សូរ្យគ្រាស

ដោយវិគីភីឌា

សូរ្យគ្រាស គឺជាបាតុភូតធម្មជាតិមួយដែលអាចមើលឃើញពីផែនដី នៅពេលដែលដំណើរគោលចរនៃព្រះចន្ទឆ្លងកាត់ចន្លោះផែនដីនិងព្រះអាទិត្យ ហើយបានបាំងពន្លឺព្រះអាទិត្យ។


ប្រភេទនៃសូរ្យគ្រាស[កែប្រែ]

Partial and annular phases of solar eclipse on May 20, 2012
Comparison of minimum and maximum apparent sizes of the Sun and Moon (and planets). An annular eclipse can occur when the Sun has a larger apparent size than the Moon whereas a total eclipse can occur when the Moon has a larger apparent size.
Partial solar eclipse -- this was the annular eclipse of May 20, 2012, observed outside the path of annularity

សូរ្យគ្រាសត្រូវបានចែកចេញជា៤ប្រភេទ៖

  • A total eclipse occurs when the dark silhouette of the Moon completely obscures the intensely bright light of the Sun, allowing the much fainter solar corona to be visible. During any one eclipse, totality occurs at best only in a narrow track on the surface of Earth.[១]
  • An annular eclipse occurs when the Sun and Moon are exactly in line, but the apparent size of the Moon is smaller than that of the Sun. Hence the Sun appears as a very bright ring, or annulus, surrounding the dark disk of the Moon. The next annular eclipse is on May 10, 2013.[២]
  • A hybrid eclipse (also called annular/total eclipse) shifts between a total and annular eclipse. At certain points on the surface of Earth it appears as a total eclipse, whereas at other points it appears as annular. Hybrid eclipses are comparatively rare.[២]
  • A partial eclipse occurs when the Sun and Moon are not exactly in line and the Moon only partially obscures the Sun. This phenomenon can usually be seen from a large part of Earth outside of the track of an annular or total eclipse. However, some eclipses can only be seen as a partial eclipse, because the umbra passes above the Earth's polar regions and never intersects Earth's surface.[២]

The Sun's distance from Earth is about 400 times the Moon's distance, and the Sun's diameter is about 400 times the Moon's diameter. Because these ratios are approximately the same, the Sun and the Moon as seen from Earth appear to be approximately the same size: about 0.5 degree of arc in angular measure.[២]

ការទស្សន៍ទាយ[កែប្រែ]

Geometry[កែប្រែ]

Geometry of a total solar eclipse (not to scale)
A Total eclipse in the umbra.
B Annular eclipse in the antumbra.
C Partial eclipse in the penumbra

The diagrams to the right show the alignment of the Sun, Moon and Earth during a solar eclipse. The dark gray region between the Moon and Earth is the umbra, where the Sun is completely obscured by the Moon. The small area where the umbra touches Earth's surface is where a total eclipse can be seen. The larger light gray area is the penumbra, in which a partial eclipse can be seen. An observer in the antumbra, the area of shadow beyond the umbra, will see an annular eclipse.[៣]


ព្រះចន្ទ ព្រះអាទិត្យ
At perigee
(nearest)
At apogee
(farthest)
At perihelion
(nearest)
At aphelion
(farthest)
Mean radius ១៧៣៧,១០ សហាតិមាត្រs
(១០៧៩,៣៨ ម៉ៃ.les)
៦៩៦០០០ សហាតិមាត្រs
(៤៣២០០០ ម៉ៃ.les)
ចម្ងាយ ៣៦៣១០៤ គ.ម.
(២២៥៦២២ ម៉ៃ.)
៤០៥៦៩៦ គ.ម.
(២៥២០៨៨ ម៉ៃ.)
១៤៧០៩៨០៧០ គ.ម.
(៩១៤០២៥០០ ម៉ៃ.)
១៥២០៩៧៧០០ គ.ម.
(៩៤៥០៩១០០ ម៉ៃ.)
Angular
diameter[៤]
33' 30"
(0.5583°)
29' 26"
(0.4905°)
32' 42"
(0.5450°)
31' 36"
(0.5267°)
Apparent size
to scale
-Phase of the moon NO.16.jpg -Phase of the moon NO.16.jpg The Sun by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - 20100819.jpg The Sun by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - 20100819.jpg
Rank in
descending order
1st 4th 2nd 3rd

