ផ្ទាំងប៉ាណូ គឺជាអ្នករៀបចំក្រាហ្វិចក្នុងរូបភាពជារូបភាព គំនូរ ឬ [[រូបភាព] ដែលបង្ហាញក្នុងលំដាប់សម្រាប់គោលបំណងមើលលំដាប់ មើលឃើញជាមុន មើលមុន ចលនារូបភាពគំនូរជីវចលចលនា, ចលនា, គំនូរជីវចលចលនា ឫ ប្រព័ន្ធផ្សព្វផ្សាយអន្តរកម្ម. ដំណើររឿងកំប្លែងក្នុងទម្រង់ដែលត្រូវបានគេស្គាល់សព្វថ្ងៃនេះត្រូវបានបង្កើតឡើងនៅ Walt Disney Productions ក្នុងកំឡុងដើមឆ្នាំ 1930 បន្ទាប់ពីដំណើរការស្រដៀងគ្នាជាច្រើនឆ្នាំដែលកំពុងប្រើនៅ Walt Disney និងស្ទូឌីយោជីវចលផ្សេងៗ, ស្ទូឌីយោជីវចល.
ខ្សែភាពយន្តសម្លេងស្ងប់ស្ងាត់ជាច្រើនត្រូវបានគេរៀបរាប់ប៉ុន្តែសម្ភារៈភាគច្រើនត្រូវបានបាត់បង់នៅពេលកាត់បន្ថយប័ណ្ណសារស្ទូឌីយោក្នុងអំឡុងឆ្នាំ 1970 និង 1980. [ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] អ្នកត្រួសត្រាយពិសេសគឺលោកជេសម៉េលីសត្រូវបានគេស្គាល់ថាជាអ្នកផលិតខ្សែភាពយន្តដំបូងគេដែលប្រើផ្ទាំងសាច់រឿងនិងសិល្បៈមុនការផលិតដើម្បីមើលឃើញផលប៉ះពាល់ដែលបានគ្រោងទុក  ទោះជាយ៉ាងណាក៏ដោយផ្ទាំងសាច់រឿងនៅក្នុងទម្រង់ដែលត្រូវបានគេស្គាល់យ៉ាងទូលំទូលាយនៅថ្ងៃនេះត្រូវបានបង្កើតឡើងនៅឯស្ទូឌីយោ Walt Disney នៅដើមទសវត្សរ៍ឆ្នាំ 1930 ។  នៅក្នុងជីវប្រវត្ដិរបស់ឪពុកនាងរឿង Walt Disney (Henry យោងតាមលោក John Canemaker ក្នុង Paper Dreams: សិល្បៈនិងសិល្បករនៃរឿងព្រេងនិទាន Disney (1999, Hyperion Press) បាននិយាយថាផ្ទាំងគំនូរដែលត្រូវបានបង្កើតឡើងដំបូងសម្រាប់ឆ្នាំ 1933 គឺ Disney Three Little Pigs ។ ផ្ទាំងផ្សាយពាណិជ្ជកម្មដំបូងនៅ Disney បានវិវត្តន៍ពីសៀវភៅគំនូរជីវចលដូចជារឿងគំនូររឿងដែលបានបង្កើតឡើងនៅទសវត្សរ៍ឆ្នាំ 1920 ដើម្បីបង្ហាញអំពីគំនិតសម្រាប់សកម្មភាពគំនូរជីវចលខ្លីៗដូចជាយន្តហោះប្លន់ និង Steamboat Willie ហើយក្នុងរយៈពេលពីរបីឆ្នាំគំនិតនេះបានរាលដាលទៅស្ទូឌីយោដទៃទៀត។
យោងតាមលោក Christopher Finch ក្នុងសិល្បៈនៃ Walt Disney (Abrams ឆ្នាំ 1974),Disney បានសរសើរអ្នកគំនូរជីវចល Webb Smith ដោយបង្កើតគំនិតនៃការថតរូបនៅលើសន្លឹកក្រដាសដាច់ដោយឡែកហើយភ្ជាប់ពួកវានៅលើក្តារពត៌មានដើម្បីប្រាប់រឿងមួយនៅក្នុងលំដាប់ដែលបង្កើតផ្ទាំងគំនូរដំបូង។ លើសពីនេះទៅទៀតវាគឺជាក្រុមហ៊ុន Disney ដែលបានទទួលស្គាល់ដំបូងនូវភាពចាំបាច់សម្រាប់ស្ទូឌីយោដើម្បីរក្សា "ផ្នែករឿងរ៉ាវ" ដាច់ដោយឡែកមួយជាមួយសិល្បកររឿងកំប្លែងដែលមានលក្ខណៈពិសេស (ដែលជាការកាន់កាប់ថ្មីខុសគ្នាពីអ្នកគាំទ្រ) ខណៈដែលគាត់បានដឹងថាទស្សនិកជននឹងមិនមើលខ្សែភាពយន្តទេលុះត្រាតែរឿងរ៉ាវរបស់ខ្លួនផ្តល់ឱ្យពួកគេនូវហេតុផលដើម្បីយកចិត្តទុកដាក់ចំពោះតួអង្គ    