ហង់រី ការចេរ ប្រេស្សុង
ហង់រី ការចេរ ប្រេស្សុង (Henri Cartier-Bresson)(២២ សីហា ឆ្នាំ១៩០៨- ៣ សីហា ២០០៤) ដែលជាអ្នកថតរូបជនជាតិបារាំងម្នាក់ ដែលត្រូវបានគេចាត់ទុកជាបិតានៃការថតរូបសម្រាប់កាសែត បែបទំនើប។ គាត់គឺជាអ្នកប្រើប្រាស់ហ្វ៊ីល ៣៥ មម ដំបូងបំផុត និង ជាបិតានៃការថតរូបយកសកម្មភាពពិតៗ។ គាត់បានជួយដល់ការបង្កើតស្ទីលថតរូបយកសកម្មភាពពិតៗនៃជីវភាពប្រចាំថ្ងៃរបស់មនុស្ស ដែលស្ទីលទាំងនោះមានឥទ្ធិពលដល់អ្នកថតរូបផ្សេងទៀតជាច្រើនជំនាន់។
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ការចេរ ប្រេស្សុង បានកើតនៅ Chanteloup-en-Brie, Seine-et-Marne ប្រទេសបារាំង។ គាត់គឺជាកូនច្បងគេ ក្នុងចំនោមកូន៥នាក់។ ឪពុករបស់គាត់គឺជា ឧស្សាហករវាយនភ័ណ្ឌ ដ៏មានស្ដុកស្ដម្ភម្នាក់, ដែល សសៃអំបោះរបស់ គ្រួសារ Cartier-Bresson ជាផលិតផលដេរប៉ាក់ដ៏សំខាន់មួយនៅប្រទេសបារាំង។ គ្រួសារខាងម្តាយរបស់គាត់ គឺជាអ្នកជំនួញ ផលិតផលសំពត់ ហើយជាម្ចាស់ដី នៅ Normandy, ជាទីកន្លែងដែលគាត់បានចំនាយពេលវេលាមួយផ្នែកនៃ កុមារភាពរបស់គាត់។ គ្រួសារ Cartier-Bresson បានរស់នៅក្នុងជីវភាពប្រហាក់ប្រហែលនឹងពួកគហិបតី នៅក្នុងក្រុងប៉ារីស នៅក្បែរស្ពានអឺរ៉ុប (Europe Bridge)។ គ្រួសាររបស់គាត់ បានផ្តល់អោយគាត់ នូវការផ្គត់ផ្គង់ផ្នែកហិរញ្ញវត្ថុ ដែលបានជួយឱ្យគាត់ធ្វើការអភិវឌ្ឍផ្នែកថតរូប ក្នុងរបៀបឯករាជ្យច្រើនជាងអ្នកផ្សេងទៀតក្នុងវ័យស្រករនឹងគាត់។ នៅពេលទំនេរ ការចេរ ប្រេស្សុង ក៏តែងនិពន្ធផងដែរ។ គាត់បានរៀបរាប់ថា គ្រួសាររបស់គាត់ កាតូលិចសង្គមនិយម ។[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង]
នៅជាក្មេងប្រុសម្នាក់នៅឡើយ ការចេរ ប្រេស្សុង មានម៉ាស៊ីនថត Box Brownie មួយគ្រឿង ដែលគាត់បានប្រើប្រាស់វាសម្រាប់ថតរូប នៅថ្ងៃសំរាក; ក្រោយយមកគាត់បានប្រើប្រាស់កាមេរ៉ាគំហើញ 3x4 អ៊ីញ (View Camera)។ គាត់ត្រូវបានគ្រួសាររបស់គាត់អប់រំឱ្យតាមរបៀបជាគហិបតីបារាំងបុរាណ ដែល គាត់ត្រូវតែហៅឪពុករបស់គាត់ ដោយប្រើពាក្យ Vous ដោយមិនត្រូវប្រើពាក្យ Tu ឡើយ។ ឪពុករបស់គាត់សង្ឃឹមថា ការចេរ ប្រេស្សុង នឹងទទួលយកការងារជំនួញបន្តពីគាត់ ប៉ុន្តែ ការចេរ ប្រេស្សុង បានធ្វើឱ្យឪពុកខកបំណងជាខ្លាំង។
ការចេរ ប្រេស្សុង បានទៅរៀននៅសាលា École Fénelon ដែលជាសាលាកាតូលិចមួយ ដែលគេបានរៀបចំសម្រាប់សិស្សត្រៀមទៅសិក្សានៅវិទ្យាល័យ Condorcet ។ មានថ្ងៃមួយ អនុរក្សសាលាបានទាន់ ការចេរ ប្រេស្សុង កំពុងតែអានសៀវភៅនិពន្ធដោយ Rimbaud ឬ Mallarmé នៅដើមឆ្នាំសិក្សានៅឡើយ ហើយបានស្ដីបន្ទោសឱ្យគាត់យ៉ាងខ្លាំងថា ៖ "សូមឯងធ្វើឱ្យមានសណ្ដាប់ធ្នាប់ក្នុងការសិក្សាបន្តិចទៅ" ។ អនុរក្សសាលា នោះ និយាយដោយប្រើពាក្យ tu ក្រៅផ្លូវការ ដែលជាទូទៅមានន័យថា កូនសិស្សនោះ នឹងត្រូវអនុរក្សច្រាស់អស់ស្រកីមិនខាន ប៉ុន្តែលោកអនុរក្សបាននិយាយបន្តថា "ឯងត្រូវទៅអាននៅការិយាល័យរបស់ខ្ញុំវិញ" ដែលលោក ការចេរ ប្រេស្សុង គិតថា សំណើនេះ មិនចាំបាច់ឱ្យលោកអនុរក្សធ្ងន់មាត់ទាន់ទេ គឺយល់ព្រមតាមសំណើភ្លាម។
បន្ទាប់ពីការព្យាយាមរៀនបទភ្លេង ទទួលការបរ៉ាជ័យ ក្មេងប្រុសCartier-Bressonបានណែនាំវិចិត្រកម្មដែលប្រើថ្នាំលាយប្រេងគឺជា ពូរបស់គាត់ Louisដែលមាននិស្ស័យ ជាអ្នកវិចិត្រករ។ វិចិត្រកម្ម គឺជា ក្តីស្រម៉ៃរបស់ខ្ញុំ តាំងពីពេលដែល ឪពុកទេវកថា និង ឪពុករបស់បងប្រុសរបស់ខ្ញុំ បាននាំគាត់ទៅ កន្លែងសិល្បះ កំលុងពេល សំរាកថ្ងៃ Christmasក្នុងឆ្នាំ ១៩១៣។ខ្ញុំមានអាយុត្រឹមតែ ៥ឆ្នាំ។ខ្ញុំបានរស់នៅក្នុងបរិយាកាសនៃការផាត់ពណ៌ ខ្ញុំបានគូររូបលើផ្ទាំងក្រណាត់។មេរៀនការផាត់ពណ៌របស់លោកពូLouisបានកាត់អោយខ្លី គាត់បានស្លាប់កាលពីសង្រ្គាមលោកលើកទី១។ នៅក្នុងឆ្នាំ១៩២៧Cartier-Bressonមានអាយុ១៩បានចូលទៅក្នុងសាលាសិល្បះឯកជននិងសាលាជាន់ខ្ពស់Lhoteកន្លែងដែលសិល្បះអ្នកផាត់ពណ៌Cubistហើយនិងរូបចំលាក់André Lhote។មហិច្ចតារបស់Lhoteគឺបញ្ជូលជាមួយទំរង់ដែលវិចិត្រយ៉ាងពិតប្រាកដរបស់លោកAndré Lhoteគាត់ចង់ភ្ជាប់ប្រពៃណីបុរាណរបស់បារាំងនៃNicolas Poussinហើយនិង Jacques-Louis Davidនិងភាពទាន់សម័យ។Cartier-Bressonផងដែរបានសិក្សាអំពីគំនូរសមាគមន៍អ្នកគូររូបពាក់កណ្តាលខ្លួនJacques Émile Blanche។កំឡុងពេលគាត់អានDostoevsky, Schopenhauer, Rimbaud, Nietzsche, Mallarmé, Freud, Proust, Joyce, Hegel, Engels and Marx។Lhoteបានយកប្រស្រីភ្នែករបស់គាត់សំរាប់សិក្សាអំពីសិល្បះបុរាណហើយវិចិត្រសាលប៉ារីសបានសិក្សាអំពីវិជ្ជាជីវះអំពីសិល្បះ។Cartier-Bresson'sមានចំណាប់អារម្មណ៍លើសិល្បះទំនើបដែលបានបញ្ចូលជាមួយនឹង ការស្ងើចសរសើរនៃការងារ នៃRenaissanceដែលជាស្នាដៃឯកនៃ Jan van Eyck, Paolo Uccello, Masaccio ហើយនិងPierodella Francesca។Cartier-Bressonបានគិតថា Lhoteដូចគ្រូរបស់គាត់ដែរ គឺ ថតរូបដោយមិនបាច់ប្រើកាមេរ៉ា។ ទោះបីជាយ៉ាងណាក៏ដោយCartier-Bresson មានការព្រួយបារម្ភបន្តិចម្តងៗ អំពី ច្បាប់ជាច្រើនរបស់ Lhote ឈានទៅរកសិល្បះ ទ្រឹស្តីដ៏តឹងរឹងរបស់គាត់ អប់រំអោយគាត់នឹង ជួយគាត់ប្រឈមមុខនឹងបញ្ហា និងដោះស្រាយបញ្ហា នៃទំរង់ដែលវិចិត្រ និង ដៃគូរប្រគួតប្រជែង ខាងថតរូប។ក្នុងឆ្នាំ១៩២០សាលារៀនថតរូប