The Moon orbits Earth in approximately 27.3 days, relative to a fixed frame of reference. This is known as the sidereal month. However, during one sidereal month, Earth has revolved part way around the Sun, making the average time between one new moon and the next longer than the sidereal month: it is approximately 29.5 days. This is known as the synodic month, and corresponds to what is commonly called the lunar month.[៥]

គន្លង[កែប្រែ]

During a central eclipse, the Moon's umbra (or antumbra, in the case of an annular eclipse) moves rapidly from west to east across the Earth. The Earth is also rotating from west to east, at about 28 km/min at the Equator, but as the Moon is moving in the same direction as the Earth's spin at about 61 km/min, the umbra almost always appears to move in a roughly west-east direction across a map of the Earth at the speed of the Moon's orbital velocity minus the Earth's rotational velocity.[៦]

The width of the track of a central eclipse varies according to the relative apparent diameters of the Sun and Moon. In the most favourable circumstances, when a total eclipse occurs very close to perigee, the track can be over 250 km wide and the duration of totality may be over 7 minutes. Outside of the central track, a partial eclipse is seen over a much larger area of the Earth. Typically, the umbra is 100–160 km wide, while the penumbral diameter is in excess of 6400 km.[៧]

Occurrence and cycles[កែប្រែ]

Total Solar Eclipse Paths: 1001–2000, showing that total solar eclipses occur everywhere on earth. This image was merged from 50 separate images from NASA.[៨]

Frequency per year[កែប្រែ]

Between two and five solar eclipses occur every year, with at least one per eclipse season. Since the Gregorian calendar was instituted in 1582, years that have had five solar eclipses were 1693, 1758, 1805, 1823, 1870, and 1935. The next occurrence will be 2206.[៩]

The 5 solar eclipses of 1935
January 5 February 3 June 30 July 30 December 25
Partial
(south)
Partial
(north)
Partial
(north)
Partial
(south)
Annular
(south)
SE1935Jan05P.png
Saros 111
SE1935Feb03P.png
Saros 149
SE1935Jun30P.png
Saros 116
SE1935Jul30P.png
Saros 154
SE1935Dec25A.png
Saros 121

Final totality[កែប្រែ]

Solar eclipses are seen on Earth because of a fortuitous combination of circumstances. Even on Earth, eclipses of the type familiar to people today are a temporary (on a geological time scale) phenomenon. Hundreds of millions of years in the past, the Moon was too close to the Earth to precisely occlude the Sun as it does during eclipses today; and over a billion years in the future, it will be too far away to do so.[១០]

បាតុភូតសូរ្យគ្រាសសំខាន់ៗក្នុងប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ[កែប្រែ]

Astronomers Studying an Eclipse painted by Antoine Caron in 1571

Historical eclipses are a very valuable resource for historians, in that they allow a few historical events to be dated precisely, from which other dates and ancient calendars may be deduced. A solar eclipse of June 15, 763 BC mentioned in an Assyrian text is important for the Chronology of the Ancient Orient.[១១] There have been other claims to date earlier eclipses. The Emperor Zhong Kang supposedly beheaded two astronomers, Hsi and Ho, who failed to predict an eclipse 4000 years ago.[១២] Perhaps the earliest still-unproven claim is that of archaeologist Bruce Masse, who putatively links an eclipse that occurred on May 10, 2807 BC with a possible meteor impact in the Indian Ocean on the basis of several ancient flood myths that mention a total solar eclipse.[១៣]

Viewing[កែប្រែ]

