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សាសនាហិណ្ឌូ (Hinduism) គឺជាសាសនាដ៏ចំណាស់មួយ ដែលចាប់កំណើតនៅឧបទ្វីបឥណ្ឌា ដែលបន្តវេនពីលទ្ធិវេទនិយម និងព្រហ្មនិយម។ ហិណ្ឌូត្រូវបានគេសន្មតថាជាសាសនាចំណាស់ជាងគេបំផុតលើពិភពលោក បើរាប់ចាប់ពីសម័យវេទនិយមមក និងជាសាសនាធំជាងគេទីបីលើលោក បន្ទាប់ពីសាសនាគ្រិស្ដ និងសាសនាឥស្លាម ដែលមានសាសនិកប្រហែលមួយពាន់លាននាក់ ក្នុងនោះប្រមាណ ៩០៥ លាននាក់នៅប្រទេសឥណ្ឌា។ ប្រទេសផ្សេងទៀតដែលមានអ្នកកាន់សាសនាហិណ្ឌូមាន នេប៉ាល់, ស្រីលង្កា, ឥណ្ឌូនេស៊ី (កោះបាលី), ម៉ាឡេស៊ី, សិង្ហបុរី, Mauritius, Fiji, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, កាណាដា និងសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក។ ទំព័រគំរូ:Use Indian English ទំព័រគំរូ:Sprotected2
Hinduism is the dominant religion[note ១] of the Indian subcontinent, particularly of India and Nepal. It includes Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism among numerous other traditions, and a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. Hinduism is a categorisation of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs.
Hinduism has been called the "oldest religion" in the world,[note ២] It is "a fusion of Aryan and Dravidian cultures"[note ៣][note ៤], which consist of many diverse traditions. It has diverse roots and no single founder. Among its roots are the historical Vedic religion of Iron Age India, but also the religions of the Indus Valley Civilisation, the Shramana or renouncer traditionsof north-east India, and "popular or local traditions".[note ៧]
Since Vedic times a process of Sanskritization has been taking place, in which "people from many strata of society throughout the subcontinent tended to adapt their religious and social life to Brahmanic norms".
Since the 19th century, under the dominance of western colonialism and Indology, when the term "Hinduism" came into broad use, Hinduism has re-asserted itself as a coherent and independent tradition. The popular understanding of Hinduism has been dominated by this neo-Vedanta,[note ៨] in which mysticism[note ៩] and the unity of Hinduism have been emphasised. Hindutva ideology and Hindu politics emerged in the 20th century as a political force and a source for national identity in India.[note ១០]
Hindu practices include daily rituals such as puja (worship) and recitations, annual festivals, and occasional pilgrimages. Select group of ascetics leave the common world and engage in lifelong ascetic practices to achieve moksha.
Hindu texts are classified into Śruti ("revealed") and Smriti ("remembered"). These texts discuss theology, philosophy, mythology, Vedic yajna and agamic rituals and temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas, Upanishads (both Śruti), Mahabharata, Ramayana, Bhagavad Gita, Puranas, Manusmriti, and Agamas (all smriti).
- ១ Etymology
- ២ Definitions
- ៣ Diversity and inclusivism
- ៤ History
- ៤.១ Periodisation
- ៤.២ Prevedic religions (until c. 1750 BCE)
- ៤.៣ Vedic religion (c. 1750-500 BCE)
- ៤.៤ Ascetic reformism (c. 500-200 BCE)
- ៤.៥ Classical Hinduism (c. 200 BCE-1100 CE)
- ៤.៦ Islamic rule and Sects of Hinduism (c. 1100-1850 CE)
- ៤.៧ Modern Hinduism (from c. 1850)
- ៥ Practices
- ៦ Beliefs
- ៧ Scriptures
- ៨ Institutions
- ៩ Demographics
- ១០ See also
- ១១ Notes
- ១២ References
- ១៣ Sources
- ១៤ Further reading
- ១៥ External links
The word Hindu is derived (through Persian) from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historic local name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent(now Pakistan).[note ១១] According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term 'hindu' first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus (Sanskrit: Sindhu)". The term 'Hindu' then was a geographical term and did not refer to a religion.[note ១២]
The word Hindu was taken by European languages from the Arabic term al-Hind, and refers to the land of the people who live across the River Indus. This Arabic term was itself taken from the Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus".[note ១៣]
The term Hinduism was later used occasionally in some Sanskrit texts such as the later Rajataranginis of Kashmir (Hinduka, c. 1450) and some 16th to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. It was usually used to contrast Hindus with Yavanas or Mlecchas. It was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism was introduced into the English language in the 19th century to denote the religious, philosophical, and cultural traditions native to India.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, and a set of religious beliefs.
This refers to the idea that it's origins lie beyond human history, and its truths have been divinely revealed (shruti) and passed down through the ages to the present day in the most ancient of the world's scriptures, the Veda.
According to Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan,
This emphasis on experience as validation of a religious worldview is a modern development, which started in the 19th century, and was introduced to Indian thought by western Unitarian missionaries.[note ១៤]
Hinduism's tolerance to variations in belief and its broad range of traditions make it difficult to define as a religion according to traditional Western conceptions.
Some academics suggest that Hinduism can be seen as a category with "fuzzy edges" rather than as a well-defined and rigid entity. Some forms of religious expression are central to Hinduism and others, while not as central, still remain within the category. Based on this idea Ferro-Luzzi has developed a 'Prototype Theory approach' to the definition of Hinduism.
The study of India and its cultures and religions, and the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by the interests of colonialism and by Western notions of religion. Since the 1990s, those influences and its outcomes have been the topic of debate among scholars of Hinduism[note ១៥] , and have also been taken over by critics of the Western view on India.[note ១៦]
The notion of "Hinduism" as a "single world religious tradition" was developed by 19th-century European Indologists who depended on the "brahmana castes" for their information of Indian religions. This led to a "tendency to emphasize Vedic and Brahmanical texts and beliefs as the "essence" of Hindu religiosity in general, and in the modern association of 'Hindu doctrine' with the various Brahmanical schools of the Vedanta (in particular Advaita Vedanta)."[note ១៩]
Diversity and inclusivism[កែប្រែ]
Hinduism has been described as a tradition having a "complex, organic, multileveled and sometimes internally inconsistent nature." Hinduism does not have a "unified system of belief encoded in a declaration of faith or a creed", but is rather an umbrella term comprising the plurality of religious phenomena of India. According to the Supreme Court of India,
Unlike other religions in the World, the Hindu religion does not claim any one Prophet, it does not worship any one God, it does not believe in any one philosophic concept, it does not follow any one act of religious rites or performances; in fact, it does not satisfy the traditional features of a religion or creed. It is a way of life and nothing more".
Part of the problem with a single definition of the term "Hinduism" is the fact that Hinduism does not have a single historical founder. It is a synthesis of various traditions, the "Brahmanical orthopraxy, the renouncer traditions and popular or local traditions."
Also, Hinduism does not have a single system of salvation, but consists of various religions and forms of religiosity. Some Hindu religious traditions regard particular rituals as essential for salvation, but a variety of views on this co-exist. Some Hindu philosophies postulate a theistic ontology of creation, of sustenance, and of the destruction of the universe, yet some Hindus are atheists, they view Hinduism more as philosophy than religion. Hinduism is sometimes characterized by a belief in reincarnation (samsara) determined by the law of karma and the idea that salvation is freedom from this cycle of repeated birth and death.[note ២០] Hinduism is therefore viewed as the most complex of all the living, historical world religions.
Roots of Hinduism[កែប្រែ]
Hinduism is "a fusion of Aryan and Dravidian cultures"[note ៤][note ៣] [note ២១][note ២២] Among its roots are the historical Vedic religion of Iron Age India, but also the mesolithic and neolithic cultures of India, such as the religions of the Indus Valley Civilisation, the Shramana or renouncer traditionsof northeast India, and the local traditions and tribal religions of the Austric, Dravidian, and Mongoloid people.[note ២៣]
Since Vedic times a process of Sanskritization has been taking place, in which "people from many strata of society throughout the subcontinent tended to adapt their religious and social life to Brahmanic norms".
After the Vedic period, between 500-200 BCE and ca. 300 CE, at the beginning of the "Epic and Puranic" c.q. "Preclassical" period, the "Hindu synthesis" emerged, which incorporated shramanic and Buddhist influences and the emerging bhakti tradition into the Brahmanical fold via the smriti literature. This synthesis emerged under the pressure of the success of Buddhism and Jainism. During the Gupta reign the first Puranas were written, which were used to disseminate "mainstream religious ideology amongst pre-literate and tribal groups undergoing acculturation." The resulting Puranic Hinduism, differed markedly from the earlier Brahmanism of the Dharmasastras and the smritis.[note ៦]
Despite the differences, there is also a sense of unity. Most Hindu traditions revere a body of religious or sacred literature, the Vedas, although there are exceptions. Halbfass cites Renou, according to whom this reverence is a mere
"tipping of the hat", a traditional gesture of saluting an "idol" without any further commitment."
Halbfass does not agree with this characterization and states that, although Shaivism and Vaishaism may be regarded as "self-contained religious constellations", there is a degree of interaction and reference between the "theoreticians and literary representatives" of each tradition which indicates the presence of "a wider sense of identity, a sense of coherence in a shared context and of inclusion in a common framework and horizon".
