វីយោឡុង

ដោយវិគីភីឌា
វីយោឡុង
Violin VL100.jpg
ខ្នាតគំរូជារបៀបទាន់សម័យ មើលពីមុខ និង ពីចំហៀង
តន្ត្រីប្រភេទខ្សែ
Other names ហ្វីដដល (Fiddle) , de: Violine or Geige, fr: Violon, it: Violino
Hornbostel-Sachs classification 321.322-71
(ផ្សំឡើងដោយ សំឡេងខ្សែ ប្រដេញដោយកំនោង)
Developed មុនសតវត្សទី១៦
Playing range
Range violin.png
Related instruments
Musicians
  1. Numbered list item

វីយោឡុង គឺ​ជា​ប្រភេទ​ឧបករណ៍​តន្ត្រី​ខ្សែ ដែល​មាន​ខែ្ស​បួន។ បើធៀបទៅហ្នឹង ឧបករណ៍តន្ត្រីបូរាណខ្មែរវិញ វាមានលក្ខណៈស្រដៀងនឹងទ្រ។ វីយោឡុង​មាន​​ទំហំ​​តូច​ជាង​គេ តែ​​មាន​​សំឡេង​​ខ្ពស់​​ជាងគេ​​ក្នុង​​ចំណោម​​[[ឧបករណ៍​តន្ត្រី​]​ប្រភេទ​​ក្រុម​គ្រួសារ​នៃ​វិយោឡុង​ជា​របៀប​ខ្សែ​ទាំងអស់ ដោយ​ក្នុងនោះ​រាប់​បញ្ចូល​ទាំង​​វីយោឡា​និង​សេឡូ​​ផង​ដែរ។

វីយោឡុង ពេលខ្លះ គេ​អាច​ហៅ​ម្យ៉ាង​ទៀត​ថា Fiddle(ហ្វីដដល) ពោលគឺ អាស្រ័យ​​ទៅលើ​​ការ​​ចំណាំ​​ហៅ​ក្នុងការ​​ប្រើប្រាស់​​វា។ ពាក្យ​ថា​វីយោឡុង មាន​កំណើត​មក​ពីពាក្យ​របស់​ភាសា​ឡាទីន Vitula(វីទូឡា) ដែល​មាន​ន័យ​ថា​ឧបករណ៍​តន្ត្រី​ប្រើ​ខ្សែ។ ទោះជា​វីយូឡុង មាន​ឬសគល់​តាំងពី​បុរាណមក​ក៏ដោយ លក្ខណៈ​បច្ចុប្បន្ន​របស់​វា គឺ​ទទួលបាន​ពី​គម្រូ​នៃ​ប្រទេស​អ៊ីតាលី នា​សតវត្ស​ទី​១៦ ដែល​ឆ្លងកាត់​ការវិវឌ្ឍន៍​ផ្សេងៗ​ទៀត នា​សតវត្ស​ទី​១៨។ [1] ពាក្យ​នេះ គេ​ជឿ​ថា បន្ទាប់​មកបាន​ក្លាយទៅ​ជា​ពាក្យ «Fiddle (ហ្វីដដល)» នេះ​តែម្ដង។ ក្រុម​តន្ត្រីករ​វីយោឡុង និង​ក្រុមអ្នកប្រមូល​នូវ​ភាព​ដោយ​ឡែក​នៃ​តម្លែ​របស់​ឧបករណ៍ ត្រូវបាន​បង្កើត​​​ឡើង​​ដោយ Gasparo da Salò (ហ្កាស្ប៉ារ៉ូ ដា សាឡូ),Paolo Maggini (ផៅឡូ ម៉ាហ្គីនី), Stradivari (ស្ត្រាឌីវ៉ារី), Guarneri (ហ្កឺនឺរី) និង Amati families (គ្រួសាររបស់អាម៉ាទី) ចាប់តាំង​ពី​​សតវត្សន៍​ទី​១៦ ដល់​សតវត្សន៍​ទី១៩ នៅ Brescia(ប្រីចស្គីយ៉ា) Cremona(គ្រេមូណា) និងដោយ Jacob Stainer(ចាខូប ស្តេននឺ) នៅឯ អូស្ត្រាលី

