ទំព័រគំរូ:Sun

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ព្រះអាទិត្យ Sun symbol.svg
The Sun by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - 20100819.jpg
Observation data
Mean distance
from Earth
១,496×10 គ.ម.
8 min 19 s at light speed
Visual brightness (V) −26.74[១]
Absolute magnitude 4.83[១]
Spectral classification G2V
Metallicity Z = 0.0122[២]
Angular size 31.6′ – 32.7′[៣]
Adjectives Solar
Orbital characteristics
Mean distance
from Milky Way core
~២,5×10១៧ គ.ម.
២៦០០០ light-years
Galactic period (2.25–2.50)×10 a
Velocity ~២២០ km/s (orbit around the center of the Galaxy)
~២០ km/s (relative to average velocity of other stars in stellar neighborhood)
~៣៧០ km/s[៤] (relative to the cosmic microwave background)
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter ១,392684×10 គ.ម.[៥]
Equatorial radius ៦,96342×10 គ.ម.[៥]
109 × Earth[៦]
Equatorial circumference ៤,379×10 គ.ម.[៦]
109 × Earth[៦]
Flattening ×10−៦
Surface area ៦,0877×10១២ km2
[៦]
១១៩៩០ × Earth[៦]
Volume ១,412×10១៨ km3[៦]
១៣០០០០០ × Earth
Mass ១,9891×10៣០ kg[១]
៣៣៣០០០ × Earth[១]
Average density ១,408×10 kg/m3[១][៦][៧]
Density Center (model): ១,622×10 kg/m3[១]
Lower photosphere: ×10−៤ kg/m3
Lower chromosphere: ×10−៦ kg/m3
Corona (avg): ×10−១២ kg/m3[៨]
Equatorial surface gravity ២៧៤,0 m/s2[១]
២៧,94 g
២៧៥៤២,29 cgs
28 × Earth
[៦]
Escape velocity
(from the surface)
៦១៧,7 km/s[៦]
55 × Earth[៦]
Temperature Center (modeled): ~១,57×10 K[១]
Photosphere (effective): ៥៧៧៨ K[១]
Corona: ~×10 K
Luminosity (Lsol) ៣,846×10២៦ W[១]
~៣,75×10២៨ lm
~៩៨ lm/W efficacy
Mean intensity (Isol) ២,009×10 W·m−2·sr−1
Age 4.57 billion years[៩]
Rotation characteristics
Obliquity 7.25°[១]
(to the ecliptic)
67.23°
(to the galactic plane)
Right ascension
of North pole[១០]
286.13°
19 h 4 min 30 s
Declination
of North pole
+63.87°
63° 52' North
Sidereal rotation period
(at equator)
25.05 days[១]
(at 16° latitude) 25.38 days[១]
25 d 9 h 7 min 12 s[១០]
(at poles) 34.4 days[១]
Rotation velocity
(at equator)
៧,189×10 km/h[៦]
Photospheric composition (by mass)
Hydrogen 73.46%[១១]
Helium 24.85%
Oxygen 0.77%
Carbon 0.29%
Iron 0.16%
Neon 0.12%
Nitrogen 0.09%
Silicon 0.07%
Magnesium 0.05%
Sulfur 0.04%

ឯកសារយោង

  1. ១,០០ ១,០១ ១,០២ ១,០៣ ១,០៤ ១,០៥ ១,០៦ ១,០៧ ១,០៨ ១,០៩ ១,១០ ១,១១ ១,១២ ១,១៣ Williams, D. R. (2004). "Sun Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
  2. Asplund, M. (2006). "The new solar abundances - Part I: the observations". Communications in Asteroseismology. 147: 76–79. Bibcode:2006CoAst.147...76A. doi:10.1553/cia147s76. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  3. "Eclipse 99: Frequently Asked Questions". NASA. Retrieved 2010-10-24.
  4. Hinshaw, G. (2009). "Five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations: data processing, sky maps, and basic results". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 180 (2): 225–245. Bibcode:2009ApJS..180..225H. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/180/2/225. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  5. ៥,០ ៥,១ Emilio, Marcelo; Kuhn, Jeff R.; Bush, Rock I.; Scholl, Isabelle F. (March 5, 2012), "Measuring the Solar Radius from Space during the 2003 and 2006 Mercury Transits", arXiv, http://arxiv.org/abs/1203.4898, បានយកមក March 28, 2012 
  6. ៦,០០ ៦,០១ ៦,០២ ៦,០៣ ៦,០៤ ៦,០៥ ៦,០៦ ៦,០៧ ៦,០៨ ៦,០៩ ៦,១០ "Solar System Exploration: Planets: Sun: Facts & Figures". NASA. Archived from the original on 2008-01-02.
  7. Ko, M. (1999). Elert, G. (ed.). "Density of the Sun". The Physics Factbook.
  8. "Principles of Spectroscopy". University of Michigan, Astronomy Department. 30 August 2007.
  9. Bonanno, A.; Schlattl, H.; Paternò, L. (2008). "The age of the Sun and the relativistic corrections in the EOS". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 390 (3): 1115–1118. arXiv:astro-ph/0204331. Bibcode:2002A&A...390.1115B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020749.
  10. ១០,០ ១០,១ Seidelmann, P. K. (2000). "Report Of The IAU/IAG Working Group On Cartographic Coordinates And Rotational Elements Of The Planets And Satellites: 2000". Retrieved 2006-03-22. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  11. "The Sun's Vital Statistics". Stanford Solar Center. Retrieved 2008-07-29., citing Eddy, J. (1979). A New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab. NASA. p. 37. NASA SP-402.