According to Nicholson, already between the twelfth and the sixteenth century "certain thinkers began to treat as a single whole the diverse philosophival teachings of the Upanishads, epics, Puranas, and the schools known retrospectively as the "six systems" (saddarsana) of mainstream Hindu philosophy." The tendency of "a blurring of philosophical distinctions" has also been noted by Burley. Hacker called this "inclusivism" and Michaels speaks of "the identificatory habit". Lorenzen locates the origins of a distinct Hindu identity in the interaction between Muslims and Hindus, and a process of "mutual self-definition with a contrasting Muslim other", which started well before 1800. Michaels notes:
As a counteraction to Islamic supremacy and as part of the continuing process of regionalization, two religious innovations developed in the Hindu religions: the formation of sects and a historicization which preceded later nationalism [...] [S]aints and sometimes and sometimes militant sect leaders, such as the Marathi poet Tukaram (1609-1649) and Ramdas (1608-1681), articulated ideas in which they glorified Hinduism and the past. The Brahmans also produced increasingly historicizing texts, especially eulogies and chronicles of sacred sites (Mahatmyas), or developed a reflexive passion for collecting and compiling extensive collections of quotations on various subjects.
Hinduism as it is commonly known can be subdivided into a number of major currents. Of the historical division into six darsanas, only two schools, Vedanta and Yoga, survive. The main divisions of Hinduism today are Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartism.[web ៤] Hinduism also recognizes numerous divine beings subordinate to the Supreme Being or regards them as lower manifestations of it. Other notable characteristics include a belief in reincarnation and karma as well as a belief in personal duty, or dharma.
McDaniel - six generic "types"[កែប្រែ]
McDaniel (2007) distinguishes six generic "types" of Hinduism, in an attempt to accommodate a variety of views on a rather complex subject:
- Folk Hinduism, based on local traditions and cults of local deities and extending back to prehistoric times, or at least prior to written Vedas.
- Shrauta or "Vedic" Hinduism as practised by traditionalist brahmins (Shrautins).
- Vedantic Hinduism, including Advaita Vedanta (Smartism), based on the philosophical approach of the Upanishads.
- Yogic Hinduism, especially the sect based on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.
- "Dharmic" Hinduism or "daily morality", based on Karma and upon societal norms such as Vivāha (Hindu marriage customs).
- Bhakti or devotionalist practices
Michaels - Hindu religions and Hindu religiosity[កែប្រែ]
Michaels distinguishes three Hindu religions and four forms of Hindu religiosity.
The division into three Hindu religions corresponds with the Indian division of ritual practice into Vedic (vaidika), village and folk religions (gramya), and sectarian (agama or tantra). The three Hindu religions are:
- Brahmanic-Sanskritic Hinduism: a polytheistic, ritualistic, priestly religion that centers on extended-family domestic and sacrificial rituals and appeals to a corpus of Vedic texts as an authority. Brahmanic-Sanskritic Hinduism takes a central place in most treatises on Hinduism because it fulfills many criteria for a definition of religion and because "in many regions of India it is the dominant religion into which the non-Brahman population groups strive to assimilate.[note ២៥]
- Folk religions and tribal religions: polytheistic, sometimes animistic, local religions with an extensive oral tradition. Often in tension with Brahmanic-Sanskritic Hinduism.
- Founded religions: salvation religions with monastic communities, usually ascetic, often anti-Brahmanic. Three subgroups can be distinguished:
- Sectarian religions: for example Vaishnavism and Shaivism.
- Syncretically founded religions: Hindu-Islamic (Sikhism), Hindu-Buddhist (Newar-Buddhism), Hindu-Christian mixed religions like Neohinduism.
- Founded, proselytizing religions, "Guru-ism": groups like Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and Transcendental Meditation, Satya Sai Baba and the Satya Sai Federation, Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada and the ISKCON, Maharaj Ji and the Divine Light Mission, Osho.
The four forms of Hindu religiosity are:
- Ritualism: Vedic-Brahmanistic domestic and sacrificial ritualism, but also some forms of Tantrism. This is the classical karma-marga, the path of action.
- Spiritualism: intellectual religiosity, aimed at individual liberation, often under guidance of a guru. It is characteristic of Advaita Vedanta, Kashmir Shaivism, Shaiva Siddhanta, Neo-Vedanta, modern esoteric Guruism, and some sorts of Tantrism. This is the classical jnana-marga.
- Devotionalism: mystical worship of a God, as in bhakti and Krishnaism. This is the classical bhakti-marga.
- Heroism: a polytheistic form of religiosity rooted in militaristic traditions, such as Ramaism and parts of political Hindusim. This is also called virya-marga.
Prevedic religions (until c. 1750 BCE)[កែប្រែ]
According to anthropologist Possehl, the Indus Valley Civilization (2,600-1,900BCE) "provides a logical, if somewhat arbitrary, starting point for some aspects of the later Hindu tradition." The religion of this period included worship of a Great Male God, which some (most notably John Marshall) have compared to a proto-Shiva, and probably a Mother Goddess, that may prefigure Shakti. Other practices from the Indus religion that may have continued in the Vedic period include worship of water and fire. However these links of deities and practices of the Indus religion to later-day Hinduism are subject to both political contention and scholarly dispute.
Vedic religion (c. 1750-500 BCE)[កែប្រែ]
Although the Vedic beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era (1500–500 BCE) may have drawn upon elements from the hypothesized Proto-Indo-European religion, the foundation text for the traditions of this period are the Vedic Samhitas from which this period derives its name. The oldest of these Vedic texts is the Rigveda, thought to have been composed in the 1700-1100 BCE period. The Vedas centre on the worship of deities such as Indra, Varuna and Agni, and on the Soma ritual. Fire-sacrifices, called yajña, are performed by chanting Vedic mantras but no temples or idols are known.
Ethics in the Vedas are based on the concepts of Satya and Rta. Satya is the principle of integration rooted in the Absolute. Ṛta is the expression of Satya, which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it. Conformity with Ṛta would enable progress whereas its violation would lead to punishment. Panikkar remarks:
Ṛta is the ultimate foundation of everything; it is "the supreme", although this is not to be understood in a static sense. [...] It is the expression of the primordial dynamism that is inherent in everything...."
The term "dharma" was already used in Brahmanical thought, where it was conceived as an aspect of Rta. The term rta is also known from the Proto-Indo-Iranian religion, the religion of the Indo-Iranian peoples prior to the earliest Vedic (Indo-Aryan) and Zoroastrian (Iranian) scriptures. Ashaទំព័រគំរូ:Pronunciation-needed (aša) is the Avestan language term corresponding to Vedic language ṛta.
During the Early Vedic period (ca.1500-1100 BCE) Vedic tribes were pastoralists, wandering around in north-west India. After 1100 BCE, with the introduction of iron, the Vedic tribes moved into the western Ganges Plain, adapting an agrarical lifestyle. Rudimentary state-forms appeared, of which the Kuru-tribe and realm was the most influential. It was a tribal union, which developed into the first recorded state-level society in South Asia around 1000 BCE. It decisively changed the Vedic heritage of the early Vedic period, collecting the Vedic hymns into collections, and developing new rituals which gained their position in Indian civilization as the orthodox srauta rituals, which contributed to the so-called "classical synthesis" or "Hindu synthesis".
The 9th and 8th centuries BCE witnessed the composition of the earliest Upanishads.:183 Upanishads form the theoretical basis of classical Hinduism and are known as Vedanta (conclusion of the Veda). The older Upanishads launched attacks of increasing intensity on the rituals. The diverse monistic speculations of the Upanishads were synthesized into a theistic framework by the sacred Hindu scripture Bhagavad Gita.
Ascetic reformism (c. 500-200 BCE)[កែប្រែ]
Increasing urbanisation of India in 7th and 6th centuries BCE led to the rise of new ascetic or shramana movements which challenged the orthodoxy of rituals. Mahavira (c.549–477 BCE), proponent of Jainism, and Buddha (c. 563-483), founder of Buddhism, were the most prominent icons of this movement.:184 According to Heinrich Zimmer, Jainism and Buddhism are part of the pre-Vedic heritage, which also includes Samkhya and Yoga:
[Jainism] does not derive from Brahman-Aryan sources, but reflects the cosmology and anthropology of a much older pre-Aryan upper class of northeastern India - being rooted in the same subsoil of archaic metaphysical speculation as Yoga, Sankhya, and Buddhism, the other non-Vedic Indian systems.[note ២៨]
Pratt notes that Oldenberg (1854-1920), Neumann (1865-1915) and Radhakrishnan (1888-1975) believed that the Buddhist canon had been influenced by Upanishads, while la Vallee Poussin thinks the influence was nihil, and "Eliot and several others insist that on some points the Buddha was directly antithetical to the Upanishads".[note ៣០]
Classical Hinduism (c. 200 BCE-1100 CE)[កែប្រែ]
Pre-classical Hinduism (c. 200 BCE-300 CE)[កែប្រែ]
Between 500-200 BCE and ca. 300 CE developed the "Hindu synthesis", which incorporated shramanic and Buddhist influences and the emerging bhakti tradition into the Brahmanical fold via the smriti literature. This synthesis emerged under the pressure of the succes of Buddhism and Jainism.