ប្រាកដជាល្បីល្បាញ នៅទ្វីប អឺរ៉ុប ប៉ុន្តែ ទេសភាពនិមួយៗមានភាពខុសប្លែកពីគ្នានៅលើការ ចាត់ចែង នឹងត្រូវបានថត។បដិវត្តន៍នៃរូបថត នឹងត្រូវបានបង្កើតឡើង ការបាត់បង់ការថតរូបវត្ថុ ។ អ្វីដែលស្មានមិនដល់ក្នុងឆ្នាំ១៩២៤មានការផ្លាស់ប្តូរ paradigm នេះ។ Cartier-Bresson បានចាប់ផ្តើម ធ្វើអោយសង្គម មានការរីកចំរើនមិន គួរអោយនឹកស្មានដល់ នៅហាងកាហ្វេ Cyranoក្នុង Blanche ។គាត់បានទទួល ចំណាត់ ថ្នាក់លេខ១ ខាងអ្នកដឹកនាំ ហើយគឺជាចលនា ផ្សាភ្ជាប់ដ៏ប្រពៃដោយ មិនគួរអោយជឿ ព្រមទាំងសំរេច ការងាររបស់គេភ្លាមៗ។ អ្នកប្រវត្តិសាស្រ្ត Peter Galassi បានពន្យល់ អ្នកមនោគតិ បានប្រឡូកក្នុងការថតរូប ក្នុងផ្លូវដូច ផ្លូវដែល Aragon ហើយនិង Breton ដែលបានចូលប្រឡូកដែរ ផ្លូវរបស់ពួកគេគឺ ការប្រថ្នាមិនចេះចប់ ក្នុងរឿងអាចទៅរួច រឺ រឿងដែលមិនអាចទៅរួច អ្នកមនោគតិបានរៀបចំយ៉ាង ច្បាស់លាស់អំពីរូបថតពិតៗ គុណភាពជាការចាំបាច់ ដែលមិនរាប់បញ្ចូលទ្រឹស្តីពីមុនៗ នៃរូបថតប្រាកដនិយមនោះទេ។ ពូកគេបានឃើញរូបថតដើម ជាពិសេសគេបានយក ទ្រព្យសម្បត្តិរក្សាទុក មានអត្ថន័យ ដែលមិនអាចស្មានដល់។
ទោះបីជាយ៉ាងណាក៏ដោយCartier-Bresson មានការព្រួយបារម្ភបន្តិចម្តងៗ អំពី ច្បាប់ជាច្រើនរបស់ Lhote ឈានទៅរកសិល្បះ ទ្រឹស្តីដ៏តឹងរឹងរបស់គាត់ អប់រំអោយគាត់នឹង ជួយគាត់ប្រឈមមុខនឹងបញ្ហា និងដោះស្រាយបញ្ហា នៃទំរង់ដែលវិចិត្រ និង ដៃគូរប្រគួតប្រជែង ខាងថតរូប។ក្នុងឆ្នាំ១៩២០សាលារៀនថតរូប ប្រាកដជាល្បីល្បាញ នៅទ្វីប អឺរ៉ុប ប៉ុន្តែ ទេសភាពនិមួយៗមានភាពខុសប្លែកពីគ្នានៅលើការ ចាត់ចែង នឹងត្រូវបានថត។បដិវត្តន៍នៃរូបថត នឹងត្រូវបានបង្កើតឡើង ការបាត់បង់ការថតរូបវត្ថុ ។ អ្វីដែលស្មានមិនដល់ក្នុងឆ្នាំ១៩២៤មានការផ្លាស់ប្តូរ paradigm នេះ។ Cartier-Bresson បានចាប់ផ្តើម ធ្វើអោយសង្គម មានការរីកចំរើនមិន គួរអោយនឹកស្មានដល់ នៅហាងកាហ្វេ Cyranoក្នុង Blanche ។គាត់បានទទួល ចំណាត់ ថ្នាក់លេខ១ ខាងអ្នកដឹកនាំ ហើយគឺជាចលនា ផ្សាភ្ជាប់ដ៏ប្រពៃដោយ មិនគួរអោយជឿ ព្រមទាំងសំរេច ការងាររបស់គេភ្លាមៗ។ អ្នកប្រវត្តិសាស្រ្ត Peter Galassi បានពន្យល់ អ្នកមនោគតិ បានប្រឡូកក្នុងការថតរូប ក្នុងផ្លូវដូច ផ្លូវដែល Aragon ហើយនិង Breton ដែលបានចូលប្រឡូកដែរ ផ្លូវរបស់ពួកគេគឺ ការប្រថ្នាមិនចេះចប់ ក្នុងរឿងអាចទៅរួច រឺ រឿងដែលមិនអាចទៅរួច អ្នកមនោគតិបានរៀបចំយ៉ាង ច្បាស់លាស់អំពីរូបថតពិតៗ គុណភាពជាការចាំបាច់ ដែលមិនរាប់បញ្ចូលទ្រឹស្តីពីមុនៗ នៃរូបថតប្រាកដនិយមនោះទេ។ ពូកគេបានឃើញរូបថតដើម ជាពិសេសគេបានយក ទ្រព្យសម្បត្តិរក្សាទុក មានអត្ថន័យ ដែលមិនអាចស្មានដល់។ ទោះបីជាយ៉ាងណាក៏ដោយCartier-Bresson មានការព្រួយបារម្ភបន្តិចម្តងៗ អំពី ច្បាប់ជាច្រើនរបស់ Lhote ឈានទៅរកសិល្បះ ទ្រឹស្តីដ៏តឹងរឹងរបស់គាត់ អប់រំអោយគាត់នឹង ជួយគាត់ប្រឈមមុខនឹងបញ្ហា និងដោះស្រាយបញ្ហា នៃទំរង់ដែលវិចិត្រ និង ដៃគូរប្រគួតប្រជែង ខាងថតរូប។ក្នុងឆ្នាំ១៩២០សាលារៀនថតរូប ប្រាកដជាល្បីល្បាញនៅទ្វីប អឺរ៉ុប ប៉ុន្តែ ទេសភាពនិមួយៗមានភាពខុសប្លែកពីគ្នានៅលើការ ចាត់ចែង នឹងត្រូវបានថត។បដិវត្តន៍នៃរូបថត នឹងត្រូវបានបង្កើតឡើង ការបាត់បង់ការថតរូបវត្ថុ ។ អ្វីដែលស្មានមិនដល់ក្នុងឆ្នាំ១៩២៤មានការផ្លាស់ប្តូរ paradigm នេះ។ Cartier-Bresson បានចាប់ផ្តើម ធ្វើអោយសង្គម មានការរីកចំរើនមិនគួរអោយនឹកស្មានដល់ នៅហាងកាហ្វេ Cyranoក្នុង Blanche ។គាត់បានទទួលចំណាត់ថ្នាក់លេខ១ ខាងអ្នកដឹកនាំ ហើយគឺជាចលនាផ្សាភ្ជាប់ដ៏ប្រពៃដោយមិនគួរអោយជឿ ព្រមទាំងសំរេចការងាររបស់គេភ្លាមៗ។ អ្នកប្រវត្តិសាស្រ្ត Peter Galassi បានពន្យល់ អ្នកមនោគតិ បានប្រឡូកក្នុងការថតរូប ក្នុងផ្លូវដូច ផ្លូវដែល Aragon ហើយនិង Bretonដែលបានចូលប្រឡូកដែរ ផ្លូវរបស់ពួកគេគឺ ការប្រថ្នាមិនចេះចប់ ក្នុងរឿងអាចទៅរួច រឺ រឿងដែលមិនអាចទៅរួច អ្នកមនោគតិបានរៀបចំយ៉ាងច្បាស់លាស់អំពីរូបថតពិតៗ គុណភាពជាការចាំបាច់ ដែលមិនរាប់បញ្ចូលទ្រឹស្តីពីមុនៗ នៃរូបថតប្រាកដនិយមនោះទេ។ ពូកគេបានឃើញរូបថតដើម ជាពិសេសគេបានយក ទ្រព្យសម្បត្តិរក្សាទុក មានអត្ថន័យ ដែលមិនអាចស្មានដល់។ ចាប់ពីឆ្នាំ១៩២៨ ដល់ ១៩២៩ Cartier-Bressonបានចូលរួម ប្រជុំនៅសកលវិទ្យាល័យ Cambridge ដែលជាកន្លែងដែលគាត់បានសិក្សាអង់គ្លេស សិល្បះ
Cartier-Bresson ជាអ្នកដែលវិចិត្រករដ៏សុក្រិដ្ឋ ក្នុងវប្បធម៌ និង ជាមនុស្សដែលគាំទ្រ បរិស្ថាន។គាត់ ជាមនុស្សប្រកបដោយចំនេះដឹងក្នុងការគិត និងវែកញែក ប៉ុន្តែគាត់មិនអាចស្វែងរកផ្លូវ នៃការបញ្ចេញ អំពីការត្រិះរិះពិចារណា នេះ ក្នុង គំនូររបស់គាត់ទេ។ គាត់បានធ្វើអោយ សំរាច់ ជាមួយនឹងការពិសោធន៍របស់គាត់ ហើយក្រោយមកទៀត បានធ្វើអោយខូច និតិភាពសំរាប់មុនការងាររបស់គាត់។ ហើយនិង អក្សរសាស្រ្ត ហើយបានក្លាយជាអ្នកដែលចេះភាសាច្រើនមុខ។នៅក្នុងឆ្នាំ១៩៣០ ការដាក់ទ័ពនៅឯ Le Bourget ក្បែរទីក្រុងប៉ារីស គាត់បានបំពេញតួនាទីជាអ្នកទទួលបញ្ជារ នៅក្នុង កងទ័ពបារាំង។គាត់បានចង់ចាំថា “ខ្ញុំបានធ្វើការយ៉ាងលំបាកគ្រប់ពេល នៃការងារហ្នឹង ពីព្រោះ ខ្ញុំបានយកកាំភ្លើងវែងពីដៃរបស់ ខ្ញុំហើយដាក់នៅលើស្មា“។ នៅក្នុងឆ្នាំ១៩២៩ មេបញ្ជាការកងចំបាំងអាកាសរបស់ Cartier-Bresson's ដាក់អោយគាត់ចូលខាងក្រោមផ្ទះដោយចាប់ខ្លួនចំពោះការបរបាញ់ ដោយគ្មានការអនុញ្ញាតិ។ Cartier-Bresson បានជួបជនជាតិភៀសខ្លូនរបស់អាមេរិចកាំង Harry Crosby នៅ at Le Bourget ដែលបានលួងលោមអោយមន្រ្តីអោយឃុំក្នុងគុកជាមួយ Cartier-Bresson ដែរ សំរាប់ ពីរបីថ្ងៃ។ការពិគ្រោះគ្នាទៅវិញទៅមករបស់ពួកគេ មានចំណាប់អារម្មណ៍ខាងថតរូប ហើយពួកគេបានចំនាយពេលវេលាទាំងពីរនាក់ ថតរូបនិង គូរគំនូរនៅផ្ទះ Crosby Le Moulin du Soleil (The Sun Mill), នៅទីក្រុងប៉ារីស Ermenonvilleប្រទេសបារាំង។Crosby បាននិយាយទៅ Cartier-Bresson ហាក់បីដូចជា ខ្មាស់ ហើយ មានភាពទន់ខ្សោយ ហើយ ស្រទន់។ការអោបថើបចំនងមេត្រីរបស់ Crosby និង ភរិយា Caresse បានធ្វើអោយ Cartier-Bresson ធ្លាក់ចូលទៅក្នុងទំនាក់ទំនងភេទជាមួយនាង។ ពីរឆ្នាំបន្ទាប់ទៀត Harry Crosby បានសំលាប់ខ្លួនភាពសប្បាយរីករាយរបស់ Cartier-Bresson's ត្រូវបានបញ្ចប់ក្នុងឆ្នាំ១៩៣១ជាមួយនឹង Caresse Crosby ចាកចេញពីគាត់ធ្វើអោយគាត់មានការឈឺចាប់។កំឡុងពេលការចូលរួមរបស់គាត់ គាត់បានអាន សេចក្តីស្នេហារបស់ Conrad ដ៏ស្រងូតស្រងាត់ហើយគាត់បានសំរេចចិត្តស្វែងរកផ្លូវចេញ និង ផ្សងព្រេង នៅឯ the Côte d'Ivoire ក្នុងប្រទេសបារាំង ដែលជាអាណានិគម នៃទ្វីបអាព្រិច ។ការបោះបង់ចោលការគួររូប គាត់បានសរសេរ “ខ្ញុំចាកចេញពីការដ្ឋានសិល្បះនៃ Lhoteជាដួងព្រលឹងនៃសិល្បះនេះទេ។ខ្ញុំចង់ធ្វើជាខ្លួនខ្ញុំ។គំនួរ និងការផ្លាស់ប្តួរនៃពិភពលោកខ្ញុំបានគិតជាងរឿង ជីវិតខ្ញុំទៀត”។គាត់បានបរបាញ់ និងលក់វាទៅអោយអ្នកភួមិ ។ពីការបរបាញ់គាត់បាន រៀនរបៀបដែលគាត់បានប្រើនៅក្នុងការថតរូប។ Côte d'Ivoire គាត់បានកើតរោគគ្រុនក្តៅ ដែលសឹងសំលាប់គាត់។ខណះពេលដែលគាត់នៅតែមានជំងឺ គាត់បានប្រាប់ទៅ ឪពុកម្តាយ គាត់អោយយកសពរបស់គាត់នៅក្នុង Normandieនៅមុខ នៃព្រៃ Eawyខណះពេល Debussy គឺជាក្រុមភ្លេងបូននាក់កំពុងតែលេង។ពូរបស់គាត់បាន សរសេរត្រលប់មកវិញ ឪពុកម្តាយរបស់ឯងបានរកក្រុមភ្លេងដ៏ថ្លៃ។
សីហា 22, 1908|
|ស្លាប់||សីហា 3, 2004
|សាលាចាស់||Lycée Condorcet, Paris|
|ពន្ធភាព||Ratna Mohini (m.1937-1967)
Martine Franck (m.1970-2004)
|រង្វាន់||1981 Grand Prix National de la Photographie|
|អត្ថបទនេះ ត្រូវការបកប្រែ ទៅជាភាសាខ្មែរ។
អត្ថបទនេះត្រូវបានសរសេរជាភាសាផ្សេង ដែលមិនមែនជាភាសាខ្មែរ។ បើសិនជាអត្ថបទទុកសម្រាប់អ្នកអានមកពី សហគមន៍នៃភាសាមួយនេះ វាគួរតែចែកចាយទៅវិគីភីឌាជាភាសានោះ. សូមមើល បញ្ជីនៃគម្រោងវិគីភីឌាទាំងអស់។
សូមមើល ច្រកចូលអត្ថបទនេះ លើក្រុមទំព័រដែលត្រូវការបំណកប្រែទៅជាភាសាខ្មែរ ដើម្បីពិភាក្សា ។ ប្រសិនបើ អត្ថបទមិនត្រូវបានសរសេរជាភាសាខ្មែរឡើងវិញទេ ក្នុងរយៈពេលពីរអាទិត្យទៀត អត្ថបទនឹងត្រូវចុះបញ្ជីដើម្បីលុបចោល និង/ឬ ប្ដូរវាទៅកាន់វិគីភីឌាជាភាសាដើមរបស់វាវិញ ។
បើសិនជាលោកអ្នក គ្រាន់តែចង់បិទស្លាកទំព័រនេះត្រូវការបំណកប្រែ សូមបញ្ចូល
ទៅខាងក្រោម នៃផ្នែក នៃក្រុមទំព័រនេះត្រូវការបំណកប្រែទៅជាភាសាខ្មែរ ។
After unsuccessfully trying to learn music, as a boy Cartier-Bresson was introduced to oil painting by his uncle Louis, a gifted painter. "Painting has been my obsession from the time that my 'mythical father', my father's brother, led me into his studio during the Christmas holidays in 1913, when I was five years old. There I lived in the atmosphere of painting; I inhaled the canvases."[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] Uncle Louis' painting lessons were cut short, when he died in World War I.
In 1927, at the age of 19, Cartier-Bresson entered a private art school and the Lhote Academy, the Parisian studio of the Cubist painter and sculptor André Lhote. Lhote's ambition was to integrate the Cubists' approach to reality with classical artistic forms; he wanted to link the French classical tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis David to Modernism. Cartier-Bresson also studied painting with society portraitist Jacques Émile Blanche. During this period, he read Dostoevsky, Schopenhauer, Rimbaud, Nietzsche, Mallarmé, Freud, Proust, Joyce, Hegel, Engels and Marx. Lhote took his pupils to the Louvre to study classical artists and to Parisian galleries to study contemporary art. Cartier-Bresson's interest in modern art was combined with an admiration for the works of the Renaissance—of masterpieces of Jan van Eyck, Paolo Uccello, Masaccio and Piero della Francesca. Cartier-Bresson often regarded Lhote as his teacher of "photography without a camera."
Experiments with photography[កែប្រែ]
