role in the development of Western philology, or historical linguistics.
The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong, indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists.
British attitudes towards Sanskrit[កែប្រែ]
According to Thomas R. Trautmann, after the 18th-century wave of "Indomania", i.e. enthusiasm for Indian culture and for Sanskrit, as exemplified in the positions of Orientalist scholars such as Sir William Jones, a certain hostility to Sanskrit and to Indian culture in general began to assert itself in Britain in the early 19th century. The hostility was manifest by a neglect of Sanskrit in British academia, as compared to other European countries, and was part of a general push in favor of the idea that India should be culturally, religiously and linguistically assimilated to Britain as far as possible. Traufmann considers that this British hostility to Sanskrit had two separate and logically opposite sources: one was "British Indophobia", which he calls essentially a developmentalist, progressivist, liberal, and non-racial-essentialist critique of Hindu civilization as an aid for the improvement of India along European lines. The other was race science, which was a theorisation of the English "common-sense view" that Indians constituted a "separate, inferior and unimprovable race".
The sounds are traditionally listed in the order vowels (Ach), diphthongs (Hal), anusvara and visarga, plosives (Sparśa) and nasals (starting in the back of the mouth and moving forward), and finally the liquids and fricatives, written in IAST as follows (see the tables below for details):
- a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ ; e ai o au
- ṃ ḥ
- k kh g gh ṅ; c ch j jh ñ; ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍh ṇ; t th d dh n; p ph b bh m
- y r l v; ś ṣ s h
The vowels of Classical Sanskrit written in Devanagari, as a syllable-initial letter and as a diacritic mark on the consonant प् (/p/), pronunciation transcribed in IPA, IAST, and approximate equivalent in English:
|Letter||प्||IPA||IAST||English equivalent (GA unless stated otherwise)|
|अ||प||/ɐ/ or /ə/||a||short near-open central vowel or schwa: u in bunny|
|आ||पा||/ɑː/||ā||long open back unrounded vowel: a in father (RP)|
|इ||पि||/i/||i||short close front unrounded vowel: e in england|
|ई||पी||/iː/||ī||long close front unrounded vowel: ee in feet|
|उ||पु||/u/||u||short close back rounded vowel: oo in foot|
|ऊ||पू||/uː/||ū||long close back rounded vowel: oo in cool|
|ऋ||पृ||/r̩/||ṛ||syllabic alveolar trill: closest to er in butter in rhotic accents|
|ॠ||पॄ||/r̩ː/||ṝ||syllabic alveolar trill: closest to ir in bird in rhotic accents|
|ऌ||पॢ||/l̩/||ḷ||syllabic dental lateral approximant: le in turtle|
|ॡ||पॣ||/l̩ː/||ḹ||syllabic dental lateral approximant: longer le|
|ए||पे||/eː/||e||long close-mid front unrounded vowel: a in bane (some speakers)|
|ऐ||पै||/əi/||ai||a long diphthong: i in ice, i in kite (US, Canadian, and Scottish English)|
|ओ||पो||/oː/||o||long close-mid back rounded vowel: o in bone (Scottish English)|
|औ||पौ||/əu/||au||a long diphthong: ou in house (Canadian English)|
The long vowels are pronounced twice as long as their short counterparts. Also, there exists a third, extra-long length for most vowels, called pluti, which is used in various cases, but particularly in the vocative. The pluti is not accepted by all grammarians.
The vowels /e/ and /o/ continue as allophonic variants of Proto-Indo-Iranian /ai/, /au/ and are categorized as diphthongs by Sanskrit grammarians even though they are realized phonetically as simple long vowels. (See above).
- There are some additional signs traditionally listed in tables of the Devanagari script:
- The diacritic ं called anusvāra, (IAST: ṃ). It is used both to indicate the nasalization of the vowel in the syllable ([◌̃] and to represent the sound of a syllabic /n/ or /m/; e.g. पं /pəŋ/.
- The diacritic ः called visarga, represents /əh/ (IAST: ḥ); e.g. पः /pəh/.
- The diacritic ँ called chandrabindu, not traditionally included in Devanagari charts for Sanskrit, is used interchangeably with the anusvāra to indicate nasalization of the vowel, primarily in Vedic notation; e.g. पँ /pə̃/.
- If a lone consonant needs to be written without any following vowel, it is given a halanta/virāma diacritic below (प्).
- The vowel /aː/ in Sanskrit is realized as being more central and less back than the closest English approximation, which is /ɑː/. But the grammarians have classified it as a back vowel.