According to Embree, several other religious traditions had existed side by side with the Vedic religion. These indigenous religions "eventually found a place under the broad mantle of the Vedic religion". When Brahmanism was declining[note ៣១] and had to compete with Buddhism and Jainism,[note ៣២] the popular religions had the opportunity to assert themselves. According to Embree,
[T]he Brahmanists themselves seem to have encouraged this development to some extent as a means of meeting the challenge of the more heterodox movements. At the same time, among the indigenous religions, a common allegiance to the authority of the Veda provided a thin, but nonetheless significant, thread of unity amid their variety of gods and religiou practices.
According to Larson, the Brahmins responded with assimilation and consolidation. This is reflected in the smriti literature which took shape in this period. The smriti texts of the period between 200 BCE-100 CE proclaim the authority of the Vedas, and acceptance of the Vedas became a central criterium for defining Hinduism over and against the heterodoxies, which rejected the Vedas. Most of the basic ideas and practices of classical Hinduism derive from the new smriti literature, which form the basic inspiration for most Hindus.[note ៣៣]
The major Sanskrit epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, which belong to the smriti, were compiled over a protracted period during the late centuries BCE and the early centuries CE.[web ៥] They contain mythological stories about the rulers and wars of ancient India, and are interspersed with religious and philosophical treatises. The later Puranas recount tales about devas and devis, their interactions with humans and their battles against rakshasa. The Bhagavad Gita is the "locus classicus" of the "Hindu synthesis", integrating Brahmanic and shramanic ideas with theistic devotion.[web ៦]
"Golden Age" (Gupta Empire) (c. 320-650 CE)[កែប្រែ]
During this period, power was centralised, along with a growth of far distance trade, standardizarion of legal procedures, and general spread of literacy. Mahayana Buddhism flourished, but the orthodox Brahmana culture began to be rejuvenated by the patronage of the Gupta Dynasty, who were Vaishnavas. The position of the Brahmans was reinforced, and the first Hindu temples emerged during the late Gupta age. During the Gupta reign the first Puranas were written, which were used to disseminate "mainstream religious ideology amongst pre-literate and tribal groups undergoing acculturation." The Guptas patronised the newly emerging Puranic religion, seeking legitimacy for their dynasty. The resulting Puranic Hinduism, differed markedly from the earlier Brahmanism of the Dharmasastras and the smritis.
This period saw the emergence of the Bhakti movement. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in Tamil Nadu in Southern India with the Saiva Nayanars (4th-10th century CE) and the Vaisnava Alvars (3rd-9th century CE) who spread bhakti poetry and devotion throughout India by the 12th-18th century CE.
According to P.S. Sharma "the Gupta and Harsha periods form really, from the strictly intellectual standpoint, the most brilliant epocha in the development of Indian philosophy", as Hindu and Buddhist philosophies flourished side by side. Charvaka, the atheistic materialist school, came to the fore in North India before the 8th century CE.
Late-Classical Hinduism - Puranic Hinduism (c. 650-1100 CE)[កែប្រែ]
After the end of the Gupta Empire and the collapse of the Harsha Empire, power became decentralised in India. Several larger kingdoms emerged, with "countless vasal states".[note ៣៤] The kingdoms were ruled via a feudal system. Smaller kingdoms were dependent on the protection of the larger kingdoms. "The great king was remote, was exalted and deified", as reflected in the Tantric Mandala, which could also depict the king as the centre of the mandala.
The disintegration of central power also lead to regionalisation of religiosity, and religious rivalry.[note ៣៥] Local cults and languages were enhanced, and the influence of "Brahmanic ritualistic Hinduism" was diminished. Rural and devotional movements arose, along with Shaivism, Vaisnavism, Bhakti and Tantra, though "sectarian groupings were only at the beginning of their development". Religious movements had to compete for recognition by the local lords. Buddhism lost its position, and began to disappear in India.
The early medieval Puranas were composed to disseminate religious mainstream ideology among the pre-literate tribal societies undergoing acculturation. With the breakdown of the Gupta empire, gifts of virgin waste-land were heaped on brahmanas, to ensure provitable agrarical exploitation of land owned by the kings, but also to provide status to the new ruling classes. Brahmanas spread further over India, interacting with local clans with different religions and ideologies. The Brahmanas used the Puranas to incorporate those clans into the agrarical society and its accompanying religion and ideology. According to Flood, "[t]he Brahmans who followed the puranic religion became known as smarta, those whose worship was baed on the smriti, or pauranika, those based on the Puranas." Local chiefs and peasants were absorbed into the castesystem, which was used to keep "control over the new kshatriyas and shudras. The Brahmanic caste was enlarged by incorporating local subgroups, such as local priets. This also lead to a stratification within the Brahmanic caste, with some Brahmins having a lower status than other Brahmains. The use of caste worked better with the new Puranic Hinduism than with the shramanic sects. The Puranic texts provided extensive genealogies which gave status to the new kshatriyas. Buddhist myths pictured government as a contract between an elected ruler and the people. And the Buddhist chakkavatti[note ៣៦] "was a distinct concept from the models of conquest held up to the kshatriyas and the Rajputs."
The Brahmanism of the Dharmashastras and the smritis underwent a radical transformation at the hands of the Purana composers, resulting in the rise of Puranic Hinduism, "which like a colossus striding across the religious firmanent soon came to overshadow all existing religions". Puranic Hinduism was a "multiplex belief-system which grew and expanded as it absorbed and synthesized polaristic ideas and cultic traditions" It was distinguished from its Vedic Smarta roots by its popular base, its theological and sectarioan pluralism, its Tantric veneer, and the central place of bhakti.[note ៦]
Many local religions and traditions were assimilated into puranic Hinduism. Vishnu and Shiva emerged as the main deities, together with Sakti/Deva. Vishnu subsumed the cults of Narayana, Jagannaths, Venkateswara "and many others". Nath:
[S]ome incarnations of Vishnu such as Matsya, Kurma, Varaha and perhaps even Nrsimha helped to incorporate certain popular totem symbols and creation myths, specially those related to wild boar, which commonly permeate preliterate mythology, others such as Krsna and Balarama became instrumental in assimilating local cults and myths centering around two popular pastoral and agricultural gods.
Rama and Krsnabecame the focus of a strong bhakti tradition, which found expression particularly in the Bhagavata Purana. The Krsna tradition subsumed numerous Naga, yaksa and hill and tree based cults. Siva absorbed local cults by the suffixing of Isa or Isvara to the name of the local deity, for example Bhutesvara, Hatakesvara, Chandesvara. In 8th-century royal circles, the Buddha started to be replaced by Hindu gods in pujas.[note ៣៧] This also was the same period of time the Buddha was made into an avatar of Vishnu.
The non-dualistic Advaita Vedanta, which was influenced by Buddhism[note ៣៨], was reformulated by Shankara who systematised the works of preceding philosophers. In modern times, due to the influence of western Orientalism and Perennialism on Indian Neo-Vedanta and Hindu nationalism, Advaita Vedanta has acquired a broad acceptance in Indian culture and beyond as the paradigmatic example of Hindu spirituality.
Islamic rule and Sects of Hinduism (c. 1100-1850 CE)[កែប្រែ]
Though Islam came to India in the early 7th century with the advent of Arab traders and the conquest of Sindh, it started to become a major religion during the later Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent. During this period Buddhism declined rapidly and large number of Hindus converted to Islam. Numerous Muslim rulers or their army generals such as Aurangzeb and Malik Kafur destroyed Hindu temples[web ៧][web ៨] and persecuted non-Muslims; however some, such as Akbar, were more tolerant. Hinduism underwent profound changes, in large part due to the influence of the prominent teachers Ramanuja, Madhva, and Chaitanya. Followers of the Bhakti movement moved away from the abstract concept of Brahman, which the philosopher Adi Shankara consolidated a few centuries before, with emotional, passionate devotion towards the more accessible Avatars, especially Krishna and Rama. According to Nicholson, already between the twelfth and the sixteenth century, "certain thinkers began to treat as a single whole the diverse philosophival teachings of the Upanishads, epics, Puranas, and the schools known retrospectively as the "six systems" (saddarsana) of mainstream Hindu philosophy."[note ៣៩] Michaels notes that a historicization emerged which preceded later nationalism, articulating ideas which glorified Hinduism and the past.
Modern Hinduism (from c. 1850)[កែប្រែ]
With the onset of the British Raj, the colonialisation of India by the British, there also started a Hindu renaissance in the 19th century, which profoundly changed the understanding of Hinduism in both India and the west. Indology as an academic discipline of studying Indian culture from a European perspective was established in the 19th century, led by scholars such as Max Müller and John Woodroffe. They brought Vedic, Puranic and Tantric literature and philosophy to Europe and the United States.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] Western orientalist searched for the "essence" of the Indian religions, discerning this in the Vedas, and meanwhile creating the notion of "Hinduism" as a unified body of religious praxis and the popular picture of 'mystical India'. This idea of a Vedic essence was taken over by Hindu reform movements as the Brahmo Samaj, which was supported for a while by the Unitarian Church, together with the ideas of Universalism and Perennialism, the idea that all religions share a common mystic ground. This neo-Vedanta, with proponents like Vivekananda, Aurobindo and Radhakrishnan, became central in the popular understanding of Hinduism.