Looking directly at the photosphere of the Sun (the bright disk of the Sun itself), even for just a few seconds, can cause permanent damage to the retina of the eye, because of the intense visible and invisible radiation that the photosphere emits. This damage can result in impairment of vision, up to and including blindness. The retina has no sensitivity to pain, and the effects of retinal damage may not appear for hours, so there is no warning that injury is occurring.[១៤][១៥]

Under normal conditions, the Sun is so bright that it is difficult to stare at it directly. However, during an eclipse, with so much of the Sun covered, it is easier and more tempting to stare at it. In fact however, looking at the Sun during an eclipse is as dangerous as looking at it outside an eclipse, except during the brief period of totality, when the Sun's disk is completely covered (totality occurs only during a total eclipse and only very briefly; it does not occur during a partial or annular eclipse). Viewing the Sun's disk through any kind of optical aid (binoculars, a telescope, or even an optical camera viewfinder) is extremely hazardous and can cause irreversible eye damage within a fraction of a second.[១៦][១៧]

Partial and annular eclipses[កែប្រែ]

Eclipse glasses
Pinhole projection method of observing partial solar eclipse. Insert (upper left): partially eclipsed Sun photographed with a white solar filter. Main image: projections of the partially eclipsed Sun (bottom right)

Viewing the Sun during partial and annular eclipses (and during total eclipses outside the brief period of totality) requires special eye protection, or indirect viewing methods, if eye damage is to be avoided. The Sun's disk can be viewed using appropriate filtration to block the harmful part of the Sun's radiation. Sunglasses do not make viewing the Sun safe. Only properly designed and certified solar filters should be used for direct viewing of the Sun's disk.[១៨] Especially, self-made filters using common objects such as a floppy disk removed from its case, a Compact Disc, a black colour slide film, smoked glass, etc. must be avoided.[១៩][២០]

The safest way to view the Sun's disk is by indirect projection.[២១] This can be done by projecting an image of the disk onto a white piece of paper or card using a pair of binoculars (with one of the lenses covered), a telescope, or another piece of cardboard with a small hole in it (about 1 mm diameter), often called a pinhole camera. The projected image of the Sun can then be safely viewed; this technique can be used to observe sunspots, as well as eclipses. Care must be taken, however, to ensure that no one looks through the projector (telescope, pinhole, etc.) directly.[២២] Viewing the Sun's disk on a video display screen (provided by a video camera or digital camera) is safe, although the camera itself may be damaged by direct exposure to the Sun. The optical viewfinders provided with some video and digital cameras are not safe. Securely mounting #14 welder's glass in front of the lens and viewfinder protects the equipment and makes viewing possible.[២០] Professional workmanship is essential because of the dire consequences any gaps or detaching mountings will have. In the partial eclipse path one will not be able to see the corona or nearly complete darkening of the sky, however, depending on how much of the Sun's disk is obscured, some darkening may be noticeable. If three-quarters or more of the sun is obscured, then an effect can be observed by which the daylight appears to be dim, as if the sky were overcast, yet objects still cast sharp shadows.[២៣]

Totality[កែប្រែ]

When the shrinking visible part of the photosphere becomes very small, Baily's beads will occur. These are caused by the sunlight still being able to reach Earth through lunar valleys. Totality then begins with the diamond ring effect, the last bright flash of sunlight.[២៤]

It is safe to observe the total phase of a solar eclipse directly only when the Sun's photosphere is completely covered by the Moon, and not before or after totality.[២១] During this period the Sun is too dim to be seen through filters. The Sun's faint corona will be visible, and the chromosphere, solar prominences, and possibly even a solar flare may be seen. At the end of totality, the same effects will occur in reverse order, and on the opposite side of the Moon.[២៤]

Photography[កែប្រែ]

Photographing an eclipse is possible with fairly common camera equipment. In order for the disk of the Sun/Moon to be easily visible, a fairly high magnification long focus lens is needed (at least 200 mm for a 35 mm camera), and for the disk to fill most of the frame, a longer lens is needed (over 500 mm). As with viewing the Sun directly, looking at it through the viewfinder of a camera can produce damage to the retina, so care is recommended.[២៥]

Other observations[កែប្រែ]

The progression of a solar eclipse on August 1, 2008 in Novosibirsk, Russia. All times UTC (local time was UTC+7). The time span between shots is three minutes.