Although Cartier-Bresson gradually began to be restless under Lhote's "rule-laden" approach to art, his rigorous theoretical training would later help him to confront and resolve problems of artistic form and composition in photography. In the 1920s, schools of photographic realism were popping up throughout Europe, but each had a different view on the direction photography should take. The photography revolution had begun: "Crush tradition! Photograph things as they are!"[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] The Surrealist movement (founded in 1924) was a catalyst for this paradigm shift. Cartier-Bresson began socializing with the Surrealists at the Café Cyrano, in the Place Blanche. He met a number of the movement's leading protagonists, and was particularly drawn to the Surrealist movement's linking of the subconscious and the immediate to their work. The historian Peter Galassi explains:
The Surrealists approached photography in the same way that Aragon and Breton...approached the street: with a voracious appetite for the usual and unusual...The Surrealists recognized in plain photographic fact an essential quality that had been excluded from prior theories of photographic realism. They saw that ordinary photographs, especially when uprooted from their practical functions, contain a wealth of unintended, unpredictable meanings.
Cartier-Bresson matured artistically in this stormy cultural and political environment. He was aware of the concepts and theories mentioned, but could not find a way of expressing this imaginatively in his paintings. He was very frustrated with his experiments and subsequently destroyed the majority of his early works.
From 1928 to 1929, Cartier-Bresson attended the University of Cambridge, where he studied English, art and literature, and became bilingual. In 1930, stationed at Le Bourget, near Paris, he completed his mandatory service in the French Army. He remembered, "And I had quite a hard time of it, too, because I was toting Joyce under my arm and a Lebel rifle on my shoulder."
Affair with Caresse Crosby[កែប្រែ]
In 1929, Cartier-Bresson's air squadron commandant placed him under house arrest for hunting without a license. Cartier-Bresson met American expatriate Harry Crosby at Le Bourget, who persuaded the officer to release Cartier-Bresson into his custody for a few days. Finding their mutual interest in photography, and they spent their time together taking and printing pictures at Crosby's home, Le Moulin du Soleil (The Sun Mill), near Paris in Ermenonville, France.:163 Crosby later said Cartier-Bresson "looked like a fledgling, shy and frail, and mild as whey." Embracing the open sexuality offered by Crosby and his wife Caresse, Cartier-Bresson fell into an intense sexual relationship with her.
Escapes to Africa[កែប្រែ]
Two years after Harry Crosby committed suicide, Cartier-Bresson's affair ended in 1931 with Caresse Crosby, leaving him broken hearted. During his enlistment he had read Conrad's Heart of Darkness, and decided to seek escape and adventure on the Côte d'Ivoire in French colonial Africa. About abandoning painting, he wrote, "I left Lhote's studio because I did not want to enter into that systematic spirit. I wanted to be myself. To paint and to change the world counted for more than everything in my life."[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] He survived by shooting game and selling it to local villagers. From hunting, he learned methods which he later used in photography. On the Côte d'Ivoire, he contracted blackwater fever, which nearly killed him. While still feverish, he sent instructions to his grandfather for his own funeral, asking to be buried in Normandie, at the edge of the Eawy forest while Debussy's String Quartet was played. An uncle wrote back, "Your grandfather finds all that too expensive. It would be preferable that you return first."[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] Although Cartier-Bresson took a portable camera (smaller than a Brownie Box) to Côte d'Ivoire, only seven photographs survived the tropics.