Influential 20th-century Hindus were Ramana Maharshi, B.K.S. Iyengar, Paramahansa Yogananda, Prabhupada (founder of ISKCON), Sri Chinmoy and Swami Rama, who translated, reformulated and presented Hinduism's foundational texts for contemporary audiences in new iterations, raising the profiles of Yoga and Vedanta in the West and attracting followers and attention in India and abroad.
In the twentieth century, Hinduism also gained prominence as a political force and a source for national identity in India. With origins traced back to the establishment of the Hindu Mahasabha in the 1910s, the movement grew with the formulation and development of the Hindutva ideology in the following decades; the establishment of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in 1925; and the entry, and later success, of RSS offshoots Jana Sangha and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in electoral politics in post-independence India. Hindu religiosity plays an important role in the nationalist movement.[note ៤០]
Hindu practices generally involve seeking awareness of God and sometimes also seeking blessings from Devas. Therefore, Hinduism has developed numerous practices meant to help one think of divinity in the midst of everyday life.
Mantras are invocations, praise and prayers that through their meaning, sound, and chanting style help a devotee focus the mind on holy thoughts or express devotion to God/the deities. Many devotees perform morning ablutions at the bank of a sacred river while chanting the Gayatri Mantra or Mahamrityunjaya mantras. The epic Mahabharata extols Japa (ritualistic chanting) as the greatest duty in the Kali Yuga (current age, 3102 BCE- present). Many adopt Japa as their primary spiritual practice. Yoga is a Hindu discipline which trains the consciousness for tranquility, health and spiritual insight. This is done through a system of postures and exercises to practise control of the body and mind.
The worship place is commonly known as Temple. Usually regarded as Mandir by the followers, construction of temple and mode of worship is governed by several Sanskrit scriptures called agamas, which deal with individual deities. There are substantial differences in architecture, customs, rituals and traditions in temples in different parts of India.
Hindus can engage in puja (worship or veneration), either at home or at a temple. At home, Hindus often create a shrine with icons dedicated to their chosen form(s) of God. Temples are usually dedicated to a primary deity along with associated subordinate deities though some commemorate multiple deities. Visiting temples is not obligatory, and many visit temples only during religious festivals. Hindus perform their worship through icons (murtis). The icon serves as a tangible link between the worshiper and God. The image is often considered a manifestation of God, since God is immanent. The Padma Purana states that the mūrti is not to be thought of as mere stone or wood but as a manifest form of the Divinity. While there are Hindus who, do not believe in worshiping God through icons, most notably those of Ārya Samāj.
A Bhajan is any type of devotional song. It has no fixed form: it may be as simple as a mantra or kirtan or as sophisticated as the dhrupad or kriti with music based on classical ragas and talas. It is normally lyrical, expressing love for the Divine. The name, a cognate of bhakti, meaning religious devotion, suggests its importance to the bhakti movement that spread from the south of India throughout the entire subcontinent in the Moghul era.
Anecdotes and episodes from scriptures, the teachings of saints and descriptions of gods have all been the subject of bhajans. The Dhrupad style, Sufi qawwali and the kirtan or song in the Haridasi tradition are related to bhajan. Nanak, Kabir, Meera, Narottama Dasa, Surdas and Tulsidas are notable composers. Traditions of bhajan such as Nirguni, Gorakhanathi, Vallabhapanthi, Ashtachhap, Madhura-bhakti and the traditional South Indian form Sampradya Bhajan each have their own repertoire and methods of singing.
According to Gaṅgā Rām Garg,
Hindu music is as old as the Sanskrit literature itself. And as a written science, the Hindu system of music is the oldest in the world.
Hinduism has a developed system of symbolism and iconography to represent the sacred in art, architecture, literature and worship. These symbols gain their meaning from the scriptures, mythology, or cultural traditions. The syllable om (which represents the Para Brahman) and the swastika sign (which symbolises auspiciousness) have grown to represent Hinduism itself, while other markings such as tilaka identify a follower of the faith. Hinduism associates many symbols, which include the lotus (padma), chakra and veena, with particular deities.
The vast majority of Hindus engage in religious rituals on a daily basis.[web ៩] Most Hindus observe religious rituals at home. but this varies greatly among regions, villages, and individuals. Devout Hindus perform daily rituals such as worshiping at dawn after bathing (usually at a family shrine, and typically includes lighting a lamp and offering foodstuffs before the images of deities), recitation from religious scripts, singing devotional hymns, meditation, chanting mantras, reciting scriptures etc. A notable feature in religious ritual is the division between purity and pollution. Religious acts presuppose some degree of impurity or defilement for the practitioner, which must be overcome or neutralised before or during ritual procedures. Purification, usually with water, is thus a typical feature of most religious action. Other characteristics include a belief in the efficacy of sacrifice and concept of merit, gained through the performance of charity or good works, that will accumulate over time and reduce sufferings in the next world. Vedic rites of fire-oblation (yajna) are now only occasional practices, although they are highly revered in theory. In Hindu wedding and burial ceremonies, however, the yajña and chanting of Vedic mantras are still the norm.[web ១០] The rituals, upacharas, change with time. For instance, in the past few hundred years some rituals, such as sacred dance and music offerings in the standard Sodasa Upacharas set prescribed by the Agama Shastra, were replaced by the offerings of rice and sweets.
Occasions like birth, marriage, and death involve what are often elaborate sets of religious customs. In Hinduism, life-cycle rituals include Annaprashan (a baby's first intake of solid food), Upanayanam ("sacred thread ceremony" undergone by upper-caste children at their initiation into formal education) and Śrāddha (ritual of treating people to a meal in return for prayers to 'God' to give peace to the soul of the deceased).[web ១១][web ១២] For most people in India, the betrothal of the young couple and the exact date and time of the wedding are matters decided by the parents in consultation with astrologers.[web ១១] On death, cremation is considered obligatory for all except sanyasis, hijra, and children under five. Cremation is typically performed by wrapping the corpse in cloth and burning it on a pyre.
Following pilgrimage sites are most famous amongst Hindu devotees:
Char Dham (Famous Four Pilgrimage sites): The four holy sites Puri, Rameswaram, Dwarka, and Badrinath (or alternatively the Himalayan towns of Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri) compose the Char Dham (four abodes) pilgrimage circuit.
Major Temple cities: Puri, which hosts a major Vaishnava Jagannath temple and Rath Yatra celebration; Katra, home to the Vaishno Devi temple; Three comparatively recent temples of fame and huge pilgrimage are Shirdi, home to Sai Baba of Shirdi, Tirumala - Tirupati, home to the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple; and Sabarimala,where Swami Ayyappan is worshipped.
While there are different yet similar pilgrimage routes in different parts of India, all are respected equally well, according to the universality of Hinduism.
Hindu festivals (Sanskrit: Utsava; literally: "to lift higher") are considered as symbolic rituals that beautifully weave individual and social life to dharma. Hinduism has many festivals throughout the year. The Hindu calendar usually prescribe their dates.
The festivals typically celebrate events from Hindu mythology, often coinciding with seasonal changes. There are festivals which are primarily celebrated by specific sects or in certain regions of the Indian subcontinent.
Some widely observed Hindu festivals include:
The identification of Hinduism as an independent religion separate from Buddhism or Jainism consequently hinges on the affirmation of its adherents that it is such.
Hinduism grants absolute and complete freedom of belief and worship. Hinduism conceives the whole world as a single family that deifies the one truth, and therefore it accepts all forms of beliefs and dismisses labels of distinct religions which would imply a division of identity. Hence, Hinduism is devoid of the concepts of apostasy, heresy and blasphemy.[web ១៣]
Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include (but are not restricted to), Dharma (ethics/duties), Samsāra (the continuing cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth), Karma (action and subsequent reaction), Moksha (liberation from samsara), and the various Yogas (paths or practices).
Concept of God[កែប្រែ]
Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism, and atheism among others;[web ១៤] and its concept of God is complex and depends upon each individual and the tradition and philosophy followed. It is sometimes referred to as henotheistic (i.e., involving devotion to a single god while accepting the existence of others), but any such term is an overgeneralization.
The Rig Veda, the oldest scripture and the mainstay of Hindu philosophy does not take a restrictive view on the fundamental question of God and the creation of universe. It rather lets the individual seek and discover answers in the quest of life. Nasadiya Sukta (Creation Hymn) of the Rig Veda thus says:[web ១៥]
Who really knows?
Who will here proclaim it?
Whence was it produced? Whence is this creation?
The gods came afterwards, with the creation of this universe.
Who then knows whence it has arisen?
Most Hindus believe that the spirit or soul — the true "self" of every person, called the ātman — is eternal. According to the monistic/pantheistic theologies of Hinduism (such as Advaita Vedanta school), this Atman is ultimately indistinct from Brahman, the supreme spirit. Hence, these schools are called non-dualist. The goal of life, according to the Advaita school, is to realize that one's ātman is identical to Brahman, the supreme soul. The Upanishads state that whoever becomes fully aware of the ātman as the innermost core of one's own self realizes an identity with Brahman and thereby reaches moksha (liberation or freedom).
The schools of Vedanta and Nyaya states that karma itself proves the existence of God. Nyaya being the school of logic, makes the "logical" inference that the universe is an effect and it ought to have a creator.
