តារាងខួបនៃធាតុគីមី

តារាងខួបធាតុគីមី (អង់គ្លេសPeriodic Table ឬ Table of Elements) គីជាតារាងមួយដែលបង្ហាញអំពីអាតូមនានា ដែលត្រូវគេរកឃើញនិងស្គាល់នៅក្នុងគីមីវិទ្យា ។ នៅក្នុងតារាងនេះ ធាតុគិមីត្រូវបានតម្រៀបតាមលំដាប់លំដោយ តាមលេខអាតូមរបស់ខ្លួនពីតូចទៅធំ។ លេខអាតូមរបស់ធាតុគីមីគឺមានចំនួនដូចគ្នានឹងចំនួននៃអេឡិចត្រុងប្រូតុងនៅក្នងអាតូម

តារាងខួបធាតុគីមី ត្រូវបានតម្រៀបឡើងជា២ផ្នែក៖ ខួប (periods) និងក្រុម (groups)

A row of elements across the table is called a period. Each period has a number: from 1 to 7. Period 1 has only 2 elements in it: hydrogen and helium. Period 2 and Period 3 both have 8 elements. Other periods are longer.

A column of elements down the table is called a group. There are 18 groups in the standard periodic table. Each group has a number: from 1 to 18. Elements in a group have electrons arranged in similar ways, which gives them similar chemical properties (they behave in similar ways). For example, group 18 is known as the noble gases because they are all gases and they do not combine with other atoms.

The periodic table can be used by chemists to observe patterns, and relationships between the elements. For example, elements to the bottom and far left of the table are the most metallic, and elements on the top right are the least metallic. (e.g. cesium is much more metallic than helium). There are also many other patterns and relationships.

There are three systems of group numbers; one using Arabic numerals (1,2,3) and the other two using Roman numerals (I, II, III). The Roman numeral names were used at first and are the traditional names; the Arabic numeral names are newer names that the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) decided to use as well. The IUPAC names were meant to replace the older Roman numeral systems as they used the same names to mean different things, which was confusing.

The Periodic Table was invented and arranged by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907).

Standard periodic table

 ក្រុម → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 ខួប ↓ 1 1H 2He 2 3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne 3 11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar 4 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr 5 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe 6 55Cs 56Ba * 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn 7 87 Fr 88Ra ** 104Rf 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Uut 114Uuq 115Uup 116Uuh 117Uus 118Uuo * Lanthanides 57La 58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu ** Actinides 89Ac 90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr

The colour of the number (atomic number) above the element symbol shows the state of the element at normal conditions.

• those in blue are gases
• those in green are liquids
• those in black are solid

• those with solid borders have stable isotopes (Primordial elements)
• those with dashed borders have only radioactive naturally occurring isotopes
• those with dotted borders do not occur naturally (Synthetic Elements)
• those without borders are too radioactive to have been discovered yet.