កូដ QR

ដោយវិគីភីឌា
QR Code for the URL of the English Wikipedia Mobile main page. Note that the white border is part of the encoding.

កូដ QR គឺជា បារកូដ matrix មួយប្រភេទ ដែលមានសណ្ឋាន២ជ្រុង ឬ២D, កូដនេះអាចអានបានដោយ ម៉ាស៊ីនអានកូដ កម្មវិធី ឬ កាំមេរ៉ាក្នុងទូរស័ព្ទដៃ។

លក្ខណៈរបស់កូដQRនេះគឺមានចំនុចពណ៌ខ្មៅ ដែលគេអោយឈ្មោះថា module មានរាងការេនៅលើផ្ទៃពណ៌ស ដែលអាចកំណត់ពីអក្សរ លេខ អាស័យដ្ឋាន អ៊ីម៉ែល ជាដើម។

កូដនេះត្រូវបានប្រើប្រាស់ទូលំទូលាយនៅប្រទេសជប៉ុន ដែលបង្កើតដោយ Toyota subsidiary Denso-Wave នៅឆ្នាំ១៩៩៤ ដែលជាកូដមានប្រជាប្រិយភាពក្នុងចំណោមកូដដែលមានលក្ខណៈ2D។

QR មកពីពាក្យថា Quick Response, ដែលអ្នកបង្កើតកូដនេះមានគោលបំណង អោយការអានព័ត៌មានដែលមានក្នុងកូដនេះមានលក្ខណៈលឿន។

នៅប្រទេសកម្ពុជា នៅឆ្នាំ២០១២ ខែមិថុនា មានកិច្ចប្រជុំមួយដែលនាំបច្ចេកវិទ្យាថ្មីនេះជាមួយនឹងបច្ចេកវិទ្យា NFC (Near Field Communication) ដែលអាចប្រើប្រាស់បំរើដល់ផលប្រយោជន៍នៅវិស័យជាច្រើនដូចជា វិស័យអប់រំ វិស័យពាណិជ្ជកម្ម វិស័យទេសចរណ៍ ជាដើម។ នៅដើមឆ្នាំ២០១៣ នឹងចាប់ផ្ដើមមានគំរោងបន្ដបន្ទាប់ដែលទាក់ទងនឹងបច្ចេកទេសមួយនេះ ដែលគំរោងមួយកំពុងសិក្សាគឺ ផ្ដោតទៅលើវិស័យអប់រំស្រាវជ្រាវ និង វិស័យទេសចរណ៍។

ការរចនាQRកូដ

កូដQR នេះមិនកំណត់ត្រឹមតែពណ៌ខ្មៅសប៉ុណ្ណោះទេ អ្នកអាចធ្វើការរចនាកែប្រែកូដនេះដោយធ្វើការប្ដូរពណ៌ ឬ ដាក់បន្ថែមរូបភាព ធ្វើយ៉ាងណាអោយតែម៉ាស៊ីនអានកូដនេះនៅអានបាន។ សមត្ថភាពរបស់កូដនេះអាចធ្វើការកែប្រែកំហុសដល់ទៅ៣០ភាគរយ ប្រសិនបើកូដនោះមានការបាត់បង់ទំរង់ ឬ ដូចជាយើងដាក់បន្ថែមរូបភាពចូលជាដើម។

ទិដ្ឋភាពទូទៅ[កែប្រែ]

Structure of a QR code, highlighting functional elements.

Although initially used for tracking parts in vehicle manufacturing, QR codes are now used in a much broader context, including both commercial tracking applications and convenience-oriented applications aimed at mobile phone users (known as mobile tagging). QR codes can be used to display text to the user, to add a vCard contact to the user's device, to open a URI or to compose an email or text message. Users can also generate and print their own QR codes for others to scan and use by visiting one of several free QR code generating sites. Frank C. Hudetz, a US Marketing Services Professional, claims to have invented the idea of mapping bar codes to a URL.[១][២]

QR codes storing addresses and URLs may appear in magazines, on signs, buses, business cards, or on just about any object about which users might need information. Users with a camera phone equipped with the correct reader application can scan the image of the QR Code to display text, contact information, connect to a wireless network, or open a web page in the phone's browser. This act of linking from physical world objects is known as a hardlink or physical world hyperlinks.