Dualistic schools (see Dvaita and Bhakti) understand Brahman as a Supreme Being who possesses personality, and they worship him or her thus, as Vishnu, Brahma, Shiva, or Shakti, depending upon the sect. The ātman is dependent on God, while moksha depends on love towards God and on God's grace. When God is viewed as the supreme personal being (rather than as the infinite principle), God is called Ishvara ("The Lord"), Bhagavan ("The Auspicious One") or Parameshwara ("The Supreme Lord"). However interpretations of Ishvara vary, ranging from non-belief in Ishvara by followers of Mimamsakas, to identifying Brahman and Ishvara as one, as in Advaita. In the majority of traditions of Vaishnavism he is Vishnu, God, and the text of Vaishnava scriptures identify this Being as Krishna, sometimes referred to as svayam bhagavan. However, under Shaktism, Devi or Adi parashakti is considered as the Supreme Being and in Shaivism Shiva is considered Supreme.
The multitude of devas are viewed as avatars of the Brahman.[note ៤១] In discussing the Trimurti, Sir William Jones states that Hindus "worship the Supreme Being under three forms — Vishnu, Siva, Brahma...The fundamental idea of the Hindu religion, that of metamorphoses, or transformations, is exemplified in the Avatars.
His hands and feet are everywhere, He looks everywhere and all around,
His eyes, ears and face point to all directions, and all the three worlds are surrounded by these.
Atheistic doctrines dominate Hindu schools like Samkhya and Mimamsa. The Samkhyapravachana Sutra of Samkhya argues that the existence of God (Ishvara) cannot be proved and hence cannot be admitted to exist.[web ១៦] Samkhya argue that an unchanging God cannot be the source of an ever changing world. It says God was a necessary metaphysical assumption demanded by circumstances. Proponents of the school of Mimamsa, which is based on rituals and orthopraxy states that the evidence allegedly proving the existence of God was insufficient. They argue that there is no need to postulate a maker for the world, just as there is no need for an author to compose the Vedas or a God to validate the rituals. Mimamsa considers the Gods named in the Vedas have no existence apart from the mantras that speak their names. To that regard, the power of the mantras is what is seen as the power of Gods.
Devas and avatars[កែប្រែ]
The Hindu scriptures refer to celestial entities called Devas (or devī in feminine form; devatā used synonymously for Deva in Hindi), "the shining ones", which may be translated into English as "gods" or "heavenly beings".[note ៤២] The devas are an integral part of Hindu culture and are depicted in art, architecture and through icons, and mythological stories about them are related in the scriptures, particularly in Indian epic poetry and the Puranas. They are, however, often distinguished from Ishvara, a supreme personal god, with many Hindus worshiping Ishvara in one of its particular manifestations (ostensibly separate deities) as their iṣṭa devatā, or chosen ideal. The choice is a matter of individual preference, and of regional and family traditions.
Hindu epics and the Puranas relate several episodes of the descent of God to Earth in corporeal form to restore dharma to society and to guide humans to moksha. Such an incarnation is called an Avatar. The most prominent avatars are of Vishnu and include Rama (the protagonist in Ramayana) and Krishna (a central figure in the epic Mahabharata).
Karma and samsara[កែប្រែ]
Karma translates literally as action, work, or deed, and can be described as the "moral law of cause and effect". According to the Upanishads an individual, known as the jiva-atma, develops sanskaras (impressions) from actions, whether physical or mental. The linga sharira, a body more subtle than the physical one but less subtle than the soul, retains impressions, carrying them over into the next life, establishing a unique trajectory for the individual. Thus, the concept of a universal, neutral, and never-failing karma intrinsically relates to reincarnation as well as to one's personality, characteristics, and family. Karma binds together the notions of free will and destiny.
As a person puts on new clothes and discards old and torn clothes,
similarly an embodied soul enters new material bodies, leaving the old bodies. (B.G. 2:22)
Samsara provides ephemeral pleasures, which lead people to desire rebirth so as to enjoy the pleasures of a perishable body. However, escaping the world of samsara through moksha is believed to ensure lasting happiness and peace. It is thought that after several reincarnations, an atman eventually seeks unity with the cosmic spirit (Brahman/Paramatman).
The ultimate goal of life, referred to as moksha, nirvana or samadhi, is understood in several different ways: as the realization of one's union with God; as the realization of one's eternal relationship with God; realization of the unity of all existence; perfect unselfishness and knowledge of the Self; as the attainment of perfect mental peace; and as detachment from worldly desires. Such realization liberates one from samsara and ends the cycle of rebirth. Due to belief in the indestructibility of the soul, death is deemed insignificant with respect to the cosmic self. Thence, a person who has no desire or ambition left and no responsibilities remaining in life or one affected by a terminal disease may embrace death by Prayopavesa.[web ១៧]
The exact conceptualization of moksha differs among the various Hindu schools of thought. For example, Advaita Vedanta holds that after attaining moksha an atman no longer identifies itself with an individual but as identical with Brahman in all respects. The followers of Dvaita (dualistic) schools identify themselves as part of Brahman, and after attaining moksha expect to spend eternity in a loka (heaven), in the company of their chosen form of Ishvara. Thus, it is said that the followers of dvaita wish to "taste sugar", while the followers of Advaita wish to "become sugar".
Objectives of human life[កែប្រែ]
Dharma (righteousness, ethics)[កែប្រែ]
The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad views dharma as the universal principle of law, order, harmony, all in all truth, that sprang first from Brahman. It acts as the regulatory moral principle of the Universe. It is sat (truth), a major tenet of Hinduism. This hearkens back to the conception of the Rigveda that "Ekam Sat," (Truth Is One), of the idea that Brahman is "Sacchidananda" (Truth-Consciousness-Bliss). Dharma is not just law, or harmony, it is pure Reality. In the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad's own words:
Verily, that which is Dharma is truth, Therefore they say of a man who speaks truth, "He speaks the Dharma,"
or of a man who speaks the Dharma, "He speaks the Truth.", Verily, both these things are the same.—(Brh. Upanishad, 1.4.14) (2)
In the Mahabharata, Krishna defines dharma as upholding both this-worldly and other-worldly affairs. (Mbh 12.110.11). The word Sanātana means 'eternal', 'perennial', or 'forever'; thus, 'Sanātana Dharma' signifies that it is the dharma that has neither beginning nor end.
Artha (livelihood, wealth)[កែប្រែ]
Artha is objective & virtuous pursuit of wealth for livelihood, obligations and economic prosperity. It is inclusive of political life, diplomacy and material well-being. The doctrine of Artha is called Arthashastra, amongst the most famous of which is Kautilya Arthashastra.
Kāma (sensual pleasure)[កែប្រែ]
Kāma (Sanskrit, Pali; Devanagari: काम) means desire, wish, passion, longing, pleasure of the senses, the aesthetic enjoyment of life, affection, or love.[web ១៨] However, this is only acceptable within marriage.
Mokṣa (liberation, freedom from samsara)[កែប្រែ]
Moksha (Sanskrit: मोक्ष mokṣa) or mukti (Sanskrit: मुक्ति), literally "release" (both from a root muc "to let loose, let go"), is the last goal of life. It is liberation from samsara and the concomitant suffering involved in being subject to the cycle of repeated death and reincarnation.
In whatever way a Hindu defines the goal of life, there are several methods (yogas) that sages have taught for reaching that goal. Texts dedicated to Yoga include the Bhagavad Gita, the Yoga Sutras, the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, and, as their philosophical and historical basis, the Upanishads. Paths that one can follow to achieve the spiritual goal of life (moksha, samadhi or nirvana) include:
- Bhakti Yoga (the path of love and devotion)
- Karma Yoga (the path of right action)
- Rāja Yoga (the path of meditation)
- Jñāna Yoga (the path of wisdom)
An individual may prefer one or some yogas over others, according to his or her inclination and understanding. Some devotional schools teach that bhakti is the only practical path to achieve spiritual perfection for most people, based on their belief that the world is currently in the Kali Yuga (one of four epochs which are part of the Yuga cycle). Practice of one yoga does not exclude others. Many schools believe that the different yogas naturally blend into and aid other yogas. For example, the practice of jnana yoga, is thought to inevitably lead to pure love (the goal of bhakti yoga), and vice versa. Someone practicing deep meditation (such as in raja yoga) must embody the core principles of karma yoga, jnana yoga and bhakti yoga, whether directly or indirectly.
Hinduism is based on "the accumulated treasury of spiritual laws discovered by different persons in different times". The scriptures were transmitted orally in verse form to aid memorisation, for many centuries before they were written down. Over many centuries, sages refined the teachings and expanded the canon. In post-Vedic and current Hindu belief, most Hindu scriptures are not typically interpreted literally. More importance is attached to the ethics and metaphorical meanings derived from them. Most sacred texts are in Sanskrit. The texts are classified into two classes: Shruti and Smriti.
Shruti (lit: that which is heard) primarily refers to the Vedas, which form the earliest record of the Hindu scriptures. While many Hindus revere the Vedas as eternal truths revealed to and heard by the ancient sages (Ṛṣis), some devotees do not associate the creation of the Vedas with a god or person. They are thought of as the laws of the spiritual world, which would still exist even if they were not revealed to the sages. Hindus believe that because the spiritual truths of the Vedas are eternal, they continue to be expressed in new ways.
