ស្ថាបត្យករ

ដោយវិគីភីឌា

ស្ថាបត្យករ គឺជាបុគ្គលម្នាក់ដែលបានទទួលការបណ្តុះបណ្តាល ស្តីអំពីការសិក្សាទៅលើ ប្លង់ ការរចនា និង ត្រួតពិនិត្យទៅលើសំណង់អគារ ដែលមានអាជ្ញាបណ្ណត្រឹមត្រូវ។ ដើម្បីអាចក្លាយជាស្ថាបត្យករម្នាក់បាន លុះត្រាតែយើងយល់ដឹងអំពី ការរចនា និង យល់ដឹងពីសំណង់អគារ ឱ្យបានច្បាស់លាស់ មិនតែប៉ុណ្ណោះ គឺត្រូវយល់ដឹងជាពហុជំនាញ មានជាអាទិ៍៖ សិល្បៈ វប្បធម៌ ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ សេដ្ឋកិច្ច នយោបាយ និងបរិស្ថានជាដើម។ និយាយជារួម ស្ថាបត្យករ មិនមែនជាអ្នកគូរប្លង់ទេ តែជាអ្នកសិក្សាគម្រោងប្លង់ ស្ថាបត្យកម្ម។

ស្ថាបត្យករ ត្រូវតែមានវិជ្ជាជីវៈត្រឹមត្រឹវ ព្រោះរាល់ការសម្រេចចិត្តរបស់ស្ថាបត្យករ គឺទាក់ទងដល់សុវត្ថិភាពសាធារណៈ។


ប្រភព[កែប្រែ]

Throughout ancient and medieval history, most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Until modern times there was no clear distinction between architect and engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were primarily geographical variations that referred to the same person, often used interchangeably.[១][២]

It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional 'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 1400s, but became increasingly available after 1500. Pencils were used more often for drawing by 1600. The availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals.[៣] Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas.[៣] However, the development was gradual. Until the 1700s buildings continued to be designed and set-out by craftsmen, with the exception of high status projects.[៣]

ស្ថាបត្យកម្ម[កែប្រែ]

In most developed countries, only qualified persons with appropriate licensure, certification, or registration with a relevant body, often governmental may legally practice architecture. Such licensure usually requires an accredited university degree, successful completion of exams, and a training period. The use of terms and titles, including derivatives such as architectural designer, and the representation of oneself as an architect is restricted to licensed individuals by law.

To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision. The term building design professional (or Design professional), by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession—such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect, such as architectural technologists and intern architects. In many places, independent, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures.

ការអនុវត្ដន៍[កែប្រែ]

In the architectural profession, technical knowledge, management, and an understanding of business are as important as design. An architect accepts a commission from a client. The commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings, structures, and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements the client wants in the building. Throughout the project (planning to occupancy), the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural, mechanical, and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design.

តួនាទីរចនា[កែប្រែ]

Architect Rem Koolhaas inspecting a model of the Seattle Central Library

The architect hired by a client is responsible for creating a design concept that meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. In that, the architect must meet with and question the client [extensively] to ascertain all the requirements and nuances of the planned project. This information, known as a program or brief, is essential to producing a project that meets all the needs and desires of the owner—it is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept.

Architects deal with local and federal jurisdictions about regulations and building codes. The architect might need to comply with local planning and zoning laws, such as required setbacks, height limitations, parking requirements, transparency requirements (windows) and land use. Some established jurisdictions require adherence to design and historic preservation guidelines.

តួនាទីសំណង់[កែប្រែ]

Architects typically put projects to tender on behalf of their clients, advise on the award of the project to a general contractor, and review the progress of the work during construction. They typically review contractor shop drawings and other submittals, prepare and issue site instructions, and provide construction contract administration and Certificates for Payment to the contractor (see also Design-bid-build). In many jurisdictions, mandatory certification or assurance of the work is required.

Depending on the client's needs and the jurisdiction's requirements, the spectrum of the architect's services may be extensive (detailed document preparation and construction review) or less inclusive (such as allowing a contractor to exercise considerable design-build functions). With very large, complex projects, an independent construction manager is sometimes hired to assist in design and to manage construction. In the United Kingdom and other countries, a quantity surveyor is often part of the team to provide cost consulting.