A total solar eclipse forms a rare opportunity to observe the corona (the outer layer of the Sun's atmosphere). Normally this is not visible because the photosphere is much brighter than the corona. According to the point reached in the solar cycle, the corona may appear small and symmetric, or large and fuzzy. It is very hard to predict this prior to totality.[២៦]

Phenomena associated with eclipses include shadow bands (also known as flying shadows), which are similar to shadows on the bottom of a swimming pool. They only occur just prior to and after totality, when a narrow solar crescent acts as an anisotropic light source.[២៧]

1919 observations[កែប្រែ]

The original photograph of the 1919 eclipse which was claimed to confirm Einstein's theory of general relativity.

The observation of a total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919 helped to confirm Einstein's theory of general relativity. By comparing the apparent distance between stars, with and without the Sun between them, Arthur Eddington stated that the theoretical predictions about gravitational lenses were confirmed. The observation with the Sun between the stars was only possible during totality, since the stars are then visible. Though Eddington's observations were near experimental limits of accuracy at the time, work in the later half of the 20th century confirmed his results.[២៨][២៩]

Gravity anomalies[កែប្រែ]

There is a long history of observations of gravity-related phenomena during solar eclipses, especially around totality. In 1954 and again in 1959, Maurice Allais reported observations of strange and unexplained movement during solar eclipses.[៣០] This phenomenon is now called the Allais Effect. Similarly, Saxl and Allen in 1970 observed sudden change in motion of a torsion pendulum, and this phenomenon is called the Saxl effect.[៣១]

A recent published observation during the 1997 solar eclipse by Wang et al. suggested a possible gravitational shielding effect,[៣២] which generated debate. Later in 2002, Yang and Wang published detailed data analysis which suggested that the phenomenon still remains unexplained.[៣៣]

Eclipses and transits[កែប្រែ]

In principle, the simultaneous occurrence of a Solar eclipse and a transit of a planet is possible. But these events are extremely rare because of their short durations. The next anticipated simultaneous occurrence of a Solar eclipse and a transit of Mercury will be on July 5, 6757, and a Solar eclipse and a transit of Venus is expected on April 5, 15232.[៣៤]

More common, but still infrequent, is a conjunction of a planet (especially but not only Mercury or Venus) at the time of a total solar eclipse, in which event the planet will be visible very near the eclipsed Sun, when without the eclipse it would have been lost in the Sun's glare. At one time, some scientists hypothesized that there may be a planet (often given the name Vulcan) even closer to the Sun than Mercury; the only way to confirm its existence would have been to observe it in transit or during a total solar eclipse. No such planet was ever found.[៣៥]

Artificial satellites[កែប្រែ]

Shadow of the moon above Turkey and Cyprus, seen from the ISS during a 2006 total solar eclipse.

Artificial satellites can also pass in front of the Sun as seen from Earth, but none is large enough to cause an eclipse. At the altitude of the International Space Station, for example, an object would need to be about ៣,៣៥ គ.ម. (២,០៨ ម៉ៃ.) across to blot the Sun out entirely. These transits are difficult to watch, because the zone of visibility is very small. The satellite passes over the face of the Sun in about a second, typically. As with a transit of a planet, it will not get dark.[៣៦]

Observations of eclipses from spacecraft or artificial satellites orbiting above the Earth's atmosphere are not subject to weather conditions. The crew of Gemini 12 observed a total solar eclipse from space in 1966.[៣៧] The partial phase of the 1999 total eclipse was visible from Mir.[៣៨]

Recent and forthcoming solar eclipses[កែប្រែ]

Eclipse path for total and hybrid eclipses from 2001–2020.