There are four Vedas (called Ṛg-, Sāma-, Yajus- and Atharva-). The Rigveda is the first and most important Veda. Each Veda is divided into four parts: the primary one, the Veda proper, being the Saṃhitā, which contains sacred mantras. The other three parts form a three-tier ensemble of commentaries, usually in prose and are believed to be slightly later in age than the Saṃhitā. These are: the Brāhmaṇas, Āraṇyakas, and the Upanishads. The first two parts were subsequently called the Karmakāṇḍa (ritualistic portion), while the last two form the Jñānakāṇḍa (knowledge portion).[web ១៩] While the Vedas focus on rituals, the Upanishads focus on spiritual insight and philosophical teachings, and discuss Brahman and reincarnation.
A well known shloka from Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is:
Hindu texts other than the Shrutis are collectively called the Smritis (memory). The most notable of the smritis are the epics, which consist of the Mahābhārata and the Rāmāyaṇa. The Bhagavad Gītā is an integral part of the Mahabharata and one of the most popular sacred texts of Hinduism. It contains philosophical teachings from Krishna, an incarnation of Vishnu, told to the prince Arjuna on the eve of a great war. The Bhagavad Gītā, spoken by Krishna, is described as the essence of the Vedas. However Gita, sometimes called Gitopanishad, is more often placed in the Shruti, category, being Upanishadic in content. Purāṇas, which illustrate Hindu ideas through vivid narratives come under smritis. Other texts include Devī Mahātmya, the Tantras, the Yoga Sutras, Tirumantiram, Shiva Sutras and the Hindu Āgamas. The Manusmriti, is a prescriptive lawbook which lays the societal codes of social stratification which would later help the society to create Indian caste system.
To action alone hast thou a right and never at all to its fruits;
let not the fruits of action be thy motive; neither let there be in thee any attachment to inaction. (2.47)
Hinduism has no central doctrinal authority and many practising Hindus do not claim to belong to any particular denomination. However four major denominations are recognized: Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartism.[web ២១] The denominations differ primarily in the god worshipped as the Supreme One and in the traditions that accompany worship of that god.
Vaishnavas worship Vishnu as the supreme God; Shaivites worship Shiva as the supreme; Shaktas worship Shakti (power) personified through a female divinity or Mother Goddess, Devi; while Smartas believe in the essential oneness of five (panchadeva) or six (Shanmata[note ៤៤] deities as personifications of the Supreme.
The Western conception of what Hinduism is has been defined by the Smarta view;[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] many Hindus, who may not understand or follow Advaita philosophy, in contemporary Hinduism, invariably follow the Shanmata belief worshiping many forms of God.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] One commentator, noting the influence of the Smarta tradition, remarked that although many Hindus may not strictly identify themselves as Smartas but, by adhering to Advaita Vedanta as a foundation for non-sectarianism, are indirect followers.[web ២៣]
There are movements that are not easily placed in any of the above categories, such as Swami Dayananda Saraswati's Arya Samaj, which rejects image worship and veneration of multiple deities. It focuses on the Vedas and the Vedic fire sacrifices (yajña).
The Tantric traditions have various sects, as Banerji observes:
Hindu society has been categorized into four classes, called varnas.They are,
- the Brahmins: Vedic teachers and priests;
- the Kshatriyas: warriors, nobles, and kings;
- the Vaishyas: farmers, merchants, and businessmen; and
- the Shudras: servants and labourers.
The Bhagavad Gītā links the varna to an individual's duty (svadharma), inborn nature (svabhāva), and natural tendencies (guṇa). Gita's conception of varna allowed Aurobindo to derive his doctrine that "functions of a man ought to be determined by his natural turn, gift and capacities." The Manusmṛiti categorizes the different castes.[web ២៤]
Some mobility and flexibility within the varnas challenge allegations of social discrimination in the caste system, as has been pointed out by several sociologists, although some other scholars disagree. Scholars debate whether the so-called caste system is part of Hinduism sanctioned by the scriptures or social custom.[web ២៥][note ៤៥] And various contemporary scholars have argued that the caste system was constructed by the British colonial regime. The religious teacher Sri Ramakrishna (1836–1886) explained that
A renunciant man of knowledge is usually called Varnatita or "beyond all varnas" in Vedantic works. The bhiksu is advised to not bother about the caste of the family from which he begs his food. Scholars like Adi Sankara affirm that not only is Brahman beyond all varnas, the man who is identified with Him also transcends the distinctions and limitations of caste.
Traditionally the life of a Hindu is divided into four Āshramas (phases or stages; unrelated meanings include monastery). The first part of one's life, Brahmacharya, the stage as a student, is spent in celibate, controlled, sober and pure contemplation under the guidance of a Guru, building up the mind for spiritual knowledge. Grihastha is the householder's stage, in which one marries and satisfies kāma and artha in one's married and professional life respectively (see the goals of life). The moral obligations of a Hindu householder include supporting one's parents, children, guests and holy figures. Vānaprastha, the retirement stage, is gradual detachment from the material world. This may involve giving over duties to one's children, spending more time in religious practices and embarking on holy pilgrimages. Finally, in Sannyāsa, the stage of asceticism, one renounces all worldly attachments to secludedly find the Divine through detachment from worldly life and peacefully shed the body for Moksha.
Some Hindus choose to live a monastic life (Sannyāsa) in pursuit of liberation or another form of spiritual perfection. Monastics commit themselves to a life of simplicity, celibacy, detachment from worldly pursuits, and the contemplation of God. A Hindu monk is called a sanyāsī, sādhu, or swāmi. A female renunciate is called a sanyāsini. Renunciates receive high respect in Hindu society because their outward renunciation of selfishness and worldliness serves as an inspiration to householders who strive for mental renunciation. Some monastics live in monasteries, while others wander from place to place, trusting in God alone to provide for their needs. It is considered a highly meritorious act for a householder to provide sādhus with food or other necessaries. Sādhus strive to treat all with respect and compassion, whether a person may be poor or rich, good or wicked, and to be indifferent to praise, blame, pleasure, and pain.
Ahimsa, vegetarianism and other food customs[កែប្រែ]
There are a number of animal sacrifices mentioned in the Vedas such as mantras for the sacrifice of a Goat in the Rig, the Horse sacrifice (Ashwamedha) and the Human sacrifice (Purushamedha) in the Yajur, whilst in the Jyotistoma sacrifice three animal-sacrifices are performed, namely, Agnisomiya, Savaniya and Anubandhya. The Yajurveda is considered the Veda of sacrifices and rituals, and consists of a number of animal sacrifices, such as mantras and procedures for the sacrifices of a white goat to Vayu, a calf to Sarasvati, a speckled Ox to Savitr, a Bull to Indra, a castrated Ox to Varuna and so on.
A reaction against these sacrifices, came from the Charvakas who documented their criticism in the Barhaspatya Sutras in the 3rd century BCE as follows
"If a beast slain in Jyotistoma rite will itself go to heaven, why then does not the sacrificer forthwith offer his own father"
The Buddha forbade drinking and Buddhist kings such as Ashoka influenced society by banning animal sacrifices. During the rule of the Buddhist king, Ashoka Maurya, an edict was passed and inscribed in a rock proclaiming,
This is the edict of the beloved of the Gods, Raja Piyadasi. The putting to death of animals is to be entirely discontinued."
From here on, social reaction with regard to the sacrificial (brahmanas) texts can be traced. Panini says there are two kinds of brahmanas, the old brahmanas and the new brahmanas. In the old brahmanas, such as the Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig, sacrifices were really offered, but in later brahmanas such as the Shatapatha Brahmana animals were let loose after being tied to sacrificial posts. This was a reaction to the rise of the Shramanic religion, such as Buddhism and Jainism; which resulted in Ahimsa put into practice amongst practitioners of the Brahmanas.
Hindus advocate the practice of ahiṃsā (non-violence) and respect for all life because divinity is believed to permeate all beings, including plants and non-human animals. The term ahiṃsā appears in the Upanishads, the epic Mahabharata and Ahiṃsā is the first of the five Yamas (vows of self-restraint) in Patanjali's Yoga Sutras. and the first principle for all member of Varnashrama Dharma (brahmin, kshatriya, vaishya and shudra) in Law of Manu (book 10, sutra 63 : Ahimsa, satya, asteya, shaucam and indrayanigraha, almost similar to main principles of jainism).[web ២៧][web ២៨]
In accordance with ahiṃsā, many Hindus embrace vegetarianism to respect higher forms of life. Estimates of the number of lacto vegetarians in India (includes adherents of all religions) vary between 20% and 42%. The food habits vary with the community and region: for example, some castes having fewer vegetarians and coastal populations relying on seafood.[web ២៩] Some avoid meat only on specific holy days. Observant Hindus who do eat meat almost always abstain from beef. The cow in Hindu society is traditionally identified as a caretaker and a maternal figure, and Hindu society honours the cow as a symbol of unselfish giving. Cow-slaughter is legally banned in almost all states of India.[web ៣០]
There are many Hindu groups that have continued to abide by a strict vegetarian diet in modern times. One example is the movement known as ISKCON (International Society for Krishna Consciousness), whose followers “not only abstain from meat, fish, and fowl, but also avoid certain vegetables that are thought to have negative properties, such as onion, garlic and mushroom.”[web ៣១] A second example is the Swaminarayan Movement. The followers of this Hindu group also staunchly adhere to a diet that is devoid of meat, eggs, and seafood.