- The ancient Sanskrit grammarians classified the vowel system as velars, retroflexes, palatals and plosives rather than as back, central and front vowels. Hence ए and ओ are classified respectively as palato-velar (a+i) and labio-velar (a+u) vowels respectively. But the grammarians have classified them as diphthongs and in prosody, each is given two mātrās. This does not necessarily mean that they are proper diphthongs, but neither excludes the possibility that they could have been proper diphthongs at a very ancient stage (see above). These vowels are pronounced as long /eː/ and /oː/ respectively by learned Sanskrit Brahmans and priests of today. Other than the "four" diphthongs, Sanskrit usually disallows any other diphthong—vowels in succession, where they occur, are converted to semivowels according to sandhi rules.
|p प [p]||b ब [b]||t त [t̪]||d द [d̪]||ṭ ट [ʈ ]||ḍ ड [ɖ ]||c च [c͡ç]||j ज [ɟ͡ʝ]||k क [k]||g ग [ɡ]|
|ph फ [pʰ]||bh भ [bʱ]||th थ [t̪ʰ]||dh ध [d̪ʱ]||ṭh ठ [ʈʰ]||ḍh ढ [ɖʱ]||ch छ [c͡çʰ]||jh झ [ɟ͡ʝʱ]||kh ख [kʰ]||gh घ [ɡʱ]|
|m म [m]||n न [n̪]||ṇ ण [ɳ ]||(ñ ञ [ ɲ])||ṅ ङ [ŋ]|
|v व [ʋ]||y य [j]|
|l ल [l̪]||r र [ɽ][សង្ស័យ ]|
|s स [s̪]||ṣ ष [ʂ]||ś श [ɕ]||ḥ ः [h]||h ह [ɦ]|
The table below shows the traditional listing of the Sanskrit consonants with the (nearest) equivalents in English (as pronounced in General American and Received Pronunciation) and Spanish. Each consonant shown below is deemed to be followed by the neutral vowel schwa (/ə/), and is named in the table as such.
/kə/; English: skip
/kʰə/; English: cat
/ɡə/; English: game
/ɡʱə/; similar to English: doghouse
/ŋə/; English: ring
/cə/; English: exchange
/cʰə/; English: church
/ɟə/; English: jam
/ɟʱə/; similar to English: hedgehog
[ ɲə]; English: bench
/ʈə/; English: stop
/ʈʰə/; English: top
/ɖə/; English: door
/ɖʱə/; similar to English: adhere
/ɳə/; English: name
/t̪ə/; Spanish: tomate
/t̪ʰə/; Aspirated /t̪/
/d̪ə/; Spanish: donde
/d̪ʱə/; Aspirated /d̪/
/n̪ə/; Spanish: nombre
/pə/; English: spin
/pʰə/; English: pit
/bə/; English: bone
/bʱə/; similar to English: clubhouse
/mə/; English: mine
/jə/; English: you
/ɽə/; American English: butter
/l̪ə/; Spanish: la
/ʋə/; English: vase
/ɕə/; English: ship
/ʂə/; Retroflex form of /ʃ/
/s̪ə/; English: same
/ɦə/; English ahead
Vedic Sanskrit had pitch accent: Some syllables had a high tone, and the following syllable a falling tone, though through ellipsis a falling tone may occur elsewhere.
Classical Sanskrit ...
The Sanskrit vowels are as discussed in the section above. The long syllabic l (ḹ) is not attested, and is only discussed by grammarians for systematic reasons. Its short counterpart ḷ occurs in a single root only, kḷp "to order, array". Long syllabic r (ṝ) is also quite marginal, occurring in the genitive plural of r-stems (e.g. mātṛ "mother" and pitṛ "father" have gen.pl. mātṝṇām and pitṝṇām). i, u, ṛ, ḷ are vocalic allophones of consonantal y, v, r, l. There are thus only 5 invariably vocalic phonemes,
- a, ā, ī, ū, ṝ.
Visarga ḥ ः is an allophone of r and s, and anusvara ṃ, Devanagari ं of any nasal, both in pausa (i.e., the nasalized vowel). The exact pronunciation of the three sibilants may vary, but they are distinct phonemes. An aspirated voiced sibilant /zʱ/ was inherited by Indo-Aryan from Proto-Indo-Iranian but lost shortly before the time of the Rigveda (aspirated fricatives are exceedingly rare in any language). The retroflex consonants are somewhat marginal phonemes, often being conditioned by their phonetic environment; they do not continue a PIE series and are often ascribed by some linguists to the substratal influence of Dravidian or other substrate languages. The nasal [ɲ] is a conditioned allophone of /n/ (/n/ and /ɳ/ are distinct phonemes—aṇu 'minute', 'atomic' [nom. sg. neutr. of an adjective] is distinctive from anu 'after', 'along'; phonologically independent /ŋ/ occurs only marginally, e.g. in prāṅ 'directed forwards/towards' [nom. sg. masc. of an adjective]). There are thus 31 consonantal or semi-vocalic phonemes, consisting of four/five kinds of stops realized both with or without aspiration and both voiced and voiceless, three nasals, four semi-vowels or liquids, and four fricatives, written in IAST transliteration as follows:
- k, kh, g, gh; c, ch, j, jh; ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh; t, th, d, dh; p, ph, b, bh; m, n, ṇ; y, r, l, v; ś, ṣ, s, h
or a total of 36 unique Sanskrit phonemes altogether.