Eclipses only occur in the eclipse season, when the Sun is close to either the ascending or descending node of the Moon. Each eclipse is separated by one, five or six lunations (synodic months), and the midpoint of each season is separated by 173.3 days, which is the mean time for the Sun to travel from one node to the next. The period is a little less than half a calendar year because the lunar nodes slowly regress. Because 223 synodic months is roughly equal to 239 anomalistic months and 242 draconic months, eclipses with similar geometry recur 223 synodic months (about 6,585.3 days) apart. This period (18 years 11.3 days) is a saros. Because 223 synodic months is not identical to 239 anomalistic months or 242 draconic months, saros cycles do not endlessly repeat. Each cycle begins with the Moon's shadow crossing the earth near the north or south pole, and subsequent events progress toward the other pole until the Moon's shadow misses the earth and the series ends.[៣៩] Saros cycles are numbered; currently, cycles 117 to 156 are active.

Solar eclipses
1997–2000 2000–2003 2004–2007 2008–2011 2011–2014 2015–2018 2018–2021 2022–2025


មើលផងដែរ[កែប្រែ]

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កំណត់ចំណាំ[កែប្រែ]

  1. Harrington, pp. 7–8
  2. ២,០ ២,១ ២,២ ២,៣ Harrington, pp. 9–11
  3. Mobberley, pp. 30–38
  4. NASA - Eclipse 99 - Frequently Asked Questions — There is a mistake in the How long will we continue to be able to see total eclipses of the Sun? answer, "...the Sun's angular diameter varies from 32.7 minutes of arc when the Earth is at its farthest point in its orbit (aphelion), and 31.6 arc minutes when it is at its closest (perihelion)." It should appear smaller when farther, so the values should be swapped.
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Harrington
  6. Mobberley, pp. 33–37
  7. Steel, pp. 52–53
  8. Espenak, Fred (March 24, 2008)។ "World Atlas of Solar Eclipse Paths"។ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[១] នៅថ្ងៃ July 14, 2012https://archive.is/sFKd។ បានយកមក January 15, 2012 
  9. Pogo, Alexander (1935)។ "Calendar years with five solar eclipses"។ Popular Astronomy 43: 412។ Bibcode 1935PA.....43..412P 
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named fourmilab
  11. van Gent, Robert Harry។ "Astronomical Chronology"។ University of Utrechthttp://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/babylon/babybibl_chronology.htm។ បានយកមក January 15, 2012 
  12. Harrington, p. 2
  13. Blakeslee, Sandra (November 14, 2006)។ "Ancient Crash, Epic Wave"។ New York Timeshttp://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/14/science/14WAVE.html។ បានយកមក November 14, 2006 
  14. Espenak, Fred (July 11, 2005)។ "Eye Safety During Solar Eclipses"។ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[២] នៅថ្ងៃ July 16, 2012https://archive.is/F2Jd។ បានយកមក January 15, 2012 
  15. Dobson, Roger (August 21, 1999)។ "UK hospitals assess eye damage after solar eclipse"British Medical Journal 319: 469។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1136/bmj.319.7208.469http://www.bmj.com/content/319/7208/469.1 
  16. MacRobert, Alan M.។ "How to Watch a Partial Solar Eclipse Safely"។ Sky & Telescopehttp://www.skyandtelescope.com/observing/objects/eclipses/3306081.html។ បានយកមក August 4, 2007 
  17. Chou, B. Ralph (July 11, 2005)។ "Eye safety during solar eclipses"។ NASA Goddard Space Flight Centerhttp://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEhelp/safety2.html។ បានយកមក January 15, 2012 
  18. Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken; Espenak, Fred (1999)។ "Observing Solar Eclipses Safely"។ MrEclipse.comhttp://www.mreclipse.com/Totality/TotalityCh11.html។ បានយកមក January 15, 2012 