Turning from painting to photography[កែប្រែ]
Returning to France, Cartier-Bresson recuperated in Marseille in late 1931 and deepened his relationship with the Surrealists. He became inspired by a 1930 photograph by Hungarian photojournalist Martin Munkacsi showing three naked young African boys, caught in near-silhouette, running into the surf of Lake Tanganyika. Titled Three Boys at Lake Tanganyika, this captured the freedom, grace and spontaneity of their movement and their joy at being alive. Cartier-Bresson said:
The only thing which completely was an amazement to me and brought me to photography was the work of Munkacsi. When I saw the photograph of Munkacsi of the black kids running in a wave I couldn't believe such a thing could be caught with the camera. I said damn it, I took my camera and went out into the street."[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង]
That photograph inspired him to stop painting and to take up photography seriously. He explained, "I suddenly understood that a photograph could fix eternity in an instant."[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] He acquired the Leica camera with 50 mm lens in Marseilles that would accompany him for many years. He described the Leica as an extension of his eye.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] The anonymity that the small camera gave him in a crowd or during an intimate moment was essential in overcoming the formal and unnatural behavior of those who were aware of being photographed. He enhanced his anonymity by painting all shiny parts of the Leica with black paint. The Leica opened up new possibilities in photography — the ability to capture the world in its actual state of movement and transformation. He said, "I prowled the streets all day, feeling very strung-up and ready to pounce, ready to 'trap' life."[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] Restless, he photographed in Berlin, Brussels, Warsaw, Prague, Budapest and Madrid. His photographs were first exhibited at the Julien Levy Gallery in New York in 1932, and subsequently at the Ateneo Club in Madrid. In 1934 in Mexico, he shared an exhibition with Manuel Alvarez Bravo. In the beginning, he did not photograph much in his native France. It would be years before he photographed there extensively.
In 1934 Cartier-Bresson met a young Polish intellectual, a photographer named David Szymin who was called "Chim" because his name was difficult to pronounce. Szymin later changed his name to David Seymour. The two had much in common culturally. Through Chim, Cartier-Bresson met a Hungarian photographer named Endré Friedmann, who later changed his name to Robert Capa. The three shared a studio in the early 1930s and Capa mentored Cartier-Bresson, "Don't keep the label of a surrealist photographer. Be a photojournalist. If not you will fall into mannerism. Keep surrealism in your little heart, my dear. Don't fidget. Get moving!"[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង]
Exhibits in United States[កែប្រែ]
Cartier-Bresson traveled to the United States in 1935 with an invitation to exhibit his work at New York's Julien Levy Gallery. He shared display space with fellow photographers Walker Evans and Manuel Alvarez Bravo. Carmel Snow of Harper's Bazaar, gave him a fashion assignment, but he fared poorly since he had no idea how to direct or interact with the models. Nevertheless, Snow was the first American editor to publish Cartier-Bresson's photographs in a magazine. While in New York, he met photographer Paul Strand, who did camerawork for the Depression-era documentary The Plow That Broke the Plains.
When he returned to France, Cartier-Bresson applied for a job with renowned French film director Jean Renoir. He acted in Renoir's 1936 film Partie de campagne and in the 1939 La Règle du jeu, for which he played a butler and served as second assistant. Renoir made Cartier-Bresson act so he could understand how it felt to be on the other side of the camera. Cartier-Bresson also helped Renoir make a film for the Communist party on the 200 families, including his own, who ran France. During the Spanish civil war, Cartier-Bresson co-directed an anti-fascist film with Herbert Kline, to promote the Republican medical services.
Cartier-Bresson's first photojournalist photos to be published came in 1937 when he covered the coronation of King George VI, for the French weekly Regards. He focused on the new monarch's adoring subjects lining the London streets, and took no pictures of the king. His photo credit read "Cartier", as he was hesitant to use his full family name.
In 1937, Cartier-Bresson married a Javanese dancer, Ratna Mohini. They lived in a fourth-floor servants' flat at in Paris at 19, rue Danielle Casanova, a large studio with a small bedroom, kitchen and bathroom where Cartier-Bresson developed film. Between 1937 and 1939 Cartier-Bresson worked as a photographer for the French Communists' evening paper, Ce Soir. With Chim and Capa, Cartier-Bresson was a leftist, but he did not join the French Communist party.
Service in World War II[កែប្រែ]
When World War II broke out in September 1939, he joined the French Army as a Corporal in the Film and Photo unit. During the Battle of France, in June 1940 at St. Dié in the Vosges Mountains, he was captured by German soldiers and spent 35 months in prisoner-of-war camps doing forced labor under the Nazis. As Cartier-Bresson put it, he was forced to perform "thirty-two different kinds of hard manual labor."[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] He worked "as slowly and as poorly as possible."[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] He twice tried and failed to escape from the prison camp, and was punished by solitary confinement. His third escape was successful and he hid on a farm in Touraine before getting false papers that allowed him to travel in France. In France, he worked for the underground, aiding other escapees and working secretly with other photographers to cover the Occupation and then the Liberation of France. In 1943, he dug up his beloved Leica camera, which he had buried in farmland near Vosges. At the end of the war he was asked by the American Office of War Information to make a documentary, Le Retour (The Return) about returning French prisoners and displaced persons.
Toward the end of the War, rumors had reached America that Cartier-Bresson had been killed. His film on returning war refugees (released in the United States in 1947) spurred a retrospective of his work at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) instead of the posthumous show that MoMA had been preparing. The show debuted in 1947 together with the publication of his first book, The Photographs of Henri Cartier-Bresson. Lincoln Kirstein and Beaumont Newhall wrote the book's text.
Forms Magnum Photos[កែប្រែ]
In spring 1947, Cartier-Bresson, with Robert Capa, David Seymour, and George Rodger founded Magnum Photos. Capa's brainchild, Magnum was a cooperative picture agency owned by its members. The team split photo assignments among the members. Rodger, who had quit Life in London after covering World War II, would cover Africa and the Middle East. Chim, who spoke most European languages, would work in Europe. Cartier-Bresson would be assigned to India and China. Vandivert, who had also left Life, would work in America, and Capa would work anywhere that had an assignment. Maria Eisner managed the Paris office and Rita Vandivert, Vandivert's wife, managed the New York office and became Magnum's first president.
Magnum's mission was to "feel the pulse" of the times and some of its first projects were People Live Everywhere, Youth of the World, Women of the World and The Child Generation. Magnum aimed to use photography in the service of humanity, and provided arresting, widely viewed images.
The Decisive Moment[កែប្រែ]
Cartier-Bresson achieved international recognition for his coverage of Gandhi's funeral in India in 1948 and the last (1949) stage of the Chinese Civil War. He covered the last six months of the Kuomintang administration and the first six months of the Maoist People's Republic. He also photographed the last surviving Imperial eunuchs in Beijing, as the city was falling to the communists. From China, he went on to Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), where he documented the gaining of independence from the Dutch.
In 1952, Cartier-Bresson published his book Images à la sauvette, whose English edition was titled The Decisive Moment. It included a portfolio of 126 of his photos from the East and the West. The book's cover was drawn by Henri Matisse. For his 4,500-word philosophical preface, Cartier-Bresson took his keynote text from the 17th century Cardinal de Retz: "Il n'y a rien dans ce monde qui n'ait un moment decisif" ("There is nothing in this world that does not have a decisive moment"). Cartier-Bresson applied this to his photographic style. He said: "Photographier: c'est dans un même instant et en une fraction de seconde reconnaître un fait et l'organisation rigoureuse de formes perçues visuellement qui expriment et signifient ce fait" ("Photography is simultaneously and instantaneously the recognition of a fact and the rigorous organization of visually perceived forms that express and signify that fact").[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង]
Both titles came from publishers. Tériade, the Greek-born French publisher whom Cartier-Bresson idolized,[peacock term] gave the book its French title, Images à la Sauvette, which can loosely be translated as "images on the run" or "stolen images." Dick Simon of Simon & Schuster came up with the English title The Decisive Moment. Margot Shore, Magnum's Paris bureau chief, did the English translation of Cartier-Bresson's French preface.