The phonological rules which are applied when combining morphemes to a word, and when combining words to a sentence, are collectively called sandhi "composition". Texts are written phonetically, with sandhi applied (except for the so-called padapāṭha).
Sanskrit was spoken in an oral society, and the oral tradition was maintained through the development of early classical Sanskrit literature. Writing was not introduced to India until after Sanskrit had evolved into the Prakrits; when it was written, the choice of writing system was influenced by the regional scripts of the scribes. Therefore, Sanskrit has no native script of its own. As such, virtually all of the major writing systems of South Asia have been used for the production of Sanskrit manuscripts. Since the late 19th century, devanāgari has become the de facto standard writing system for Sanskrit publication, quite possibly because of the European practice of printing Sanskritic texts in this script. Devanāgari is written from left to right, lacks distinct letter cases, and is recognizable by a distinctive horizontal line running along the tops of the letters that links them together.
The earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit date to the 1st century BCE. They are in the Brahmi script, which was originally used for Prakrit, not Sanskrit. It has been described as a "paradox" that the first evidence of written Sanskrit occurs centuries later than that of the Prakrit languages which are its linguistic descendants. When Sanskrit was written down, it was first used for texts of an administrative, literary or scientific nature. The sacred texts were preserved orally, and were set down in writing, "reluctantly" (according to one commentator), and at a comparatively late date.
Brahmi evolved into a multiplicity of scripts of the Brahmic family, many of which were used to write Sanskrit. Roughly contemporary with the Brahmi, the Kharosthi script was used in the northwest of the subcontinent. Later (around the 4th to 8th centuries CE) the Gupta script, derived from Brahmi, became prevalent. From ca. the 8th century, the Sharada script evolved out of the Gupta script. The latter was displaced in its turn by Devanagari from ca. the 11/12th century, with intermediary stages such as the Siddham script. In Eastern India, the Bengali script and, later, the Oriya script, were used. In the south where Dravidian languages predominate, scripts used for Sanskrit include Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam and Grantha.
Since the late 18th century, Sanskrit has been transliterated using the Latin alphabet. The system most commonly used today is the IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration), which has been the academic standard since 1888/1912. ASCII-based transliteration schemes have evolved due to difficulties representing Sanskrit characters in computer systems. These include Harvard-Kyoto and ITRANS, a transliteration scheme that is used widely on the Internet, especially in Usenet and in email, for considerations of speed of entry as well as rendering issues. With the wide availability of Unicode-aware web browsers, IAST has become common online.
It is also possible to type using an alphanumeric keyboard and transliterate to devanagari using software like Mac OS X's international support.
European scholars in the 19th century generally preferred Devanagari for the transcription and reproduction of whole texts and lengthy excerpts. However, references to individual words and names in texts composed in European languages were usually represented with Roman transliteration. From the 20th century onwards, due to production costs, textual editions edited by Western scholars have mostly been in Romanized transliteration.
Sanskrit grammatical tradition (vyākaraṇa, one of the six Vedanga disciplines) began in late Vedic India and culminated in the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini, which consists of 3990 sutras (ca. 5th century BCE). About a century after Pāṇini (around 400 BCE) Kātyāyana composed Vārtikas on Pāṇinian sũtras. Patañjali, who lived three centuries after Pāṇini, wrote the Mahābhāṣya, the "Great Commentary" on the Aṣṭādhyāyī and Vārtikas. Because of these three ancient Sanskrit grammarians this grammar is called Trimuni Vyākarana. To understand the meaning of sutras Jayaditya and Vāmana wrote the commentary named Kāsikā 600 CE. Pāṇinian grammar is based on 14 Shiva sutras (aphorisms). Here whole Mātrika (alphabet) is abbreviated. This abbreviation is called Pratyāhara.
Sanskrit has ten classes of verbs divided into in two broad groups: athematic and thematic. The thematic verbs are so called because an a, called the theme vowel, is inserted between the stem and the ending. This serves to make the thematic verbs generally more regular. Exponents used in verb conjugation include prefixes, suffixes, infixes, and reduplication. Every root has (not necessarily all distinct) zero, guṇa, and vṛddhi grades. If V is the vowel of the zero grade, the guṇa-grade vowel is traditionally thought of as a + V, and the vṛddhi-grade vowel as ā + V.
The verb tenses (a very inexact application of the word, since more distinctions than simply tense are expressed) are organized into four 'systems' (as well as gerunds and infinitives, and such creatures as intensives/frequentatives, desideratives, causatives, and benedictives derived from more basic forms) based on the different stem forms (derived from verbal roots) used in conjugation. There are four tense systems:
- Present (Present, Imperfect,[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] Imperative, Optative)
- Future (Future, Conditional)
Sanskrit is a highly inflected language with three grammatical genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) and three numbers (singular, plural, dual). It has eight cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, genitive, and locative.