Google's mobile Android operating system supports QR codes by natively including the barcode scanner (ZXing) on some models, and the browser supports URI redirection, which allows QR Codes to send metadata to existing applications on the device. Nokia's Symbian operating system is also provided with a barcode scanner, which is able to read QR codes,[៣] while mbarcode [៤] is a QR code reader for the Maemo operating system. In the Apple iOS, a QR code reader is not natively included, but over 50 free Apps are available with reader and metadata browser URI redirection capability.

បទដ្ឋាន[កែប្រែ]

There are several standards documents covering the physical encoding of QR codes:[៥]

At the application layer, there is some variation between implementations. NTT DoCoMo has established de facto standards for the encoding of URLs, contact information, and several other data types.[៧] The open-source "ZXing" project maintains a list of QR code data types.[៨]

អាជ្ញាបណ្ឌ[កែប្រែ]

The use of QR codes is free of any license. The QR code is clearly defined and published as an ISO standard. Denso Wave owns the patent rights on QR codes, but has chosen not to exercise them.[៥]

The term QR code itself is a registered trademark of Denso Wave Incorporated.[៩]

Storage[កែប្រែ]

QR code data capacity[១០]
Numeric code only Max. 7,089 characters
Alphanumeric Max. 4,296 characters
Binary (8 bits) Max. 2,953 bytes
Kanji/Kana Max. 1,817 characters
Error correction capacity
Level L 7% of codewords can be restored.
Level M 15% of codewords can be restored.
Level Q 25% of codewords can be restored.
Level H 30% of codewords can be restored.

QR codes use the Reed–Solomon error correction.

Example of Micro QR

Variants[កែប្រែ]

Micro QR code is a smaller version of the QR code standard for applications with less ability to handle large scans. There are different forms of Micro QR codes as well. The highest of these can hold 35 numeric characters.

ការប្រើប្រាស់ជាស្នាដៃសិល្បៈ[កែប្រែ]

Bottom up, oil on canvas by Fabrice de Nola, 2006.

Since 2006, the Italian artist Fabrice de Nola has used QR codes in oil paintings[១១] or embedded in photographs.[១២]

In 2007 the British pop group Pet Shop Boys used QR code for the artwork of their download-only single Integral. The videoclip for the song also features a QR code. When the codes are scanned, users are directed to the Pet Shop Boys website, and web pages about the British national identity card plans, respectively.

In 2008, the Australian born artist Simone O'Callaghan created a series of screenprinted artworks called RGB, based on QR codes. Here, she challenged the latitudes of scanning technologies by altering the codes to take on more organic and less pixelated forms, whilst still ensuring that they could be scanned by a mobile phone.[១៣] They link to quotes about media. She also exhibited another series of works called home.html featuring QR codes linking the photographic prints to online content about the places in which the images were taken. They were exhibited as part of an exhibition called Signals in the City at the Hannah McLure, Abertay University, Dundee, Scotland.[១៤][១៥]

In March 2008, software engineer Duncan Robertson embedded the BBC logo inside a QR code. [១៦]

In 2009, Japanese artist Takashi Murakami, in collaboration with creative agency SET and Louis Vuitton, created a design QR featuring the LV pattern and one of the artist’s characters.[១៧]

Edible, and scanable, QR code waffle created at NYC Resistor in 2010

In 2010, musician and artist DJ Spooky used a QR code in a fine art print exhibited at Experimenta Biennale, Melbourne. Scanning the code takes users to an experiential web based artwork called the Nauru Ellegies,[១៨] about the complexities of the South Pacific island of Nauru.

A QR code which scans to produce the word "LOVE" was also featured prominently in Australian artist Kylie Minogue's music video for her 2010 single All The Lovers.