"Photography is not like painting," Cartier-Bresson told the Washington Post in 1957. "There is a creative fraction of a second when you are taking a picture. Your eye must see a composition or an expression that life itself offers you, and you must know with intuition when to click the camera. That is the moment the photographer is creative," he said. "Oop! The Moment! Once you miss it, it is gone forever."
Capa died in 1954 after stepping on a land mine in Indo-China, and Chim was shot in Egypt two years later. Cartier-Bresson's photography took him to many places on the globe—China, Mexico, Canada, the United States, India, Japan, Soviet Union and many other countries. He became the first Western photographer to photograph "freely" in the post-war Soviet Union. Cartier-Bresson withdrew as a principal of Magnum (which still distributed his photographs) in 1966 to concentrate on portraiture and landscapes. In 1967, he was divorced from his first wife of 30 years, Ratna "Elie". In 1968, he began to turn away from photography and return to his passion for drawing and painting. He admitted that perhaps he had said all he could through photography. He married Magnum photographer Martine Franck, thirty years younger than himself, in 1970. The couple had a daughter, Mélanie, in May 1972.
Cartier-Bresson retired from photography in the early 1970s and by 1975 no longer took pictures other than an occasional private portrait; he said he kept his camera in a safe at his house and rarely took it out. He returned to drawing and painting. After a lifetime of developing his artistic vision through photography, he said, "All I care about these days is painting—photography has never been more than a way into painting, a sort of instant drawing."[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] He held his first exhibition of drawings at the Carlton Gallery in New York in 1975.
Death and legacy[កែប្រែ]
Cartier-Bresson died in Montjustin (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France) on August 3, 2004, at 95. No cause of death was announced. He was buried in the cemetery of Montjustin, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France. He was survived by his wife, Martine Franck, and daughter, Mélanie.
Cartier-Bresson spent more than three decades on assignment for Life and other journals. He traveled without bounds, documenting some of the great upheavals of the 20th century — the Spanish civil war, the liberation of Paris in 1944, the 1968 student rebellion in Paris, the fall of the Kuomintang in China to the communists, the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, the Berlin Wall, and the deserts of Egypt. And along the way he paused to document portraits of Camus, Picasso, Colette, Matisse, Pound and Giacometti. But many of his most renowned photographs, such as Behind the Gare St. Lazare, are of ordinary daily life, seemingly unimportant moments captured and then gone.
Cartier-Bresson was a photographer who hated to be photographed and treasured his privacy above all. Photographs of Cartier-Bresson do exist, but they are scant. When he accepted an honorary degree from Oxford University in 1975, he held a paper in front of his face to avoid being photographed.
In a Charlie Rose interview in 2000, Cartier-Bresson noted that it wasn't necessarily that he hated to be photographed, but it was that he was embarrassed by the notion of being photographed for being famous.
Cartier-Bresson believed that what went on beneath the surface was nobody's business but his own. He did recall that he once confided his innermost secrets to a Paris taxi driver, certain that he would never meet the man again.
In 2003, he created the Henri Cartier-Bresson Foundation with his wife and daughter to preserve and share his legacy.
Cartier-Bresson exclusively used Leica 35 mm rangefinder cameras equipped with normal 50 mm lenses or occasionally a wide-angle for landscapes. He often wrapped black tape around the camera's chrome body to make it less conspicuous. With fast black and white films and sharp lenses, he was able to photograph almost by stealth to capture the events. No longer bound by a huge 4×5 press camera or an awkward medium format twin-lens reflex camera, miniature-format cameras gave Cartier-Bresson what he called "the velvet hand [and] the hawk's eye."[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] He never photographed with flash, a practice he saw as "[i]mpolite...like coming to a concert with a pistol in your hand."
He believed in composing his photographs in the viewfinder, not in the darkroom. He showcased this belief by having nearly all his photographs printed only at full-frame and completely free of any cropping or other darkroom manipulation. Indeed, he emphasized that his prints were not cropped by insisting they include the first millimetre or so of the unexposed clear negative around the image area resulting, after printing, in a black border around the positive image.
Cartier-Bresson worked exclusively in black and white, other than a few unsuccessful attempts in color. He disliked developing or making his own prints. He said: "I've never been interested in the process of photography, never, never. Right from the beginning. For me, photography with a small camera like the Leica is an instant drawing."
He started the tradition of testing new camera lenses by taking photographs of ducks in urban parks. He never published the images but referred to them as 'my only superstition' as he considered it a 'baptism' of the lens.
Cartier-Bresson is regarded as one of the art world's most unassuming personalities. He disliked publicity and exhibited a ferocious shyness since his days in hiding from the Nazis during World War II. Although he took many famous portraits, his own face was little known to the world at large (which presumably had the advantage of allowing him to work on the street in peace). He dismissed others' applications of the term "art" to his photographs, which he thought were merely his gut reactions to moments in time that he had happened upon.
The simultaneous recognition, in a fraction of a second, of the significance of an event as well as the precise organization of forms which gives that event its proper expression... . In photography, the smallest thing can be a great subject. The little human detail can become a leitmotif.
- 1947: The Photographs of Henri Cartier-Bresson. Text by Lincoln Kirstein, Museum of Modern Art, New York.
- 1952: The Decisive Moment. Texts and photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson. Cover by Henri Matisse. Simon & Schuster, New York. French edition
- 1954: Les Danses à Bali. Texts by Antonin Artaud on Balinese theater and commentary by Béryl de Zoete Delpire, Paris. German edition
- 1955: The Europeans. Text and photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson. Cover by Joan Miró. Simon & Schuster, New York. French edition
- 1955: People of Moscow. Thames and Hudson, London. French, German and Italian editions
- 1956: China in Transition. Thames and Hudson, London. French, German and Italian editions
- 1958: Henri Cartier-Bresson: Fotografie. Text by Anna Farova. Statni nakladatelstvi krasné, Prague and Bratislava.
- 1963: Photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson. Grossman Publisher, New York. French, English, Japanese and Swiss editions
- 1964: China. Photographs and notes on fifteen months spent in China. Text by Barbara Miller. Bantam Books, New York. French edition
- 1966: Henri Cartier-Bresson and the Artless Art. Text by Jean-Pierre Montier. Translated from the French L'Art sans art d'Henri Cartier-Bresson by Ruth Taylor. Bulfinch Press, New York.