The number of actual declensions is debatable. Pāṇini identifies six karakas corresponding to the nominative, accusative, dative, instrumental, locative, and ablative cases. Pāṇini defines them as follows (Ashtadhyayi, I.4.24–54):
- Apadana (lit. 'take off'): "(that which is) firm when departure (takes place)." This is the equivalent of the ablative case, which signifies a stationary object from which movement proceeds.
- Sampradana ('bestowal'): "he whom one aims at with the object". This is equivalent to the dative case, which signifies a recipient in an act of giving or similar acts.
- Karana ("instrument") "that which effects most." This is equivalent to the instrumental case.
- Adhikarana ('location'): or "substratum." This is equivalent to the locative case.
- Karman ('deed'/'object'): "what the agent seeks most to attain". This is equivalent to the accusative case.
- Karta ('agent'): "he/that which is independent in action". This is equivalent to the nominative case. (On the basis of Scharfe, 1977: 94)
សព្ទនាមបុរិសៈPersonal pronouns and determiners[កែប្រែ]
The first and second person pronouns are declined for the most part alike, having by analogy assimilated themselves with one another. Where two forms are given, the second is enclitic and an alternative form. Ablatives in singular and plural may be extended by the syllable -tas; thus mat or mattas, asmat or asmattas. Sanskrit does not have true third person pronouns, but its demonstratives fulfill this function instead by standing independently without a modified substantive.
There are four different demonstratives in Sanskrit: tat, etat, idam, and adas. etat indicates greater proximity than tat. While idam is similar to etat, adas refers to objects that are more remote than tat. eta, is declined almost identically to ta. Its paradigm is obtained by prefixing e- to all the forms of ta. As a result of sandhi, the masculine and feminine singular forms transform into eṣas and eṣã.
The enclitic pronoun ena is found only in a few oblique cases and numbers. Interrogative pronouns all begin with k-, and decline just as tat does, with the initial t- being replaced by k-. The only exception to this are the singular neuter nominative and accusative forms, which are both kim and not the expected *kat. For example, the singular feminine genitive interrogative pronoun, "of whom?", is kasyãḥ. Indefinite pronouns are formed by adding the participles api, cid, or cana after the appropriate interrogative pronouns. All relative pronouns begin with y-, and decline just as tat does. The correlative pronouns are identical to the tat series.
In addition to the pronouns described above, some adjectives follow the pronominal declension. Unless otherwise noted, their declension is identical to tat.
- eka: "one", "a certain". (singular neuter nominative and accusative forms are both ekam)
- anya: "another".
- sarva: "all", "every". (singular neuter nominative and accusative forms are both sarvam)
- para: "the other". (singular neuter nominative and accusative forms are both param)
- sva: "self" (a reflexive adjective). (singular neuter nominative and accusative forms are both svam)
One other notable feature of the nominal system is the very common use of nominal compounds, which may be huge (10+ words) as in some modern languages such as German and Finnish. Nominal compounds occur with various structures, however morphologically speaking they are essentially the same. Each noun (or adjective) is in its (weak) stem form, with only the final element receiving case inflection. The four principle categories of nominal compounds are:
- Dvandva (co-ordinative)
- These consist of two or more noun stems, connected in sense with 'and'. Examples are rāma-lakşmaņau—Rama and Lakshmana, rāma-lakşmaņa-bharata-śatrughnāh—Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata and Satrughna, and pāņipādam—limbs, literally hands and feet, from pāņi = hand and pāda = foot.
- Tatpuruṣa (determinative)
- There are many tatpuruṣas; in a tatpuruṣa the first component is in a case relationship with another. For example, a doghouse is a dative compound, a house for a dog; other examples include instrumental relationships ("thunderstruck") and locative relationships ("towndwelling").
- Karmadhāraya (descriptive)
- A compound where the relation of the first member to the last is appositional, attributive or adverbial; e.g., uluka-yatu (owl+demon) is a demon in the shape of an owl. Karmadhārayas are considered by some to be tatpuruṣas.
- Bahuvrīhi (possessive/exocentric)
- Bahuvrīhi compounds refer to a compound noun that refers to a thing which is itself not part of the compound. For example the word bahuvrīhi itself, from bahu = much and vrīhi = rice, denotes a rich person—one who has much rice.
Because of Sanskrit's complex declension system the word order is free. In usage, there is a strong tendency toward subject–object–verb (SOV), which was the original system in place in Vedic prose. However, there are exceptions when word pairs cannot be transposed.
The numbers from one to ten:
The numbers one through four are declined. Éka is declined like a pronominal adjective, though the dual form does not occur. Dvá appears only in the dual. Trí and catúr are declined irregularly:
Influence on vernaculars[កែប្រែ]
Sanskrit's greatest influence, presumably, is that which it exerted on languages of India that grew from its vocabulary and grammatical base; for instance, Hindi is a "Sanskritized register" of the Khariboli dialect. However, all modern Indo-Aryan languages, as well as Munda and Dravidian languages, have borrowed many words either directly from Sanskrit (tatsama words), or indirectly via middle Indo-Aryan languages (tadbhava words). Words originating in Sanskrit are estimated to constitute roughly fifty percent of the vocabulary of modern Indo-Aryan languages, and the literary forms of (Dravidian) Malayalam and Kannada. Literary texts in Telugu are lexically Sanskrit or Sanskritized to an enormous extent, perhaps seventy percent or more.