In June 2010, Design Exchange, Canada's National Design Centre, unveiled a large QR code installation created by Rollout Wallpaper. Rollout Wallpaper is a custom wallpaper company operating in Vancouver. The installation is part of the 'Bent Out of Shape' exhibit, curated by Design Exchange staff.

In July 2010, SYCO Music recording artist Labrinth started using QR codes as part of a campaign to promote his debut single "Let The Sun Shine". As well as a cartoon video to educate users on how to use QR codes,[១៩] they were placed in different media ranging from street posters & stickers to music videos, websites and social networks. The QR codes take users through to Labrinth's YouTube videos, website and social network profile.

The webcomic QR Comic is made entirely out of QR codes. The first 28 entries are Isaac Asimov's short story The Last Question converted into QR codes.

The 2010 comic, Carnivale De Robotique uses a QR code to reveal a subplot in its third issue.[២០]

In October 2010, at the Toronto International Art Fair, artist Jeff Tallon displayed Canada's first QR code painting in collaboration with the Engine Gallery. The work was a diptych that, when scanned, provided information about the adjoining panel.[២១]

ការប្រើប្រាស់ក្នុងវិស័យទីផ្សារ[កែប្រែ]

A giant QR Code linking to a website, to be read with a mobile phone.

Recently, QR codes have become more prevalent in marketing circles and have been integrated into both traditional and interactive campaigns. Media where QR codes have been deployed include: billboard ads, guerilla marketing campagns[២២], in-store displays, event ticketing and tracking, trade-show management, business cards, print ads, contests, direct mail campaigns, websites, email marketing, and couponing just to name a few. QR codes are of particular interest to marketers, giving them the "ability to measure response rates with a high degree of precision"[២៣] allowing for easier ROI (return on investment) calculation, thus helping justify spending on marketing budgets. QR codes have also been used at trade shows and in conferences.

QR codes can be seen on an art festival map for Canton Ohio's "First Friday". The QR code was designed by Think Roth, a multi-media marketing company from Ohio. The QR code on the festival's map takes you to a "phone friendly" map with coupons for free coffee and art discounts around town.

In the property market QR codes can replace brochure boxes and are used to promote properties as well as online search engines. Approximately 50% of all homes are sold to first time buyers.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] With the advent and acceptance of mobile technology, it is thought[ដោយនរណា?] that adding QR codes will enhance their experience and deliver information instantly.

In street art, La Pluma Eléctri*k (street art collective based in Madrid) and Space Invader (from France) are two examples of artists who use it in the street for art purposes.

In July 2009, QR codes were created for character design and promotional materials in the Shane Acker film 9. The use of QR codes was part of the characters in the movie and culminated into a promotional campaign with unique QR code cards, posters and street advertisements on billboards or public transportation for major popular art events. These advertisements were largely focused upon the attendees of the 2009 San Diego Comic Con and 2009 Oscars. QR codes were integrated into the artwork and symbolized individual characters in the movie. Instructional pamphlets and videos were released to explain how the codes could be retrieved and deciphered. QR-coded artwork could be read with QR-capable cellphones for prizes and access to exclusive online content. This was one of the first major integrations of QR codes with Hollywood studios and urban environments.[២៤]

In January 2011, the Memphis Rock 'n' Soul Museum launched a line of museum t-shirts and apparel which feature museum logos and designs on the fronts, and a QR code screened on the right back shoulder, which directs to the museum's web site or artist interviews.

QR codes are also widely used in the tourism. For example in Lviv (Ukraine), Lviv Tourism Movement that consolidates businessmen have placed QR codes on more than 80 tourism objects. QR codes are in several languages, which helps individual tourist easily to get the information on the city. [២៥]

ការប្រើប្រាស់ក្នុងវិស័យបកប្រែ[កែប្រែ]

QR codes have been used to interpret natural and historical points of interest on nature trails and walking tours, adding to or replacing expensive signs.[២៦][២៧]

ការប្រើប្រាស់ក្នុងវិស័យកំសាន្ត[កែប្រែ]

QR codes are becoming increasingly more innovative and more and more ideas for their use are becoming a reality. LBP.me has created a QR code for every user generated level in LittleBigPlanet 2 for the PlayStation 3, and all you have to do is print that QR code out and hold it in front of the PlayStation 3's dedicated camera, the PlayStation Eye, while the game is running and the game will automatically take you that level on the community page.