Thus, another reason that dietary purity is so eminent within Hinduism is because of “the idea that food reflects the general qualities of nature: purity, energy, [and] inertia.” It follows that a healthy diet should be one that promotes purity within an individual.
Based on this reasoning, Hindus should avoid or minimize the intake of foods that do not promote purity. These foods include onion and garlic, which are regarded as rajasic (a state which is characterized by “tension and overbearing demeanor”) foods, and meat, which is regarded as tamasic (a state which is characterized by “anger, greed, and jealousy”).
Some Hindus from certain sects - generally Shakta, certain Shudra and Kshatriya castes and certain Eastern Indian and East Asian regions; practise animal sacrifice (bali), although most Hindus, including the majority of Vaishnava and Shaivite Hindus abhor it.[web ៣២]
Spread of Hindu practices[កែប្រែ]
Hindu practices such as yoga, ayurvedic health, divination (astrology, palmistry, numerology), tantric sexuality through Neotantra and kama sutra have reached beyond Hindu communities and have been accepted by several non-Hindus.
|“||"Hinduism is attracting Western adherents through the affiliated practice of yoga. Yoga centers in the West—which generally advocate vegetarianism—attract young, well-educated Westerners who are drawn by yoga's benefits for the physical and emotional health; there they are introduced to the Hindu philosophical system taught by most yoga teachers, known as Vedanta."||”|
It is estimated that around 30 million Americans and 5 million Europeans regularly practice some form of Hatha Yoga. In Australia, the number of practitioners is about 300,000.[web ៣៣] In New Zealand the number is also around 300,000.[web ៣៤]
ទំព័រគំរូ:Hinduism by country Hinduism is a major religion in India. Hinduism was followed by around 80.5% of the country's population of 1.21 billion (2012 estimate) (960 million adherents).[web ៣៥] Other significant populations are found in Nepal (23 million), Bangladesh (15 million) and the Indonesian island of Bali (3.3 million).
- Nepal 81.3%[web ៣៦]
- India 80.5%
- ទំព័រគំរូ:ទិន្នន័យប្រទេស Mauritius 54%
- ទំព័រគំរូ:ទិន្នន័យប្រទេស Guyana 28%[web ៣៧]
- ទំព័រគំរូ:ទិន្នន័យប្រទេស Fiji 27.9%[web ៣៨]
- ទំព័រគំរូ:ទិន្នន័យប្រទេស Bhutan 25%[web ៣៩]
- ទំព័រគំរូ:ទិន្នន័យប្រទេស Trinidad and Tobago 22.5%
- ទំព័រគំរូ:ទិន្នន័យប្រទេស Suriname 20%[web ៤០]
- ទំព័រគំរូ:ទិន្នន័យប្រទេស Sri Lanka 12.6%[web ៤១]
- Bangladesh 9.6%[web ៤២]
- Qatar 7.2%
- ទំព័រគំរូ:ទិន្នន័យប្រទេស Réunion 6.7%
- Malaysia 6.3%[web ៤៣]
- ទំព័រគំរូ:ទិន្នន័យប្រទេស Bahrain 6.25%
- ទំព័រគំរូ:ទិន្នន័យប្រទេស Kuwait 6%
- Singapore 5.1%[web ៤៤]
- United Arab Emirates 5%
- ទំព័រគំរូ:ទិន្នន័យប្រទេស Oman 3%
- ទំព័រគំរូ:ទិន្នន័យប្រទេស Belize 2.3%
- ទំព័រគំរូ:ទិន្នន័យប្រទេស Seychelles 2.1%[web ៤៥]
- Atheism in Hinduism
- Criticism of Hinduism
- Hindu calendar
- Hindu deities
- Hindu denominations
- Hindu mythology
- Hindu reform movements
- Hinduism by country
- Ethics of Hinduism
- Rulership in Hinduism
- List of Hindu temples
- List of notable Hindus
- List of converts to Hinduism
- List of related articles
- Related systems and religions
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- Hinduism is variously defined as a "religion", "set of religious beliefs and practices", "religious tradition" etc. For a discussion on the topic, see: "Establishing the boundaries" in Gavin Flood 2008 (2003), pp. 1-17.
- "Oldest religion":
- The "oldest living religion"
- The "oldest living major religion" in the world.
- Lockard: "The encounters that resulted from Aryan migration brought together several very different peoples and cultures, reconfiguring Indian society. Over many centuries a fusion of Aryan and Dravidian cultures occurred, , a complex process that historians have labeled the Indo-Aryan synthesis." Lockard: "Hinduism can be seen historically as a synthesis of Aryan beliefs with Harappan and other Dravidian traditions that developed over many centuries."
- See also Zimmer 1951, Sjoberg 1990, Tyler 1973 in Sjoberg 1990, Hopfe & Woodward 2008 and Flood 1996.
- Between 500-200 BCE and ca. 300 CE, at the beginning of the "Epic and Puranic" c.q. "Preclassical" period.
- Michaels: "The legacy of the Vedic religion in Hinduism is generally overestimated. The influence of the mythology is indeed great, but the religious terminology changed considerably: all the key terms of Hinduism either do not exist in Vedic or have a completely different meaning. The religion of the Veda does not know the ethicized migration of the soul with retribution for acts (karma), the cyclical destruction of the world, or the idea of salvation during one's lifetime (jivanmukti; moksa; nirvana); the idea of the world as illusion (maya) must have gone against the grain of ancient India, and an omnipotent creator god emerges only in the late hymns of the rgveda. Nor did the Vedic religion know a caste system, the burning of widows, the ban on remarriage, images of gods and temples, Puja worship, Yoga, pilgrimages, vegetarianism, the holiness of cows, the doctrine of stages of life (asrama), or knew them only at their inception. Thus, it is justified to see a turning point between the Vedic religion and Hindu religions." See also Halbfass (1991) p.1-2.
- After the Vedic period, around the beginning of the Common Era,[note ៥] the "Hindu synthesis" emerged, which incorporated shramanic and Buddhist influences and the emerging bhakti tradition into the Brahmanical fold.
During the Gupta reign the first Puranas were written, which were used to disseminate "mainstream religious ideology amongst pre-literate and tribal groups undergoing acculturation." The resulting Puranic Hinduism differed markedly from the earlier Brahmanism of the Dharmasastras and the smritis.[note ៦]
- Also called neo-Hinduism
- As reflected in the emphasis on personal "religious experience" as the validation of religious truths.
- Neo-Vedanta also contributed to Hindutva ideology, Hindu politics and communalism. Yet, Rinehart emphasizes that it is "clear that there isn't a neat line of causation that leads from the philosophies of Rammohan Roy, Vivekananda and Radhakrishnan to the agenda of [...] militant Hindus."
- The word Sindhu is first mentioned in the Rigveda.[web ២]ទំព័រគំរូ:Relevance-inline
- Gavin Flood adds: "In Arabic texts, Al-Hind is a term used for the people of modern-day India and 'Hindu', or 'Hindoo', was used towards the end of the eighteenth century by the British to refer to the people of 'Hindustan', the people of northwest India. Eventually 'Hindu' became virtually equivalent to an 'Indian' who was not a Muslim, Sikh, Jain or Christian, thereby encompassing a range of religious beliefs and practices. The '-ism' was added to Hindu in around 1830 to denote the culture and religion of the high-caste Brahmans in contrast to other religions, and the term was soon appropriated by Indians themselves in the context of building a national identity opposed to colonialism, though the term 'Hindu' was used in Sanskrit and Bengali hagiographic texts in contrast to 'Yavana' or Muslim as early as the sixteenth century".
- In ancient lietrature the name Bharata or Bharata VRasa was being used.
- It can be traced back to William James, who used a term called "religious experience" in his book, The Varieties of Religious Experience. The origins of the use of this term can be dated further back. Wayne Proudfoot traces the roots of the notion of "religious experience" to the German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834), who argued that religion is based on a feeling of the infinite. The notion of "religious experience" was used by Schleiermacher and Albert Ritschl to defend religion against the growing scientific and secular citique, and defend the view that human (moral and religious) experience justifies religious beliefs.
- Sweetman mentions:
- Wilhelm Halbfass (1988), India and Europe
- IXth European Conference on Modern Asian Studies in Heidelberg (1989), Hinduism Reconsidered
- Ronald Inden, Imagining India
- Carol Breckenridge and Peter van der Veer, Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament
- Vasudha Dalmia and Heinrich von Stietencron, Representing Hinduism
- S.N. Balagangadhara, The Heathen in his Blindness...
- Thomas Trautmann, Aryans and British India
- Richard King (1989), Orientalism and religion
- See Rajiv Malhotra and Being Different for a critic who gained widespread attention outside the academia.
- Sweetman cites Richard King (1999) p.128.
- Sweetman cites Viswanathan (2003), Colonialism and the Construction of Hinduism, p.26
- Sweetman identifies several areas in which "there is substantial, if not universal, agreement that colonialism influenced the study of Hinduism":
- The establishment by European Orientalists of a textual basis for Hinduism, akin to the Protestant culture, which was driven by a preference among the colonial powers for written authority rather than oral authority.