ស្ទូឌីយោទីពីរដើម្បីប្តូរពីរឿង "រឿងរ៉ាវរឿង" ទៅជាសាច់រឿងគឺលោក Walter Lantz Productions នៅដើមឆ្នាំ 1935  នៅឆ្នាំ 1936 Harman-Ising និង Leon Schlesinger ផលិតកម្មក៏បានធ្វើតាមឈុត។ នៅឆ្នាំ 1937 ឬ 1938 ស្ទូឌីយោគំនូរជីវចលអាមេរិចទាំងអស់ត្រូវបានគេប្រើផ្ទាំងសាច់រឿង។
Gone with the Wind ឆ្នាំ(1939 គឺជាខ្សែភាពយន្តសកម្មភាពបន្តផ្ទាល់ដំបូងដែលត្រូវបានរៀបរាប់ដោយសាច់រឿងទាំងស្រុង. លោក William Cameron Menzies, ខ្សែភាពយន្តនេះ អ្នករចនាផលិតកម្ម,ខ្សែភាពយន្តត្រូវបានជួលដោយ អ្នកផលិតលោក David O. Selznick ដើម្បីរចនារូបថតទាំងអស់នៃខ្សែភាពយន្តនេះ.
រឿងកំប្លែងបានក្លាយជាការពេញនិយមនៅក្នុងផលិតកម្មខ្សែភាពយន្តសកម្មភាពផ្ទាល់នៅដើមទសវត្សឆ្នាំ 1940 និងបានរីកចម្រើនទៅជាឧបករណ៍ស្តង់ដារសម្រាប់ការមើលភាពយន្តជាមុន។ អ្នករៀបចំពិព័រណ៍វិចិត្រសាល Pace Annette Micheloson ការសរសេរពិព័រណ៍គំនូរក្នុងគំនូរ: គំនូររបស់នាយកដែលត្រូវបានគេចាត់ទុកជាទសវត្សរ៍ឆ្នាំ 1940 ដល់ទសវត្សរ៍ឆ្នាំ 1990 គឺជាសម័យកាលដែល "ការរចនាផលិតកម្មត្រូវបានគេកត់សំគាល់ភាគច្រើនតាមរយៈការអនុម័តផ្ទាំងគំនូរ" ។ ផ្ទាំងទស្សនីយភាពគឺជាផ្នែកមួយដ៏សំខាន់នៃដំណើរការច្នៃប្រឌិត។
A filmខ្សែភាពយន្តជាខ្សែភាពយន្តជាស៊េរីនៃស៊ុមដោយមានគំនូរនៃលំដាប់នៃព្រឹត្តិការណ៍នៅក្នុងខ្សែភាពយន្តមួយដូចជាសៀវភៅ [សៀវភៅរឿងកំប្លែង] នៃខ្សែភាពយន្តឬផ្នែកខ្លះនៃខ្សែភាពយន្តដែលបានផលិតជាមុន។ វាជួយអ្នក នាយកភាពយន្ត, អ្នកថតរូបនិង ការផ្សាយពាណិជ្ជកម្មតាមទូរទស្សន៍ ការផ្សាយពាណិជ្ជកម្មដែលមើលឃើញឈុតឆាកនិងរកឃើញបញ្ហាដែលអាចកើតមានមុនពេលពួកគេកើតមាន។ ក្រៅពីនេះផ្ទាំងគំនូរក៏ជួយប៉ាន់ប្រមាណតម្លៃនៃការផលិតជាទូទៅនិងជួយសន្សំពេលវេលាផងដែរ។ ជាញឹកញាប់ផ្ទាំងសាច់រឿងមានព្រួញឬការណែនាំដែលបង្ហាញពីចលនា។
In creating a motion picture with any degree of fidelity to a script, a storyboard provides a visual layout of events as they are to be seen through the camera lens. And in the case of interactive media, it is the layout and sequence in which the user or viewer sees the content or information. In the storyboarding process, most technical details involved in crafting a film or interactive media project can be efficiently described either in picture or in additional text.
