ភាសាប៉ាស្តូ

ពីវិគីភីឌា
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[[ឯកសារ: ភាសាប៉ាស្តូ (پښتو pax̌tō [ˈpəʂt̪oː, ˈpəçt̪oː, ˈpʊxt̪oː]; ត្រូវបានស្គាល់ជាប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រថា អាហ្វហ្គានី (افغاني afğānī) និង បធានី គឺជាភាសាដើមនៃប្រជាជនប៉ាស្តូនៅអាស៊ីខាងនិរតី។ ប៉ាស្តូគឺភាសាមួយក្នុងក្រុមភាសាអ៊ីរ៉ង់ខាងកើត។ ភាសាប៉ាស្តូគឺភាសាមួយក្នុងចំណោមភាសាផ្លូវការពីរនៃប្រទេសអាហ្វហ្គានីស្ថាន

ប៉ាស្តូ
پښتو
The Pashto.png
ពាក្យ ប៉ាឝ្តូ សរសេរជាប៉ាស្តូ (រចនាបថណាស្តាលីខ)
ការបញ្ចេញសំឡេង[ˈpəʂt̪oː], [ˈpəçt̪oː], [ˈpʊxt̪oː]
ដើមកំណើតនៅអាហ្វហ្គានីស្ថាន បាគីស្ថាន និង អព្យពបឋាន
ជាតិពន្ធុ (ជនជាតិ)បឋាន
អ្នកនិយាយ ពីកំណើតExpression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "២".[១][២]
អំបូរភាសា
Standard forms
Central Pashto (Ghilzai)
Yusufzai (Northeastern)
Kandahari (Southern)
គ្រាមភាសា17 dialects
ប្រព័ន្ធសរសេរArabic script (Pashto alphabet)
Official status
ភាសាផ្លូវការនៅក្នុង អាហ្វហ្គានីស្ថាន[៤]
Recognised minority language in ប៉ាគីស្ថាន[៦]
Regulated byAcademy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Pashto Academy (Pakistan)[៥]
កូដភាសា
ISO 639-1ps
ISO 639-2pus
ISO 639-3pusinclusive code
Individual codes:
pst – Central Pashto
pbu – Northern Pashto
pbt – Southern Pashto
wne – Waneci
Linguasphere58-ABD-a
300px
Map of Pashto-speaking regions (red)
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Pashto (پښتو pax̌tō [ˈpəʂt̪oː, ˈpəçt̪oː, ˈpʊxt̪oː]; alternatively spelled Pakhto, Pushto or Pukhto), also known historically as Afghani (افغاني afğānī)[៧] and Pathani,[៨] is the native language of the Pashtun people of South-Central Asia. Pashto is a member of the Eastern Iranian languages group.[៩][១០][១១] Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan[៤][១២][១៣] (the other being Dari), and is also spoken as a regional language in western and northwestern Pakistan and among the Pashtun diaspora around the world.

Pashto belongs to the Northeastern Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian language family,[៣][១៤] although Ethnologue lists it as Southeastern Iranian.[១៥] The number of Pashtuns or Pashto-speakers is estimated to be 40–60 million people worldwide.[១៦][១៧][១៨][១៨][១៩]

  1. Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007 (39 million)
  2. ទំព័រគំរូ:ELL2
  3. ៣,០ ៣,១ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Iranica-Pashto
  4. ៤,០ ៤,១ Constitution of AfghanistanChapter 1 The State, Article 16 (Languages) and Article 20 (Anthem)
  5. Sebeok, Thomas Albert (1976) Current Trends in Linguistics: Index Walter de Gruyter p. 705
  6. "Population by Mother Tongue" Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan ដកស្រង់នៅថ្ងៃ 28 ធ្នូ 2011
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Leyden
  8. India. Office of the Registrar General (1961) Census of India, 1961: Gujarat Manager of Publications pp. 142, 166, 177
  9. Henderson, Michael "The Phonology of Pashto" (PDF) University of Wisconnsin Madisson ដកស្រង់នៅថ្ងៃ 20 សីហា 2012
  10. Henderson, Michael (1983) "Four Variaties of Pashto" Journal of the American Oriental Society (103.595–8)
  11. Darmesteter, James (1890) Chants populaires des Afghans Paris
  12. "Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan" 2004 ដកស្រង់នៅថ្ងៃ 13 មិថុនា 2012 From among the languages of Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (alsana), Arab and other languages spoken in the country, Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state.
  13. Banting, Erinn (2003) Afghanistan: The land Crabtree Publishing Company p. 4 ISBN 0-7787-9335-4 ដកស្រង់នៅថ្ងៃ 22 សីហា 2010
  14. Nicholas Sims-Williams, Eastern Iranian languages, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2010. "The Modern Eastern Iranian languages are even more numerous and varied. Most of them are classified as North-Eastern: Ossetic; Yaghnobi (which derives from a dialect closely related to Sogdian); the Shughni group (Shughni, Roshani, Khufi, Bartangi, Roshorvi, Sarikoli), with which Yaz-1ghulami (Sokolova 1967) and the now extinct Wanji (J. Payne in Schmitt, p. 420) are closely linked; Ishkashmi, Sanglichi, and Zebaki; Wakhi; Munji and Yidgha; and Pashto."
  15. Paul M. Lewis, ed. (2009) "Pashto Family Tree" SIL International Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition ដកស្រង់នៅថ្ងៃ 2 មេសា 2011
  16. Penzl, Herbert (2009) A Grammar of Pashto a Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan Ishi Press International p. 210 ISBN 0-923891-72-2 ដកស្រង់នៅថ្ងៃ 25 តុលា 2010 Estimates of the number of Pashto speakers range from 40 million to 60 million... Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (ជំនួយ)
  17. Paul M. Lewis, ed. (2009) "Pashto, Northern" SIL International Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition ដកស្រង់នៅថ្ងៃ 18 កញ្ញា 2010 Ethnic population: 49,529,000 possibly total Pashto in all countries.
  18. ១៨,០ ១៨,១ "Pashto" Omniglot.com ដកស្រង់នៅថ្ងៃ 25 តុលា 2010 The exact number of Pashto speakers is not known for sure, but most estimates range from 45 million to 55 million.
  19. Thomson, Gale (2007) Countries of the World & Their Leaders Yearbook 08 2 European Union: Indo-European Association p. 84 ISBN 0-7876-8108-3 ដកស្រង់នៅថ្ងៃ 25 តុលា 2010