Standalone applications[កែប្រែ]

While the adoption of QR codes in some markets has been slow to take off (particularly in markets like the United States where competing standards like Data Matrix exist), the technology is gaining some traction in the smartphone market. Many Android, Nokia, and Blackberry phones come with QR code readers pre-installed. QR reader software is available for most mobile platforms.

មើលផងដែរ[កែប្រែ]

ឯកសារយោង[កែប្រែ]

  1. [http://www.linkedin.com/in/frankchudetz Frank C. Hudetz lists himself as the QR code inventor on LinkedIn
  2. Frank C. Hudetz patent for connecting UPC codes to URLs: USPTO #6,199,048
  3. "Nokia Europe - Nokia N80 - Support"http://europe.nokia.com/support/product-support/nokia-n80/phone-software/smartphone 
  4. "package overview for mbarcode"។ Maemo.orghttp://maemo.org/packages/view/mbarcode/។ បានយកមក 2010-07-28 
  5. ៥,០ ៥,១ "QR Code Standardization | QR Code.com"។ Denso-wave.comhttp://www.denso-wave.com/qrcode/qrstandard-e.html។ បានយកមក 2009-04-23 
  6. "AIM GLOBAL Online Store"។ Aimglobal.orghttps://www.aimglobal.org/estore/ProductDetails.aspx?ProductID=31។ បានយកមក 2009-04-23 
  7. "Synchronization with Native Applications"NTT docomohttp://www.nttdocomo.co.jp/english/service/imode/make/content/barcode/function/application/។ បានយកមក 17 February 2009 
  8. "Barcode Contents"zxing – A rough guide to standard encoding of information in barcodeshttp://code.google.com/p/zxing/wiki/BarcodeContents។ បានយកមក 17 February 2009 
  9. "QR Code.com"។ Denso-wave.com។ 2003-11-06http://www.denso-wave.com/qrcode/index-e.html។ បានយកមក 2009-04-23 
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named About2DCode
  11. Fabrice de Nola at the Palazzo Riso. Retrieved 2011-01-30.
  12. Fabrice de Nola at Mediamorfosi - Sud Lab ទំព័រគំរូ:It. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
  13. http://www.flickr.com/photos/28389830@N05/3637645109/in/set-72157606292052115/
  14. http://hannahmaclurecentre.abertay.ac.uk/archive.html
  15. http://elusivesprite.squarespace.com/exhibitions/signals-in-the-city/
  16. http://whomwah.com/2008/03/12/more-fun-with-qr-codes-and-the-bbc-logo/
  17. Designer QR Codes: Beyond Black and White. The Murakami-inspired Louis Vuitton QR code. «Creativity», April 29, 2009. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
  18. DJ Spooky - Nauru Elegies Retrieved 2010-07-25.
  19. Labrinth QR Code Transmission YouTube 26-07-2010
  20. https://comics.comixology.com/#/series/4793/Carnivale-De-Robotique
  21. Jeff Tallon - 2010 TIAF YouTube. Retrieved 01-11-2010.
  22. "New Owners re-Launch PayPoster as QR-Based Guerilla Marketing Site"។ www.thirdreport.comhttp://www.thirdreport.com/third-report.asp?storyid=244។ បានយកមក 2010-12-14 
  23. Printers Can Demonstrate ROI to Clients Using Interactive Marketing, OutputLinks.com referenced 2010-10-22
  24. Find the hidden QR-Codes for Nine. «Focus Features», July 10, 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-15.
  25. У Львові на туристичних об’єктах встановили понад 80 QR-кодів - ZAXID.NET
  26. Augusta Canal Smartphone DigiTrail Retrieved 2010-11-20.
  27. Augusta Canal App. Retrieved 2010-11-20.

Bibliography[កែប្រែ]

តំណភ្ជាប់ខាងក្រៅ[កែប្រែ]

ទំព័រគំរូ:Barcodes