ការអនុវត្តជំនួសនិងពិសេស[កែប្រែ]

Recent decades have seen the rise of specializations within the profession. Many architects and architectural firms focus on certain project types (for example, health care, retail, public housing, event management), technological expertise or project delivery methods. Some architects specialize as building code, building envelope, sustainable design, technical writing, historic preservation(US) or conservation (UK), accessibility and other forms of specialist consultants.

Many architects elect to move into real estate (property) development, corporate facilities planning, project management, construction management, interior design or other related fields.

តម្រូវការវិជ្ជាជីវៈ[កែប្រែ]

Although there are variations from place to place, most of the world's architects are required to register with the appropriate jurisdiction. To do so, architects are typically required to meet three common requirements: education, experience, and examination.

Educational requirements generally consist of a university degree in architecture. The experience requirement for degreed candidates is usually satisfied by a practicum or internship (usually two to three years, depending on jurisdiction). Finally, a Registration Examination or a series of exams is required prior to licensure.

Professionals engaged in the design and supervision of construction projects prior to the late 19th century were not necessarily trained in a separate architecture program in an academic setting. Instead, they often trained under established architects. Prior to modern times, there was no distinction between architects, engineers and often artists, and the title used varied depending on geographical location. They often carried the title of master builder, or surveyor,[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] after serving a number of years as an apprentice (such as Sir Christopher Wren). The formal study of architecture in academic institutions played a pivotal role in the development of the profession as a whole, serving as a focal point for advances in architectural technology and theory.

ភាពខុសគ្នារវាងវិជ្ជាជីវៈផ្សេងៗ[កែប្រែ]

According to the American Institute of Architects,[៤] titles and job descriptions within American architectural offices might be as follows:

Title Definition
Senior Principal / Partner Typically an owner or majority shareholder of the firm; may be the founder; titles may include managing director, president, chief executive officer, or managing principal/partner.
Mid-level Principal / Partner Principal or partner; titles may include executive or senior vice president or director.
Junior Principal / Partner Recently made a partner or principal of the firm; title may include vice president or associate director.
Department head / Senior Manager Senior management architect or non-registered graduate; responsible for major department(s) or functions; reports to a principal or partner.
Project Manager Licensed architect, or non-registered graduate with more than 10 years of experience; has overall project management responsibility for a variety of projects or project teams, including client contact, scheduling, and budgeting.
Senior Architect / Designer Licensed architect, or non-registered graduate with more than 10 years of experience; has a design or technical focus and is responsible for significant project activities.
Architect / Designer III Licensed architect or non-registered graduate with 8–10 years of experience; responsible for significant aspects of projects.
Architect / Designer II Licensed architect or non-registered graduate with 6–8 years of experience, responsible for daily design or technical development of projects.
Architect / Designer I Recently licensed architect or non-registered graduate with 3–5 years of experience; responsible for particular parts of a project within parameters set by others.
Intern Architect Unlicensed architecture school graduate participating in a defined internship program; develops design or technical solutions under supervision of an architect. In the U.S., some states prohibit the use of architect to describe an unlicensed person who provides architectural services.

កម្រៃ[កែប្រែ]

Architects' fee structures are typically based on a percentage of construction value, as a rate per unit area of the proposed construction, hourly rates or a fixed lump sum fee. Combinations of these structures are also common. Fixed fees are usually based on a project's allocated construction cost and can range between 4 and 12% of new construction cost, for commercial and institutional projects, depending on a project's size and complexity. Residential projects range from 12 to 20%. Renovation projects typically command higher percentages, as high as 15-20%.

Overall billings for architectural firms range widely, depending on location and economic climate. Billings have traditionally been dependent on the local economic conditions but, with rapid globalization, this is becoming less of a factor for larger international firms. Salaries also vary, depending on experience, position within the firm (staff architect, partner or shareholder, etc.) and the size and location of the firm.


សូមមើលផងដែរ[កែប្រែ]

ឯកសារយោង[កែប្រែ]

តំណភ្ជាប់ខាងក្រៅ[កែប្រែ]

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