A common misconception is that storyboards are not used in theatre. Directors and playwrights frequently[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] use storyboards as special tools to understand the layout of the scene. The great Russian theatre practitioner Stanislavski developed storyboards in his detailed production plans for his Moscow Art Theatre performances (such as of Chekhov's The Seagull in 1898). The German director and dramatist Bertolt Brecht developed detailed storyboards as part of his dramaturgical method of "fabels."
In animation and special effects work, the storyboarding stage may be followed by simplified mock-ups called "animatics" to give a better idea of how the scene will look and feel with motion and timing. At its simplest, an animatic is a series of still images edited together and displayed in sequence with rough dialogue (i.e., scratch vocals) and/or rough soundtrack added to the sequence of still images (usually taken from a storyboard) to test whether the sound and images are working effectively together.
This allows the animators and directors to work out any screenplay, camera positioning, shot list and timing issues that may exist with the current storyboard. The storyboard and soundtrack are amended if necessary, and a new animatic may be created and reviewed with the director until the storyboard is perfected. Editing the film at the animatic stage can avoid animation of scenes that would be edited out of the film. A few minutes of screen time in traditional animation usually equates to months of work for a team of traditional animators to manually draw and paint all those frames, meaning that all that labor (and salaries already paid) will have to be written off if the final scene simply does not work in the film's final cut. In the context of computer animation, storyboarding helps minimize the construction of unnecessary scene components and models, just as it helps live-action filmmakers evaluate what portions of sets need not be constructed because they will never come into the frame.
Often storyboards are animated with simple zooms and pans to simulate camera movement (using non-linear editing software). These animations can be combined with available animatics, sound effects, and dialog to create a presentation of how a film could be shot and cut together. Some feature film DVD special features include production animatics, which may have scratch vocals or may even feature vocals from the actual cast (usually where the scene was cut after the vocal recording phase but before the animation production phase).
Animatics are also used by advertising agencies to create inexpensive test commercials. A variation, the "rip-o-matic", is made from scenes of existing movies, television programs or commercials, to simulate the look and feel of the proposed commercial. Rip, in this sense, refers to ripping-off an original work to create a new one.
||ផ្នែកនេះមិនបានបញ្ជាក់អំពីប្រភព ឬឯកសារយោងទេ។ សូមចូលរួមជួយក្នុងអត្ថបទនេះ ដោយរក-បញ្ជាក់អំពីប្រភព-ឯកសារយោងដែលគួរទុកចិត្តបាន។ ខ្លឹមសារគ្មានប្រភពអាចនឹងត្រូវ ជជែក ហើយនិងដកចេញ ។ (March 2017)|
A Photomatix (probably derived from 'animatic' or photo-animation) is a series of still photographs edited together and presented on screen in a sequence. Sound effects, voice-overs, and a soundtrack are added to the piece to show how a film could be shot and cut together. Increasingly used by advertisers and advertising agencies to research the effectiveness of their proposed storyboard before committing to a 'full up' television advertisement.
The Photomatix is usually a research tool, similar to an animatic, in that it represents the work to a test audience so that the commissioners of the work can gauge its effectiveness.
Originally, photographs were taken using color negative film. A selection would be made from contact sheets and prints made. The prints would be placed on a rostrum and recorded to videotape using a standard video camera. Any moves, pans or zooms would have to be made in camera. The captured scenes could then be edited.
Digital photography, web access to stock photography and non-linear editing programs have had a marked impact on this way of filmmaking also leading to the term 'digimatic'. Images can be shot and edited very quickly to allow important creative decisions to be made 'live'. Photo composite animations can build intricate scenes that would normally be beyond many test film budgets.
Photomatix was also the trademarked name of many of the booths found in public places which took photographs by coin operation. The Photomatic brand of the booths was manufactured by the International Mutoscope Reel Company of New York City. Earlier versions took only one photo per coin, and later versions of the booths took a series of photos. Many of the booths would produce a strip of four photos in exchange for a coin.
Some writers have used storyboard type drawings (albeit rather sketchy) for their scripting of comic books, often indicating staging of figures, backgrounds, and balloon placement with instructions to the artist as needed often scribbled in the margins and the dialogue/captions indicated. John Stanley and Carl Barks (when he was writing stories for the Junior Woodchuck title) are known to have used this style of scripting.
Storyboards are used today by industry for planning advertising campaigns such as corporate video production, commercials, a proposal or other business presentations intended to convince or compel to action. Consulting firms teach the technique to their staff to use during the development of client presentations, frequently employing the "brown paper technique" of taping presentation slides (in sequential versions as changes are made) to a large piece of kraft paper which can be rolled up for easy transport. The initial storyboard may be as simple as slide titles on Post-It notes, which are then replaced with draft presentation slides as they are created.