ប្រវត្តិ[កែប្រែ]

Batchelder violin (USA)

ប្រភេទខ្សែរបស់វីយោឡុងនេះ ក៏អាចប្រើសម្រាប់កេះផងដែរ (ឧ. the Greek lyre). ឧបករណ៍តន្ត្រី Bowed ប្រហែលជា ផ្ដើមមានវត្តមានដំបូងគេនៅក្នុង equestrian វប្បធម៌នៃអាស៊ីកណ្ដាល, ជាភស្ដុតាង Kobyz (Kazakh: қобыз) or kyl-kobyz ដែលជាវត្ថុបូរាណ Turkic, Kazakh string instrumentMongolian ជាឧបករណ៍ Morin huur:

អ្នកជិះសេះនៃប្រជាជនTurkic and Mongolian ដែលមកពីខាងក្នុងនៃ ទ្វីបអាស៊ី ទំនងជាអ្នកកាន់ឧបករណ៍ហ្វីដដល មុនគេក្នុងពិភពលោក។ មានទាំងអស់ខ្សែពីរ គឺឆ្វេងនិងស្ដាំ ខ្សែរបស់ហ្វីដដលត្រូវបានបង្កើតឡើងអំពីខ្សែរោមសេះ ដែល​កូដ​ជាមួយ​នឹង​ដង​ផលិត​ពី​រោម​សេះ​ដូចគ្នា​ដែរ​ និង​ជារឿយៗរោមដែលគេប្រើប្រាស់គឺជារោមដែលឋិតនៅតំបន់ពីក្បាលសេះដល់ត្រឹមក។

ជារួម វីយោឡុង, វីយោឡា, និង សេឡូ គឺសម្រាប់កូតលេងរាល់ថ្ងៃ និងដែលដងរបស់វាគឺនៅតែបន្តផលិតអំពីសរសៃរោមរបស់សេះ រហូតទាល់តែជាកេរ្តិ៍មរតកនៃចរកជន ឬអ្នករសាត់អណ្ដែត។[១]

It is believed that these instruments eventually spread to China, India, the Byzantine Empire and the Middle East, where they developed into instruments such as the erhu in China, the rebab in the Middle East, the lyra in the Byzantine Empire and the esraj in India. The violin in its present form emerged in early 16th-Century Northern Italy, where the port towns of Venice and Genoa maintained extensive ties to central Asia through the trade routes of the silk road.

The modern European violin evolved from various bowed stringed instruments from the Middle East[២] and the Byzantine Empire.[៣][៤] It is most likely that the first makers of violins borrowed from three types of current instruments: the rebec, in use since the 10th century (itself derived from the Byzantine lyra[៥] and the Arabic rebab), the Renaissance fiddle, and the lira da braccio[៦] (derived[៣] from the Byzantine lira). One of the earliest explicit descriptions of the instrument, including its tuning, was in the Epitome musical by Jambe de Fer, published in Lyon in 1556.[៧] By this time, the violin had already begun to spread throughout Europe.

The oldest documented violin to have four strings, like the modern violin, is supposed to have been constructed in 1555 by Andrea Amati, but the date is very doubtful. (Other violins, documented significantly earlier, only had three strings and were called violetta.) The violin immediately became very popular, both among street musicians and the nobility, illustrated by the fact that the French king Charles IX ordered Amati to construct 24 violins for him in 1560.[៨] The oldest surviving violin, dated inside, is from this set, and is known as the Charles IX, made in Cremona c. 1560. The finest Renaissance carved and decorated violin in the world is the Gasparo da Salò (1574 c.) owned by Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria and later, from 1841, by the Norwegian virtuoso Ole Bull, who used it for forty years and thousands of concerts, for his very powerful and beautiful tone, similar to those of a Guarneri. It is now in the Vestlandske Kustindustrimuseum in Bergen (Norway). "The Messiah" or "Le Messie" (also known as the "Salabue") made by Antonio Stradivari in 1716 remains pristine. It is now located in the Ashmolean Museum of Oxford.[៩]