Sanskrit is prized as a storehouse of scripture and as the language of prayers in Hinduism. Like Latin's influence on European languages and Classical Chinese's influence on East Asian languages, Sanskrit has influenced most Indian languages. While vernacular prayer is common, Sanskrit mantras are recited by millions of Hindus, and most temple functions are conducted entirely in Sanskrit, often Vedic in form. Of modern day Indian languages, Nepali, Bengali, Assamese, Konkani and Marathi still retain a largely Sanskrit and Prakrit vocabulary base, while Hindi and Urdu tend to be more heavily weighted with Arabic and Persian influence. The Indian national anthem, Jana Gana Mana, is written in a literary form of Bengali (known as sadhu bhasha); it is Sanskritized to be recognizable but is still archaic to the modern ear. The national song of India, Vande Mataram, which was originally a poem composed by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and taken from his book called 'Anandamath', is in a similarly highly Sanskritized Bengali. Malayalam, Telugu and Kannada also combine a great deal of Sanskrit vocabulary. Sanskrit also has influence on Chinese through Buddhist Sutras. Chinese words like 剎那 chànà (Devanāgarī: क्षण kṣaṇa 'instantaneous period of time') were borrowed from Sanskrit.
The 1991 and 2001, census of India recorded 49,736 and 14,135 persons, respectively, with Sanskrit as their native language. Since the 1990s, efforts to revive spoken Sanskrit have been increasing. Many organizations like the Samskrta Bharati are conducting Speak Sanskrit workshops to popularize the language. The state of Uttarakhand in India has ruled Sanskrit as its second official language. The CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) of India has made Sanskrit a third language (though it is an option for the school to adopt it or not, the other choice being the state's own official language) in the schools it governs. In such schools, learning Sanskrit is an option for grades 5 to 8 (Classes V to VIII). This is true of most schools affiliated to the ICSE board too, especially in those states where the official language is Hindi. Sudharma, the only daily newspaper in Sanskrit has been published out of Mysore in India since the year 1970. Since 1974, there has been a short daily news broadcast on state-run All India Radio.
Indian newspapers have published reports about several isolated villages, where, as a result of recent revival attempts, large parts of the population, including children, are learning Sanskrit and are even using it to some extent in everyday communication:
- Mattur in Karnataka
- Mohad, District: Narasinhpur, Madhya Pradesh
- Jhiri, District: Rajgadh, Madhya Pradesh
- Kaperan, District: Bundi, Rajasthan
- Khada, District: Banswada, Rajasthan
- Ganoda, District: Banswada, Rajasthan
- Bawali, District: Bagapat, Uttar Pradesh
- Shyamsundarpur, District: Kendujhar, Orissa
In the Republic of India, in Nepal and Indonesia, Sanskrit phrases are widely used as mottoes for various educational and social organizations (much as Latin is used by some institutions in the West). The motto of the Republic is also in Sanskrit.
- Republic of India
- 'सत्यमेव जयते' Satyameva Jayate "Truth alone triumphs"
- Supreme Court of India
- 'यतो धर्मस्ततो जयः' Yato Dharmastato Jayaha "Whence dharma, thence victory"
- 'सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यन्तु मा कश्चिद्दुःखभाग्भवेत्' Sarve Bhadrāni Paśyantu Mā Kaścid Duhkhabhāg bhavet "May all perceive good, may not anyone attain unhappiness"
- Life Insurance Corporation of India
- 'योगक्षेमं वहाम्यहम्', Yogakshemam Vahāmyaham "I shall take care of welfare" (taken from the Bhagavad Gita)
- Indian Navy
- 'शं नो वरुणः' Shanno Varuna "May Varuna be peaceful to us"
- Indian Air Force
- 'नभःस्पृशं दीप्तम्' Nabhaḥ-Spṛśaṃ Dīptam "Touching the Sky with Glory" (from Bhagavad Gita: XI, Verse 24)
- Mumbai Police
- 'सद्रक्षणाय खलनिग्रहणाय' Sadrakshanaaya Khalanigrahanaaya "For protection of the good and control of the wicked"
- Indian Coast Guard
- 'वयं रक्षामः' Vayam Rakshāmaha "We protect"
- All India Radio
- 'बहुजनहिताय बहुजनसुखाय' Bahujana-hitāya bahujana-sukhāya "For the benefit of all, for the comfort of all"
- Rajputana Rifles
- 'वीरभोग्या वसुन्धरा' Veerabhogya Vasundhara "The earth is fit to be ruled by the brave"
- 'जननी जन्मभूमिश्च स्वर्गादपि गरीयसी' Janani Janmabhūmisca Svargādapi garīyasi "Mother and motherland are greater than heaven"
- Indonesian Navy
- 'जलेष्वेव जयामहे' Jalesveva Jayamahe "On the Sea We Are Glorious"
- Aceh Province
- 'पञ्चचित' Pancacita "Five Goals"
Many of the post–Independence educational institutions of national importance in India and Sri Lanka have Sanskrit mottoes. For a fuller list of such educational institutions, see List of educational institutions which have Sanskrit phrases as their mottoes.
