ភាសាប៉ាស្តូ

ដោយវិគីភីឌា

[[ឯកសារ: ភាសាប៉ាស្តូ (پښتو pax̌tō [ˈpəʂt̪oː, ˈpəçt̪oː, ˈpʊxt̪oː]; ត្រូវបានស្គាល់ជាប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រថា អាហ្វហ្គានី (افغاني afğānī) និង បធានី គឺជាភាសាដើមនៃប្រជាជនប៉ាស្តូនៅអាស៊ីខាងនិរតី។ ប៉ាស្តូគឺភាសាមួយក្នុងក្រុមភាសាអ៊ីរ៉ង់ខាងកើត។ ភាសាប៉ាស្តូគឺភាសាមួយក្នុងចំណោមភាសាផ្លូវការពីរនៃប្រទេសអាហ្វហ្គានីស្ថាន

ប៉ាស្តូ
پښتو
The Pashto.png
ពាក្យ ប៉ាឝ្តូ សរសេរជាប៉ាស្តូ (រចនាបថណាស្តាលីខ)
ការបញ្ចេញសំឡេង [ˈpəʂt̪oː], [ˈpəçt̪oː], [ˈpʊxt̪oː]
ដើមកំណើតនៅ អាហ្វហ្គានីស្ថាន បាគីស្ថាន និង អព្យពបឋាន
ជាតិពន្ធុ (ជនជាតិ) បឋាន
អ្នកនិយាយ ពីកំណើត Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�".[១][២]
អំបូរភាសា
Indo-European
Standard forms
Central Pashto (Ghilzai)
Yusufzai (Northeastern)
Kandahari (Southern)
គ្រាមភាសា 17 dialects
ប្រព័ន្ធសរសេរ Arabic script (Pashto alphabet)
Official status
ភាសាផ្លូវការនៅក្នុង  អាហ្វហ្គានីស្ថាន[៤]
Recognised minority language in  ប៉ាគីស្ថាន[៦]
Regulated by Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Pashto Academy (Pakistan)[៥]
កូដភាសា
ISO 639-1 ps
ISO 639-2 pus
ISO 639-3 pusinclusive code
Individual codes:
pst – Central Pashto
pbu – Northern Pashto
pbt – Southern Pashto
wne – Waneci
Linguasphere 58-ABD-a
300px
Map of Pashto-speaking regions (red)
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Pashto (پښتو pax̌tō [ˈpəʂt̪oː, ˈpəçt̪oː, ˈpʊxt̪oː]; alternatively spelled Pakhto, Pushto or Pukhto), also known historically as Afghani (افغاني afğānī)[៧] and Pathani,[៨] is the native language of the Pashtun people of South-Central Asia. Pashto is a member of the Eastern Iranian languages group.[៩][១០][១១] Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan[៤][១២][១៣] (the other being Dari), and is also spoken as a regional language in western and northwestern Pakistan and among the Pashtun diaspora around the world.

Pashto belongs to the Northeastern Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian language family,[៣][១៤] although Ethnologue lists it as Southeastern Iranian.[១៥] The number of Pashtuns or Pashto-speakers is estimated to be 40–60 million people worldwide.[១៦][១៧][១៨][១៨][១៩]

  1. Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007 (39 million)
  2. ទំព័រគំរូ:ELL2
  3. ៣,០ ៣,១ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Iranica-Pashto
  4. ៤,០ ៤,១ Constitution of AfghanistanChapter 1 The State, Article 16 (Languages) and Article 20 (Anthem)
  5. Sebeok, Thomas Albert (1976)។ Current Trends in Linguistics: Index។ Walter de Gruyter។ ទំ. 705។ 
  6. "Population by Mother Tongue"។ Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistanhttp://www.census.gov.pk/MotherTongue.htm។ បានយកមក 28 December 2011 
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Leyden
  8. India. Office of the Registrar General (1961)។ Census of India, 1961: Gujarat។ Manager of Publications។ ទំ. 142, 166, 177។ 
  9. Henderson, Michael។ "The Phonology of Pashto"។ University of Wisconnsin Madissonhttp://people.ku.edu/~mmth/Sample_Pashto_Phonology_I_Term_Paper.pdf។ បានយកមក 2012-08-20 
  10. Henderson, Michael (1983)។ "Four Variaties of Pashto"។ Journal of the American Oriental Society (103.595-8)។ 
  11. Darmesteter, James (1890)។ Chants populaires des Afghans។ Paris។ 
  12. "Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan"។ 2004http://www.afghan-web.com/politics/current_constitution.html#preamble។ បានយកមក June 13, 2012។ "From among the languages of Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (alsana), Arab and other languages spoken in the country, Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state." 
  13. Banting, Erinn (2003)។ Afghanistan: The land។ Crabtree Publishing Company។ ទំ. 4។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-7787-9335-4http://books.google.com/books?id=KRt0HfYFZGsC&lpg=PP1&vq=place%20of%20Afghans&pg=PA4#v=onepage&q&f=false។ បានយកមក 2010-08-22 
  14. Nicholas Sims-Williams, Eastern Iranian languages, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2010. "The Modern Eastern Iranian languages are even more numerous and varied. Most of them are classified as North-Eastern: Ossetic; Yaghnobi (which derives from a dialect closely related to Sogdian); the Shughni group (Shughni, Roshani, Khufi, Bartangi, Roshorvi, Sarikoli), with which Yaz-1ghulami (Sokolova 1967) and the now extinct Wanji (J. Payne in Schmitt, p. 420) are closely linked; Ishkashmi, Sanglichi, and Zebaki; Wakhi; Munji and Yidgha; and Pashto."
  15. Paul M. Lewis, រៀ. (2009)។ "Pashto Family Tree"SIL International។ Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth editionhttp://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=2236-16។ បានយកមក 2011-04-02 
  16. Penzl, Herbert; Ismail Sloan (2009)។ A Grammar of Pashto a Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan។ Ishi Press International។ ទំ. 210។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-923891-72-2http://books.google.com/?id=zvRePgAACAAJ។ បានយកមក 2010-10-25។ "Estimates of the number of Pashto speakers range from 40 million to 60 million..." 
  17. Paul M. Lewis, រៀ. (2009)។ "Pashto, Northern"SIL International។ Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth editionhttp://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pbu។ បានយកមក 2010-09-18។ "Ethnic population: 49,529,000 possibly total Pashto in all countries." 
  18. ១៨,០ ១៨,១ "Pashto"។ Omniglot.comhttp://www.omniglot.com/writing/pashto.htm។ បានយកមក 2010-10-25។ "The exact number of Pashto speakers is not known for sure, but most estimates range from 45 million to 55 million." 
  19. Thomson, Gale (2007)។ Countries of the World & Their Leaders Yearbook 082។ European Union: Indo-European Association។ ទំ. 84។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-7876-8108-3http://books.google.com/?id=A6vQ-x7V-bYC។ បានយកមក 2010-10-25