- 1968: The World of HCB. Viking Press, New York. French, German and Swiss editions
- 1969: Man and Machine. Commissioned by IBM. French, German, Italian and Spanish editions
- 1970: France. Text by François Nourissier. Thames and Hudson, London. French and German editions
- 1972: The Face of Asia. Introduction by Robert Shaplen. Published by John Weatherhill (New York and Tokyo) and Orientations Ltd. (Hong Kong). French edition
- 1973: About Russia. Thames and Hudson, London. French, German and Swiss editions
- 1976: Henri Cartier-Bresson. Texts by Henri Cartier-Bresson. History of Photography Series. History of Photography Series. French, German, Italian, Japanese and Italian editions
- 1979: Henri Cartier-Bresson Photographer. Text by Yves Bonnefoy. Bulfinch, New York. French, English, German, Japanese and Italian editions
- 1983: Henri Cartier-Bresson. Ritratti. Texts by André Pieyre de Mandiargues and Ferdinando Scianna. Coll. " I Grandi Fotografi ". Gruppo Editoriale Fabbri, Milan. English and Spanish editions
- Henri Cartier-Bresson en Inde. Introduction de Satyajit Ray, photographies et notes d'Henri Cartier-Bresson. Texte d'Yves Véquaud. Centre National de la Photographie, Paris. Editions anglaise
- Photoportraits. Texts by André Pieyre de Mandiargues. Thames and Hudson, London. French and German editions
- L'Autre Chine. Introduction by Robert Guillain. Collection Photo Notes. Centre National de la Photographie, Paris
- Line by Line. Henri Cartier-Bresson’s drawings. Introduction by Jean Clair and John Russell. Thames and Hudson, London. French and German editions
- America in Passing. Introduction by Gilles Mora. Bulfinch, New York. French, English, German, Italian, Portuguese and Danish editions
- Alberto Giacometti photographié par Henri Cartier-Bresson. Texts by Henri Cartier-Bresson and Louis Clayeux. Franco Sciardelli, Milan
- A propos de Paris. Texts by Véra Feyder and André Pieyre de Mandiargues. Thames and Hudson, London. French, German and Japanese editions
- Double regard. Drawings and photographs. Texts by Jean Leymarie. Amiens : Le Nyctalope. French and English editions
- Mexican Notebooks 1934–1964. Text by Carlos Fuentes. Thames and Hudson, London. French, Italian, and German editions
- L'Art sans art. Texte de Jean-Pierre Montier. Editions Flammarion, Paris. Editions allemande, anglaise et italienne
- 1996: L'Imaginaire d'après nature. Textes de Henri Cartier-Bresson. Fata Morgana, Paris. Editions allemande et américaine
- 1997: Europeans. Texts by Jean Clair. Thames and Hudson, London. French, German, Italian and Portuguese editions
- 1998: Tête à tête. Texts by Ernst H. Gombrich. Thames & Hudson, London. French, German, Italian and Portuguese editions
- 1999: The Mind's Eye. Texts by Henri Cartier-Bresson. Aperture, New York. French and German editions
- 2001: Landscape Townscape. Texts by Erik Orsenna and Gérard Macé. Thames and Hudson, London. French, German and Italian editions
- 2003: The Man, the Image and the World. Texts by Philippe Arbaizar, Jean Clair, Claude Cookman, Robert Delpire, Jean Leymarie, Jean-Noel Jeanneney, Serge Toubiana. Thames and Hudson, London 2003. German, French, Korean, Italian and Spanish editions.
- 2006: An Inner SIlence: The portraits of Henri Cartier-Bresson, Texts by Agnès Sire and Jean-Luc Nancy. Thames and Hudson, New York.
Films directed by Henri Cartier-Bresson[កែប្រែ]
Henri Cartier-Bresson was second assistant director to Jean Renoir in 1936 for La vie est à nous and Une partie de campagne, and in 1939 for La Règle du Jeu.
- 1937: Victoire de la vie. Documentary on the hospitals of Republican Spain: Running time: 49 minutes. Black and white.
- 1938: L’Espagne Vivra. Documentary on the Spanish Civil War and the post-war period. Running time: 43 minutes and 32 seconds. Black and white.
- 1944–45: Le Retour. Documentary on prisoners of war and detainees. Running time: 32 minutes and 37 seconds. Black and white.
- 1969–70: Impressions of California. Running time: 23 minutes and 20 seconds. Color.
- 1969–70: Southern Exposures. Running time: 22 minutes and 25 seconds. Color.
Films compiled from photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson[កែប្រែ]
- 1956: A Travers le Monde avec Henri Cartier-Bresson. Directed by Jean-Marie Drot and Henri Cartier-Bresson. Running time: 21 minutes. Black and white.
- 1963: Midlands at Play and at Work. Produced by ABC Television, London. Running time : 19 minutes. Black and white.
- 1963–65: Five fifteen-minute films on Germany for the Süddeutscher Rundfunk, Munich.
- 1967: Flagrants délits. Directed by Robert Delpire. Original music score by Diego Masson. Delpire production, Paris. Running time: 22 minutes. Black and white.
- 1969: Québec vu par Cartier-Bresson / Le Québec as seen by Cartier-Bresson. Directed by Wolff Kœnig. Produced by the Canadian Film Board. Running time: 10 minutes. Black and white.
- 1970: Images de France.
- 1991: Contre l'oubli : Lettre à Mamadou Bâ, Mauritanie. Short film directed by Martine Franck for Amnesty International. Editing : Roger Ikhlef. Running time: 3 minutes. Black and white.
- 1992: Henri Cartier-Bresson dessins et photos. Director: Annick Alexandre. Short film produced by FR3 Dijon, commentary by the artist. Running time: 2 minutes and 33 seconds. Color.
- 1997: Série "100 photos du siècle": L'Araignée d'amour: broadcast by Arte. Produced by Capa Télévision. Running time: 6 minutes and 15 seconds. Color.
Films about Cartier-Bresson[កែប្រែ]
- Henri Cartier-Bresson: L'amour Tout Court (70 mins, 2001. Interviews with Cartier-Bresson.)
- Henri Cartier-Bresson: The Impassioned Eye (72 mins, 2006. Late interviews with Cartier-Bresson.)
Public collections of Henri Cartier-Bresson's works[កែប្រែ]
- Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris, France
- De Menil Collection, Houston, Texas, USA
- University of Fine Arts, Osaka, Japan
- Victoria and Albert Museum, London, United Kingdom
- Maison Européenne de la Photographie, Paris, France
- Musée Carnavalet, Paris, France
- Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA
- The Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois, USA
- J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, California, USA
- Institute for Contemporary Photography, New York, USA
- The Philadelphia Art Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
- The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, USA
- Kahitsukan Kyoto Museum of Contemporary Art, Kyoto, Japan
- Museum of Modern Art, Tel Aviv, Israel
- Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden
Exhibitions of Henri Cartier-Bresson's works[កែប្រែ]
- 1933 Cercle Atheneo, Madrid, Spain
- 1933 Julien Levy Gallery, New York, U.S.A.
- 1934 Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico (with Manuel Alvarez Bravo)
- 1947 Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A. Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, Germany; Museum of Modern Art, Rome, Italy; Dean Gallery, Edinburgh, UK; Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A.; Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Santiago, Chile
- 1952 Institute of Contemporary Art, London, UK
- 1955 Retrospektive – Musée des Arts décoratifs, Paris, France
- 1956 Photokina, Cologne, Germany
- 1963 Photokina, Cologne, Germany
- 1964 The Phillips Collection, Washington
- 1965–1967 2nd retrospective, Tokyo, Japan, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, France, New York, U.S.A., London, UK, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Rome, Italy, Zurich, Switzerland, Cologne, Germany and other cities.
- 1970 En France – Grand Palais, Paris. Later in the U.S.A., USSR, Australia and Japan
- 1974 Exhibition about the USSR, International Center of Photography, New York, U.S.A.
- 1974–1997 Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris, France
- 1975 Carlton Gallery, New York, U.S.A.
- 1975 Galerie Bischofberger, Zurich, Switzerland
- 1980 Portraits – Galerie Eric Franck, Geneve, Switzerland
- 1981 Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France
- 1982 Hommage à Henri Cartier-Bresson – Centre National de la Photographie, Palais de Tokyo, Paris, France
- 1983 Printemps Ginza – Tokyo, Japan
- 1984 Osaka University of Arts, Japan
- 1984–1985 Paris à vue d’œil – Musée Carnavalet, Paris, France
- 1985 Henri Cartier-Bresson en Inde – Centre National de la Photographie, Palais de Tokyo, Paris, France
- 1985 Museo de Arte Moderno de México, Mexico
- 1986 L'Institut Français de Stockholm
- 1986 Pavillon d'Arte contemporanea, Milan, Italy
- 1986 Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy
- 1987 Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, UK (drawings and photography)
- 1987 Early Photographs – Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A.
- 1988 Institut Français, Athen, Greece
- 1988 Palais Lichtenstein, Vienna, Austria
- 1988 Salzburger Landessammlung, Austria
- 1989 Chapelle de l'École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, France
- 1989 Fondation Pierre Gianadda, Martigny, Switzerland (drawings and photographs)
- 1989 Mannheimer Kunstverein, Mannheim, Germany (drawings and photography)
- 1989 Printemps Ginza, Tokyo, Japan
- 1990 Galerie Arnold Herstand, New York, U.S.A.