Sanskrit and related languages have also influenced their Sino-Tibetan-speaking neighbors to the north through the spread of Buddhist texts in translation. Buddhism was spread to China by Mahayanist missionaries sent by Emperor Ashoka mostly through translations of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit and Classical Sanskrit texts, and many terms were transliterated directly and added to the Chinese vocabulary. (Although Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit is not Sanskrit, properly speaking, its grammar and vocabulary are substantially the same, both because of genetic relationship, and because of conscious implementation of Pāṇinian standardizations on the part of composers. Buddhist texts composed in Sanskrit proper were primarily found in philosophical schools like the Madhyamaka.) The situation in Tibet is similar; many Sanskrit texts survive only in Tibetan translation (in the Tanjur).
In Southeast Asia, languages such as Thai and Lao contain many loan words from Sanskrit, as do Khmer, Vietnamese to a lesser extent, through Sinified hybrid Sanskrit. For example, in Thai, the Rāvana—the emperor of Sri Lanka is called 'Thosakanth' which is a derivation of his Sanskrit name 'Dashakanth' ("of ten necks").
Many Sanskrit loanwords are also found in Austronesian languages, such as Javanese particularly the old form from which nearly half the vocabulary is derived from the language.  Other Austronesian languages, such as traditional Malay, modern Indonesian, also derive much of their vocabulary from Sanskrit, albeit to a lesser extent, with a large proportion of words being derived from Arabic. Similarly, Philippine languages such as Tagalog have many Sanskrit loanwords, although more are derived from Spanish.
A Sanskrit loanword encountered in many Southeast Asian languages is the word bhāṣā, or spoken language, which is used to mean language in general, for example bahasa in Malay, Indonesian and Tausug, basa in Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese, phasa in Thai and Lao, bhasa in Burmese, and 'phiesa in Khmer.
Many of India's and Nepal's scientific and administrative terms are named in Sanskrit, as a counterpart of the western practice of naming scientific developments in Latin or Greek.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] The Indian guided missile program that was commenced in 1983 by DRDO has named the five missiles (ballistic and others) that it has developed as Prithvi, Agni, Akash, Nag and Trishul. India's first modern fighter aircraft is named HAL Tejas.
Recital of Sanskrit shlokas as background chorus in films, television advertisements and as slogans for corporate organizations has become a trend. The opera Satyagraha by Philip Glass uses texts from the Bhagavad Gita, sung in the original Sanskrit.
Recently, Sanskrit also made an appearance in Western pop music in two recordings by Madonna. One, "Shanti/Ashtangi", from the 1998 album Ray of Light, is the traditional Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga chant referenced above set to music. The second, "Cyber-raga", released in 2000 as a B-side to Madonna's album Music, is a Sanskrit-language ode of devotion to a higher power and a wish for peace on earth. The climactic battle theme of The Matrix Revolutions features a choir singing a Sanskrit prayer from the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad in the closing titles of the movie. Composer John Williams featured choirs singing in Sanskrit for Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom and in Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង]
The Sky1 version of the title sequence in season one of Battlestar Galactica 2004 features the Gayatri Mantra, taken from the Rig Veda (3.62.10). The composition was written by miniseries composer Richard Gibbs.
There have been suggestions to use Sanskrit as a metalanguage for knowledge representation in e.g. machine translation, and other areas of natural language processing because of its relatively high regular structure. This is due to Classical Sanskrit being a regularized, prescriptivist form abstracted from the much more complex and richer Vedic Sanskrit. This leveling of the grammar of Classical Sanskrit began during the Brahmana phase, and had not yet completed by the time of Pāṇini, when the language had fallen out of popular use.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង]
- "Comparative speaker's strength of scheduled languages − 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001". Census of India, 2001. Office of the Registrar and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 31 December 2009.
- Banerji, Suresh (1971). A companion to Sanskrit literature: spanning a period of over three thousand years, containing brief accounts of authors, works, characters, technical terms, geographical names, myths, legends, and twelve appendices. p. 672. ISBN 978-81-208-0063-2.
- "Indian Constitution Art.344(1) & Art.345" (PDF). Web.archive.org. 2007-10-04. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-04. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
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- Stall 1963, ទ. 272
- Macdonell (2004:?)
- Burrow (2001:?)