The most famous violin makers (luthiers) between the 16th century and the 18th century include:

  • The school of Brescia, beginning in the late 14th with liras, violettas, violas and active in the field of the violin in the first half of 16th century
  • The Dalla Corna family, active 1510–1560 in Brescia and Venezia, Italy
  • The Micheli family, active 1530–1615 in Brescia
  • The Inverardi family active 1550–1580 in Brescia
  • The Bertolotti Gasparo da Salò family, active 1530–1615 in Salò and Brescia
  • Giovanni Paolo Maggini, active 1600–1630 in Brescia
  • The school of Cremona, beginning in the half of 16 century vith violas and violone and in the field of violin in the second half of 16 century
  • The Amati family, active 1500–1740 in Cremona, Italy
  • The Guarneri family, active 1626–1744 in Cremona
  • The Stradivari family, active 1644–1737 in Cremona

Significant changes occurred in the construction of the violin in the 18th century, particularly in the length and angle of the neck, as well as a heavier bass bar. The majority of old instruments have undergone these modifications, and hence are in a significantly different state than when they left the hands of their makers, doubtless with differences in sound and response.[១០] But these instruments in their present condition set the standard for perfection in violin craftsmanship and sound, and violin makers all over the world try to come as close to this ideal as possible.

To this day, instruments from the so-called Golden Age of violin making, especially those made by Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesù, are the most sought-after instruments by both collectors and performers. The current record amount paid for a Stradivari violin is £9.8 million (US$15.9 million), when the instrument known as the Lady Blunt was sold by Tarisio Auctions in an online auction on June 20, 2011.[១១]

ការផលិត[កែប្រែ]

The construction of a violin

ការលេងវិយោឡុង[កែប្រែ]

តន្ត្រី[កែប្រែ]

តន្ត្រីករវិយោឡុងល្បីៗ[កែប្រែ]

ឯកសារយោង[កែប្រែ]

  1. "The Silk Road: Connecting Cultures, Creating Trust, Silk Road Story 2: Bowed Instruments"។ Smithsonian Center for Folk life and Cultural Heritagehttp://www.silkroadproject.org/smithsonian/nomads/story.html។ បានយកមក 2008-09-26 
  2. Hoffman, Miles។ "The NPR Classical Music Companion: Terms and Concepts from A to Z"Chicago Symphony Orchestrahttp://www.cso.org/main.taf?p=1,1,4,20។ បានយកមក 2008-09-26 
  3. ៣,០ ៣,១ Grillet 1901, ទ. 29
  4. Margaret J. Kartomi: On Concepts and Classifications of Musical Instruments. Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology, University of Chicago Press, 1990
  5. Panum, Hortense (1939)។ The stringed instruments of the Middle Ages, their evolution and development។ London : William Reeves។ p. 434។ 
  6. Arkenberg, Rebecca (October 2002)។ "Renaissance Violins"Metropolitan Museum of Arthttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/renv/hd_renv.htm។ បានយកមក 2006-09-22 
  7. Deverich, Robin Kay (2006)។ "Historical Background of the Violin"។ ViolinOnline.comhttp://www.violinonline.com/historicalbackgroundoftheviolin.htm។ បានយកមក 2006-09-22 
  8. Bartruff, William។ "The History of the Violin"។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[១] នៅថ្ងៃ 2007-02-08http://web.archive.org/web/20070208112530/http://www.bartruff.com/history.php។ បានយកមក 2006-09-22 
  9. "Violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1716 (Messiah; la Messie, Salabue)"។ Cozio.comhttp://www.cozio.com/Instrument.aspx?id=111។ បានយកមក 2008-09-26 
  10. Richard Perras។ "Violin changes by 1800"http://rperras.tripod.com/id42.htm។ បានយកមក 2006-10-29 
  11. "Stradivarius violin sold for £9.8m at charity auction"។ BBC News។ 2011-06-21http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-13852872។ បានយកមក 2011-06-21 

តំណភ្ជាប់ខាងក្រៅ[កែប្រែ]