  19. Chou, B. Ralph (January 20, 2008)។ "Eclipse Filters"។ MrEclipse.comhttp://www.mreclipse.com/Special/filters.html។ បានយកមក January 4, 2012 
  20. ២០,០ ២០,១ "Eclipse Viewing Safety"Perkins Observatoryhttp://www.perkins-observatory.org/eclipsesafety.html។ បានយកមក January 15, 2012 
  21. ២១,០ ២១,១ Harrington, p. 25
  22. Harrington, p. 26
  23. Harrington, p. 40
  24. ២៤,០ ២៤,១ Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken; Espenak, Fred (1999)។ "The Experience of Totality"។ MrEclipse.comhttp://www.mreclipse.com/Totality/TotalityCh01.html។ បានយកមក January 15, 2012 
  25. Kramer, Bill។ "Photographing a Total Solar Eclipse"។ Eclipse-chasers.com។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[៣] នៅថ្ងៃ January 29, 2009http://web.archive.org/web/20090129100143/http://eclipse-chasers.com/eclphot.htm។ បានយកមក March 7, 2010 
  26. "The science of eclipses"។ ESA។ September 28, 2004http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEMYK9R1VED_index_0.html។ បានយកមក August 4, 2007 
  27. Dravins, Dainis។ "Flying Shadows"។ Lund Observatoryhttp://www.astro.lu.se/~dainis/HTML/FLYSHAD.html។ បានយកមក January 15, 2012 
  28. "Relativity and the 1919 eclipse"។ ESA។ September 13, 2004http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEM7I9R1VED_index_0.html។ បានយកមក January 11, 2011 
  29. Steel, pp. 114–120
  30. Allais, Maurice (1959)។ "Should the Laws of Gravitation be Reconsidered?"។ Aero/Space Engineering 9: 46–55។ 
  31. Saxl, Erwin J.; Allen, Mildred (1971)។ "1970 solar eclipse as 'seen' by a torsion pendulum"។ Physical Review D 3 (4): 823–825។ Bibcode 1971PhRvD...3..823Sអ.វ.ល.:10.1103/PhysRevD.3.823 
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  33. Yang, X. S.; Wang, Q. S. (2002)។ "Gravity anomaly during the Mohe total solar eclipse and new constraint on gravitational shielding parameter"។ Astrophysics and Space Science 282 (1): 245–253។ Bibcode 2002Ap&SS.282..245Yអ.វ.ល.:10.1023/A:1021119023985 
  34. Meeus, J.; Vitagliano, A. (2004)។ "Simultaneous transits" (PDF)។ J. Br. Astron. Assoc. 114 (3): 132–135។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[៤] នៅថ្ងៃ July 10, 2007http://web.archive.org/web/20070710041555/http://www.marco-peuschel.de/simtrans.pdf 
  35. Grego, Peter (2008)។ Venus and Mercury, and How to Observe Them។ Springer។ ទំ. 3។ ល.ស.ប.អ. [[Special:BookSources/978-0-387-74285-9|978-0-387-74285-9]]។ 
  36. "ISS-Venustransit" (ជាGerman)។ astronomie.infohttp://eclipse.astronomie.info/transit/venus/isstransit/isstransit.html 
  37. "JSC Digital Image Collection"។ NASA Johnson Space Center។ January 11, 2006http://images.jsc.nasa.gov/luceneweb/caption_direct.jsp?photoId=S66-63415។ បានយកមក January 15, 2012 
  38. NASA (August 30, 1999)។ "Looking Back on an Eclipsed Earth"។ Astronomy Picture of the Dayhttp://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap990830.html។ បានយកមក January 15, 2012 
  39. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named period

ឯកសារយោង[កែប្រែ]

  • Harrington, Philip S. (1997)។ Eclipse! The What, Where, When, Why and How Guide to Watching Solar and Lunar Eclipses។ New York: John Wiley and Sons។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-471-12795-7 
  • Mobberley, Martin (2007)។ Total Solar Eclipses and How to Observe Them។ Astronomers' Observing Guides។ New York: Springer។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-387-69827-4 
  • Steel, Duncan (1999)។ Eclipse: The celestial phenomenon which has changed the course of history។ London: Headline។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-7472-7385-5 

តំណភ្ជាប់ខាងក្រៅ[កែប្រែ]

Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Solar eclipsesពី វិគីធ្វើដំណើរ

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