Storyboards also exist in accounting in the ABC System Activity - Based Costing (ABC) to develop a detailed process flowchart which visually shows all activities and the relationships among activities. They are used in this way to measure the cost of resources consumed, identify and eliminate non-value-added costs, determine the efficiency and effectiveness of all major activities, and identity and evaluate new activities that can improve future performance.
A "quality storyboard" is a tool to help facilitate the introduction of a quality improvement process into an organisation.
"Design comics" are a type of storyboard used to include a customer or other characters into a narrative. Design comics are most often used in designing websites or illustrating product usage scenarios during design. Design comics were popularized by Kevin Cheng and Jane Jao in 2006.
Storyboards are now becoming more popular with novelists. Because most novelists write their stories by scenes rather than chapters, storyboards are useful for plotting the story in a sequence of events and rearranging the scenes accordingly.
More recently the term storyboard has been used in the fields of web development, software development, and instructional design to present and describe, in written, interactive events as well as audio and motion, particularly on user interfaces and electronic pages.
Storyboarding is used in software development as part of identifying the specifications for a particular set of software. During the specification phase, screens that the software will display are drawn, either on paper or using other specialized software, to illustrate the important steps of the user experience. The storyboard is then modified by the engineers and the client while they decide on their specific needs. The reason why storyboarding is useful during software engineering is that it helps the user understand exactly how the software will work, much better than an abstract description. It is also cheaper to make changes to a storyboard than an implemented piece of software.
One advantage of using storyboards is that it allows (in film and business) the user to experiment with changes in the storyline to evoke stronger reaction or interest. Flashbacks, for instance, are often the result of sorting storyboards out of chronological order to help build suspense and interest.
Another benefit of storyboarding is that the production can plan the movie in advance. In this step, things like type of camera shot, angle, and blocking of characters are decided.
The process of visual thinking and planning allows a group of people to brainstorm together, placing their ideas on storyboards and then arranging the storyboards on the wall. This fosters more ideas and generates consensus inside the group.
Storyboards for films are created in a multiple step process. They can be created by hand drawing or digitally on a computer. The main characteristics of a storyboard are:
- Visualize the storytelling.
- Focus the story and the timing in several key frames (very important in animation).
- Define the technical parameters: description of the motion, the camera, the lighting, etc.
If drawing by hand, the first step is to create or download a storyboard template. These look much like a blank comic strip, with space for comments and dialogue. Then sketch a "thumbnail" storyboard. Some directors sketch thumbnails directly in the script margins. These storyboards get their name because they are rough sketches not bigger than a thumbnail. For some motion pictures, thumbnail storyboards are sufficient.
However, some filmmakers rely heavily on the storyboarding process. If a director or producer wishes, more detailed and elaborate storyboard images are created. These can be created by professional storyboard artists by hand on paper or digitally by using 2D storyboarding programs. Some software applications even supply a stable of storyboard-specific images making it possible to quickly create shots which express the director's intent for the story. These boards tend to contain more detailed information than thumbnail storyboards and convey more of the mood for the scene. These are then presented to the project's cinematographer who achieves the director's vision.
Finally, if needed, 3D storyboards are created (called 'technical previsualization'). The advantage of 3D storyboards is they show exactly what the film camera will see using the lenses the film camera will use. The disadvantage of 3D is the amount of time it takes to build and construct the shots. 3D storyboards can be constructed using 3D animation programs or digital puppets within 3D programs. Some programs have a collection of low-resolution 3D figures which can aid in the process. Some 3D applications allow cinematographers to create "technical" storyboards which are optically-correct shots and frames.
While technical storyboards can be helpful, optically-correct storyboards may limit the director's creativity. In classic motion pictures such as Orson Welles' Citizen Kane and Alfred Hitchcock's North by Northwest, the director created storyboards that were initially thought by cinematographers to be impossible to film. Such innovative and dramatic shots had "impossible" depth of field and angles where there was "no room for the camera" – at least not until creative solutions were found to achieve the ground-breaking shots that the director had envisioned.
- Graphic organizer
- Script breakdown
- List of film-related topics
- 2006 Information Architecture Summit wrapup, boxesandarrows.com, 19 April 2006
- "Storyboarding Basics - Infographic Guide for Film, TV and Animation"។ http://jugaadanimation.com/storyboarding-basics-infographic/។ បានយកមក 2016-10-13។
- "How Alfred Hitchcock the movie suspense master crafted his screen classics"។ Mail Online។ 29 April 2011។ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1381937/How-Alfred-Hitchcock-movie-suspense-master-crafted-screen-classics.html។
- Movie Storyboards: The Art of Visualizing Screenplays,by Fionnuala Halligan, Chronicle Books (2013)