- Monier-Williams (1898:1120)
- Masica, pp. 36–37
- Masica, p. 38
- * Meier-Brügger, Michael; Matthias Fritz, Manfred Mayrhofer, Charles Gertmenian (trans.) (2003), Indo-European Linguistics, Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter, ទ. 20, ល.ស.ប.អ. 3-11-017433-2, http://books.google.com/?id=49xq3UlKWckC
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- Hock, H. "Language death phenomena in Sanskrit: Grammatical evidence for attrition in contemporary spoken Sanskrit" in Studies in the Linguistic Sciences v.13 no.2 1983 Dept. of Linguistics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Dept. of Linguistics
- Pollock (2001:415)
- Pollock (2001:416)
- Pollock (2001:414)
- Pollock (2001:398)
- A notable exception are the military references of Nīlakaṇṭha Caturdhara's 17th-century commentary on the Mahābhārata, according to Minkowski (2004).
- Seth (2007:172–175)
- "Sanskrit's first Jnanpith winner is a 'poet by instinct'". The Indian Express. Wednesday, Jan 14, 2009. Check date values in:
- T. K. John, "Research and Studies by Western Missionaries and Scholars in Sanskrit Language and Literature," in the St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Vol. III, Ollur[Trichur] 2010 Ed. George Menachery, pp.79 - 83
- Friedrich Max Müller (1859), A History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, Williams and Norgate, ទ. 1, http://books.google.com/?id=6xUAAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA1
- Thomas R. Trautmann (2004). Aryans and British India. Yoda Press. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-81-902272-1-6. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- Tiwari (1955:?)
- Hamp, Eric P. (Oct-December 1996). "On the Indo-European origins of the retroflexes in Sanskrit". Journal of the American Oriental Society, The. Retrieved 8 January 2009. Check date values in:
- Salomon (1998), p. 7
- Whitney (1889:?)
- Salomon (1998), p. 86
- Masica (1991:135)
- In northern India, there are Brahmi inscriptions dating from the 3rd century BCE onwards, the oldest appearing on the famous Prakrit pillar inscriptions of king Ashoka. The earliest South Indian inscriptions in Tamil Brahmi, written in early Tamil, belong to the same period. Mahadevan (2003:?)
- Abhyankar (1986:?)
- "Utoronto.ca". Chass.utoronto.ca. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- Lennart Warnemyr. [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". An Analytical Cross Referenced Sanskrit Grammar], Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". Compounds
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- Gillon, B.S (March 25, 1996), "Word order in Classical Sanskrit", Indian linguistics 57 (1–4): 1, ល.ត.ម.អ. 0378-0759, http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=2875140
- Chatterji 1942, cited in Stall 1963, ទ. 272
- Velcheru Narayana Rao; David Shulman, [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". Classical Telugu Poetry] (2 រ.រ.), The Regents of the University of California, ទ. 3, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- "This village speaks gods language – India – The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 2005-08-13. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "Sanskrit boulevard". Hindustan Times. 2008-09-20. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- Chitrapurmath.net Thehindu.com
- "Orissa's Sasana village – home to Sanskrit pundits! !". Allvoices.com. 2010-04-09. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- See the seal of the Government of Goa
- See e.g. File:LIC Logo.svg
- The IAF Motto, Official website
- See banner on Indian Coast Guard website
- van Gulik (1956:?)
- See this page from the Indonesian Wikipedia for a list
- Zoetmulder (1982:ix)
- "Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (John Williams)". Filmtracks. 2008-11-11. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- BBC - Awards for World Music 2008 - Asia/Pacific, broadcast on BBC Radio 3 and BBC Four television.
- First suggested by Briggs (1985)
- Abhyankar, Kashinath V. (1986), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". A dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar,], Gaekwad's Oriental Series, 134, Baroda: Oriental Institute, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Briggs, Rick (1985), "Knowledge Representation in Sanskrit and Artificial Intelligence (PDF)", AI Magazine 6 (1), http://www.aaai.org/ojs/index.php/aimagazine/article/viewArticle/466
- Burrow, T. (2001), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". Sanskrit language], Motilal Banarsidass, ល.ស.ប.អ. 81-208-1767-2, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Chatterji, Suniti Kumar (1960), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". Indo-Aryan and Hindi], Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Edgerton, F. (1953), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit grammar and dictionary], New Haven: Yale University Press, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- van Gulik, Robert (1956), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". Siddham; an essay on the history of Sanskrit studies in China and Japan], Nagpur: International Academy of Indian Culture, ល.ស.ប.អ. 81-7742-038-0, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Hanneder, J. (2002), "On "The Death of Sanskrit"", Indo-Iranian Journal 45 (4): 293–310(18), អ.វ.ល.:10.1023/A:1021366131934, http://www.springerlink.com/content/n5380t62066168r7/
- Hanneder, J. (2009), "Modernes Sanskrit: eine vergessene Literatur", ជា Straube, Martin, Pāsādikadānaṃ : Festschrift für Bhikkhu Pāsādika, Indica et Tibetica Verlag, ទទ. 205–228, http://indologica.de/drupal/?q=node/749
- Hatcher, Brian A. (2007), "Sanskrit and the morning after", Indian Economic & Social History Review 44 (3): 333–361, អ.វ.ល.:10.1177/001946460704400303, http://ier.sagepub.com/content/44/3/333.abstract, បានយកមក 2010-09-15