- 1991 Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taiwan (drawings and photographs)
- 1992 Centro de Exposiciones, Saragossa and Logrono, Spain
- 1992 Hommage à Henri Cartier-Bresson – International Center of Photography, New York, U.S.A.
- 1992 L'Amérique – FNAC, Paris, France
- 1992 Musée de Noyers-sur-Serein, France
- 1992 Palazzo San Vitale, Parma, Italy
- 1993 Photo Dessin – Dessin Photo, Arles, France
- 1994 Dessins et premières photos – La Caridad, Barcelona, Spain
- 1995 Dessins et Hommage à Henri Cartier-Bresson – CRAC (Centre Régional d’Art Contemporain) Valence, Drome, France
- 1996 Henri Cartier-Bresson: Pen, Brush and Cameras – The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, U.S.A.
- 1997 Les Européens – Maison Européenne de la Photographie, Paris, France
- 1997 Henri Cartier-Bresson, dessins – Musée des Beaux-Arts, Montreal, Canada
- 1998 Galerie Beyeler, Basel, Switzerland
- 1998 Galerie Löhrl, Mönchengladbach, Germany
- 1998 Howard Greenberggh Gallery, New York, U.S.A.
- 1998 Kunsthaus Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
- 1998 Kunstverein für die Rheinlande und Westfalen, Düsseldorf, Germany
- 1998 Line by Line – Royal College of Art, London, UK
- 1998 Tête à Tête – National Portrait Gallery, London, UK
- 1998–1999 Photographien und Zeichnungen – Baukunst Galerie, Cologne, Germany
- 2003–2005 Rétrospective, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France; La Caixa, Barcelona, Spain; Martin Gropius Bau, Berlin, Germany; Museum of Modern Art, Rome, Italy; Dean Gallery, Edinburgh, UK; Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A.; Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Santiago, Chile
- 2004 Baukunst Galerie, Cologne
- 2004 Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin
- 2004 Museum Ludwig, Cologne
- 2008 Henri Cartier-Bresson's Scrapbook Photographs 1932-46, National Media Museum, Bradford, UK
- 2008 National Gallery of Modern Art, Mumbai, India
- 2008 Santa Catalina Castle, Cadiz, Spain
- 2009 Musée de l'Art Moderne, Paris
- 2010 Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A.
- 2010 The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, U.S.A.
- 2011 Museum of Design Zürich
- 2011 High Museum of Art, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Notable portrait subjects[កែប្រែ]
||It has been suggested that this section be split into a new article. (Discuss)|
- Avigdor Arikha
- Simone de Beauvoir
- Samuel Beckett
- Leonard Bernstein
- Alexander Calder
- Albert Camus
- Truman Capote
- Coco Chanel
- Marcel Duchamp
- William Faulkner
- Martine Franck
- Mahatma Gandhi
- Jean Genet
- Alberto Giacometti
- Julie Harris
- Langston Hughes
- Isabelle Huppert
- John Huston
- Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio
- Martin Luther King, Jr
- Henri Matisse
- Carson McCullers
- Arthur Miller
- Marilyn Monroe
- Pablo Neruda
- Richard Nixon
- Robert Oppenheimer
- Pablo Picasso
- Katherine Anne Porter
- Ezra Pound
- Jean Renoir
- Jean-Paul Sartre
- Alfred Stieglitz
- Igor Stravinsky
- Kenzo Tange
- Elsa Triolet
- Harry S. Truman
- Malcolm X
Cartier-Bresson is the recipient of many of prizes, awards and honorary doctorates. A partial listing of his awards:
- 1948: Overseas Press Club of America Award
- 1953: The A.S.M.P. Award
- 1954: Overseas Press Club of America Award
- 1959: The Prix de la Société française de photographie
- 1960: Overseas Press Club of America Award
- 1964: Overseas Press Club of America Award
- 1974: The Culture Prize, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Photographie
- 1981: Grand Prix National de la Photographie
- 1982: Hasselblad Award
- 2006: Prix Nadar for the photobook Henri Cartier-Bresson: Scrapbook
- Kimmelman, Michael (August 4, 2004)។ "Henri Cartier-Bresson, Artist Who Used Lens, Dies at 95"។ New York Times។ http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/04/arts/04CND-CARTIER.html?pagewanted=2&ei=5090&en=11443904bc0a721f&ex=1249358400&partner=rssuserland។ បានយកមក August 8, 2007។ [តំណភ្ជាប់ខូច]
- Galassi, Henri Cartier-Bresson, The Early Work.
- "Harry Crosby"។ November 27, 2002។ http://www.litkicks.com/HarryCrosby/។ បានយកមក 18 March 2010។
- Geoffrey Wolff (2003)។ Black Sun: The Brief Transit and Violent Eclipse of Harry Crosby។ New York Review of Books។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 1590170660។ http://books.google.com/books?id=RpVaAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1។
- Turner, Christopher (12 Apr 2010)។ ""Expert Witness: Henri Cartier-Bresson""។ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/photography/7572563/Expert-Witness-Henri-Cartier-Bresson.html។
- Montier, 1996, p. 12
- Bernstein, Adam (August 5, 2004)។ "The Acknowledged Master of the Moment"។ The Washington Post។ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A39981-2004Aug4.html។ បានយកមក May 4, 2010។
- Lynne Warren។ Encyclopedia of twentieth-century photography។ ទំ. 248។ http://books.google.com/books?id=YeK7FXhKrw0C&pg=PA248។
- Cartier-Bresson on Charlie Rose. Charlie Rose interview.
- Frank Van Riper (2002)។ Talking photography: viewpoints on the art, craft and business។ Allworth Communications, Inc.។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 1581152086។
- Khen Lim (October 6, 2007)។ "Henri Cartier-Bresson – A Decisive Moment in Time"។ http://zone-10.com/cmsm/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=55&Itemid=1&limit=1&limitstart=1។ បានយកមក June 26, 2010។
- J.M Dirac, រៀ. (1962)។ Cartier-Bresson Interviews and Notes។ Paris។ ទំ. 122។
- J. Hall and B. Ulanov, រៀ. (1972)។ Modern Culture and the Arts។ New York: McGraw-Hill។ ទំ. 473។
- Museum of Design Zürich
- Assouline, P. (2005). Henri Cartier-Bresson: A Biography. London: Thames & Hudson.
- Galassi, Peter (2010). Henri Cartier-Bresson: the Modern Century. London: Thames & Hudson.
- Montier, J. (1996). Portrait: First Sketch. Henri Cartier-Bresson and the Artless Art (p. 12). New York: Bulfinch Press.
- Warren, J (2005), Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century Photography. Routledge
- Fondation Henri Cartier-Bresson
- His portfolio at Magnum Photos
- Magnum Photos
- Special Report: Henri Cartier-Bresson (1908–2004) – Archived content by The Guardian
- Henri Cartier-Bresson's biographic sketch at Find A Grave
- Tête à Tête: Portraits by Henri Cartier-Bresson at the National Portrait Gallery, Washington DC
- Tête à Tête: Special Feature by Washington Post of the Exhibition by Henri Cartier-Bresson
- Henri Cartier-Bresson at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City
- Cartier-Bresson's Impact on Photojournalism
- Henri Cartier-Bresson / When Photography Becomes Art (Dutch)
- List of links concerning HCB on ArtCyclopedia
- Video interview with Charlie Rose, July 6, 2000
- Cartier-Bresson's portfolio at Photography-now
- "John Berger pays tribute to his good friend", The Observer, 8 August 2004.