- MacDonell, Arthur Anthony (1900), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". A History of Sanskrit Literature], Kessinger Publishing (2004), ល.ស.ប.អ. 1-4179-0619-7, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Mahadevan, I (2003), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". Early Tamil epigraphy from the earliest times to the sixth century Common Era], Chennai/Cambridge, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-521-29944-2, http://books.google.com/?id=J3RSHWePhXwC
- Minkowski, Christopher (2004), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". "Nīlakaṇṭha's instruments of war: Modern, vernacular, barbarous"], The Indian Economic and Social History Review 41 (4): 365–385, អ.វ.ល.:10.1177/001946460404100402, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Monier-Williams, Monier (1898), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". A Sanskrit-English Dictionary], Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Oberlies, Thomas (2003), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". A Grammar of Epic Sanskrit], Walter de Gruyter, ល.ស.ប.អ. 3-11-014448-4, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Pollock, Sheldon (2001), "The Death of Sanskrit", Comparative Studies in Society and History 43 (2): 392–426, អ.វ.ល.:10.1017/S001041750100353X, http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pollock/sks/papers/death_of_sanskrit.pdf
- Pollock, Sheldon I. (2006), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". The language of the gods in the world of men: Sanskrit, culture, and power in premodern India], University of California Press, ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-520-24500-6, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Staal, J.F. (1963), "Sanskrit and Sanskritization", The Journal of Asian Studies (Association for Asian Studies) 22 (3): 261–275, អ.វ.ល.:10.2307/2050186, JSTOR 2050186, http://jstor.org/stable/2050186
- Tiwari, Bholanath (1955), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". भाषा विज्ञान (Bhasha Vijnan)], ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-7007-1382-4, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Warder, A.K. (1972), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". Indian kāvya Literature], Literary Criticism, 1, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Whitney, William Dwight (1889), Sanskrit Grammar: Including both the Classical Language and the Older Dialects, Breitkopf & Härtel, http://books.google.com/?id=VHYKAAAAIAAJ
- Zoetmulder, Petrus Josephus (1982), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". Old Javanese-English dictionary], The Hague: Nijhoff, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Salomon, Richard (1998), Indian epigraphy: a guide to the study of inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan languages, New York: Oxford University Press, ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-19-509984-2, http://books.google.com/?id=XYrG07qQDxkC
- Stiehl, Ulrich (2011), The Original Pronunciation of Sanskrit, Germany: Verlag Forkel, ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-3-7719-0086-1, 978-3-7719-0085-4, 978-3-87081-539-4, http://www.lit-on.de/v/artikel/sanskrit-kompendium/
- Cameron, Bruce (1992), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". Sanskrit Pronunciation], S.l.: Theosophical Univ Press, ល.ស.ប.អ. 1-55700-021-2, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Coulson, M. (2003), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". Teach Yourself Sanskrit], London: Teach Yourself, ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-340-85990-3, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Goldman, Robert P. (1999), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". Devavāṇīpraveśikā: An Introduction to the Sanskrit Language], Berkeley: Center for South Asia Studies, University of California, ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-944613-40-3, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Kale, M. R. (Moreshwar Ramchandra) (1988) , A Higher Sanskrit Grammar, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ល.ស.ប.អ. 81-208-0178-4, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/KALEScan/disp1/index1.php?sfx=png
- Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1997), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". A Sanskrit Grammar for Students], New Delhi: D.K. Printworld, ល.ស.ប.អ. 81-246-0094-5, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Maurer, Walter Harding (2000), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". The Sanskrit Language: An Introductory Grammar and Reader], Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-7007-1382-4, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Seth, Sanjay (2007), Subject Lessons: The Western Education of Colonial India, Duke University Press, http://books.google.co.in/books?id=QU9glkC4ceMC
- Shastri, Vagish (2000), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១". Conversational Sanskrit], Varanasi: Vāgyoga Chetanāpitham, ល.ស.ប.អ. 81-85570-12-4, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "១".
- Monier-Williams, Monier (1846), A Practical Grammar Of The Sanskrit Language Arranged With Reference To The Classical Languages Of Europe For The Use Of English Students, W. H. Allen & co., http://books.google.com/?id=REQhAAAAMAAJ
- Whitney, William Dwight The Roots, Verb-Forms and Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language: (A Supplement to His Sanskrit Grammar)
- Wackernagel, Debrunner, Altindische Grammatik, Göttingen.
- Delbrück, B. Altindische Tempuslehre (1876)
- Otto Böhtlingk, Rudolph Roth, Petersburger Wörterbuch, 7 vols., 1855–75
- Otto Böhtlingk, Sanskrit Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung 1883–86 (1998 reprint, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi)
- Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindischen, 1956–76
- Manfred Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, 3 vols., 2742 pages, 2001, ISBN 3-8253-1477-4
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