- The influence of Brahmins on European conceptions of Hinduism. Colonialism has been a significant factor in the reinforcement of the Brahmana castes and the "brahmanisation" of Hindu society. The Brahmana castes preserved the texts which were studied by Europeans and provided access to them. The authority of those texts was expanded by being the focus of study by Europeans. Brahmins and Europeans scholars shared a perception of "a general decline from an originally pure religion".
- The identification of Vedanta, and specifically Advaita Vedanta, as the "paradigmatic example of the mystical nature of the Hindu religion"[note ១៧] and the "central philosophy of the Hindus". Several factors led to the favouring of Advaita Vedanta:
- Fear of French influence, especially the impact of the French Revolution; the hope was that "the supposed quietist and conservative nature of Vedantic thought would prevent the development of revolutionary sentiment;
- "The predominance of Idealism in nineteenth century European philosophy";
- "The amenability of Vedantic thought to both Christian and Hindu critics of 'idolatry' in other forms of Hinduism".
- The European conception of caste which dismissed former political configurations and insisted upon an "essentially religious character" of India. During the colonial period, caste was defined as a religious system and was divorced from political powers. This made it possible for the colonial rulers to portray India as a society characterised by spiritual harmony in contrast to the former Indian states which they criticized as "despotic and epiphenomenal", with the colonial powers providing the necessary "benevolent, paternalistic rule by a more 'advanced' nation".
- The construction of 'Hinduism' in the image of Christianity as "a systematic, confessional, all-embracing religious entity". Several forces played a role in this construction:
- Other religions of the region, such as Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, also believe in karma, outside the scope of Hinduism.
- Hopfe & Woodward: "The religion that the Aryans brought with them mingled with the religion of the native people, and the culture that developed between them became classical Hinduism."
- Tyler, in India: An Anthropological Perspective(1973), page 68, as quoted by Sjoberg, calls Hinduism a "synthesis" in which the Dravidian elements prevail: "The Hindu synthesis was less the dialectical reduction of orthodoxy and heterodoxy than the resurgence of the ancient, aboriginal Indus civilization. In this process the rude, barbaric Aryan tribes were gradually civilized and eventually merged with the autochthonous Dravidians. Although elements of their domestic cult and ritualism were jealously preserved by Brahman priests, the body of their culture survived only in fragmentary tales and allegories embedded in vast, syncretistic compendia. On the whole, the Aryan contribution to Indian culture is insignificant. The essential pattern of Indian culture was already established in the third millennium B.C., and ... the form of Indian civilization perdured and eventually reasserted itself.
- See also Peopling of India for the variety of Indian people.
- Hackel, in Nicholson 2010
- See also Sanskritization, Indo-Aryanization and Vedantification.
- Doniger: "Much of what we now call Hinduism may have had roots in cultures that thrived in South Asia long before the creation of textual evidence that we can decipher with any confidence. Remarkable cave paintings have been preserved from Mesolithic sites dating from c.30,000 BCE in Bhimbetka, near present-day Bhopal, in the Vindhya Mountains in the province of Madhya Pradesh."
- Jones & Ryan: "Some practices of Hinduism must have originated in Neolithic times (c. 4,000 BCE). The worship of certain plants and animals as sacred, for instance, could very likely have very great antiquity. The worship of goddesses, too, a part of Hinduism today, may be a feature that originated in the Neolithic."
- Zimmer's point of view is supported by other scholars, such as Niniam Smart, in Doctrine and argument in Indian Philosophy, 1964, p.27-32 & p.76, and S.K. Belvakar & R.D. Ranade in History of Indian philosophy, 1974 (1927), p.81 & p.303-409.
- Flood: "The second half of the first millennium BCE was the period that created many of the ideological and institutional elements that characterize later Indian religions. The renouncer tradition played a central role during this formative period of Indian religious history [...] Some of the fundamental values and beliefs that we generally associate with Indian religions in general and Hinduism in particular were in part the creation of the renouncer tradition. These include the two pillars of Indian theologies: samsara - the belief that life in this world is one of suffering and subject to repeated deaths and births (rebirth); moksa/nirvana - the goal of human existence."
- Richard King notes that Radhakrishnan was a representative of Neo-Vedanta, which had a specific understanding of Indian religions: "The inclusivist appropriation of other traditions, so characteristic of neo-Vedanta ideology, appears on three basic levels. First, it is apparent in the suggestion that the (Advaita) Vedanta philosophy of Sankara (c. eighth century CE) constitutes the central philosophy of Hinduism. Second, in an Indian context, neo-Vedanta philosophy subsumes Buddhist philosophies in terms of its own Vedantic ideology. The Buddha becomes a member of the Vedanta tradition, merely attempting to reform it from within. Finally, at a global level, neo-Vedanta colonizes the religious traditions of the world by arguing for the centrality of a non-dualistic position as the philosophia perennis underlying all cultural differences."
- Michaels: "At the time of upheaval [500-200 BCE], many elements of the Vedic religion were lost".
- Hiltebeitel: "The emerging self-definitions of Hinduism were forged in the context of continuous interaction with heterodox religions (Buddhists, Jains, Ajivikas) throughout this whole period, and with foreign people (Yavanas, or Greeks; Sakas, or Scythians; Pahlavas, or Parthians; and Kusanas, or Kushans) from the third phase on [between the Mauryan empire and the rise of the Guptas].
- Larson: "[I]n contrast to the sruti, which "Hindus for the most part pay little more than lip service to."
- *In the east the Pala Empire (770–1125 CE),
- in the west and north the Gurjara-Pratihara (7th–10th century),
- in the southwest the Rashtrakuta Dynasty (752–973),
- in the Dekkhan the Chalukya dynasty (7th–8th century),
- and in the south the Pallava dynasty (7th–9th century) and the Chola dynasty (9th century).
- This resembles the development of Chinese Chán during the An Lu-shan rebellion and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (907–960/979), during which power became decentralised end new Chán-schools emerged.
- The king who ruled not by conquest but by setting in motion the wheel of law.
- Inden: "before the eighth century, the Buddha was accorded the position of universal deity and ceremonies by which a king attained to imperial status were elaborate donative ceremonies entailing gifts to Buddhist monks and the installation of a symbolic Buddha in a stupa....This pattern changed in the eighth century. The Buddha was replaced as the supreme, imperial deity by one of the Hindu gods (except under the Palas of eastern India, the Buddha's homeland)...Previously the Buddha had been accorded imperial-style worship (puja). Now as one of the Hindu gods replaced the Buddha at the imperial centre and pinnacle of the cosmo-political system, the image or symbol of the Hindu god comes to be housed in a monumental temple and given increasingly elaborate imperial-style puja worship."
- Gaudapada, the teacher of Shankara's teacher Govinda Bhagavatpada, took over the Buddhist doctrines that ultimate reality is pure consciousness (vijñapti-mātra) and "that the nature of the world is the four-cornered negation". Gaudapada "wove [both doctrines] into a philosophy of the 'Mandukaya Upanisad, which was further developed by Shankara". Gaudapada also took over the Buddhist concept of "ajāta" from Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka philosophy, which uses the term "anutpāda".
- The tendency of "a blurring of philosophical distinctions" has also been noted by Burley. Lorenzen locates the origins of a distinct Hindu identity in the interaction between Muslims and Hindus, and a proces of "mutual self-definition with a contrasting Muslim other", which started well before 1800. Both the Indian and the European thinkers who developed the term "Hinduism" in the 19th century were influenced by these philosophers.
- This conjunction of nationalism and religion is not unique to India. The complexities of Asian nationalism are to be seen and understood in the context of colonialism, modernization and nation-building. See, for example, Anagarika Dharmapala, for the role of Theravada Buddhism in Sri Lankese struggle for independence, and D.T. Suzuki, who conjuncted Zen to Japanese nationalism and militarism, in defense against both western hegemony and the pressure on Japanese Zen during the Meiji Restoration to conform to Shinbutsu Bunri.
- Toropov and Buckles: The members of various Hindu sects worship a dizzying number of specific deities and follow innumerable rituals in honor of specific gods. Because this is Hinduism, however, its practitioners see the profusion of forms and practices as expressions of the same unchanging reality. The panoply of deities are understood by believers as symbols for a single transcendent reality.
- For translation of deva in singular noun form as "a deity, god", and in plural form as "the gods" or "the heavenly or shining ones", see: Monier-Williams 2001, ទ. 492. In fact, there are different ranks among the devas. The highest are the immortal Mahadevas, such as Shiva, Vishnu, etc. The second-rank devas, such as Ganesha, are described as their offspring: they are "born", and their "lifespan" is quite limited. In ISKCON the word is translated as "demigods", although it can also denote such heavenly denizens as gandharvas. See: "Vedic cosmology"។ Vedic Knowledge Online។ VEDA - Bhaktivedanta Book Trust។ http://www.veda.harekrsna.cz/planetarium/index.htm។ បានយកមក 2007-06-25។ . For translation of devatā as "godhead, divinity", see: Monier-Williams 2001, ទ. 495.
- ॐ असतो मा सद्गमय । तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय
- Tamil Hindus add Skanda)[web ២២]
- Venkataraman and Deshpande: "Caste-based discrimination does exist in many parts of India today.... Caste-based discrimination fundamentally contradicts the essential teaching of Hindu sacred texts that divinity is inherent in all beings."[web ២៦]
- Flood 2008, p. 1-17.
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- See Michaels 2004, ទ. xiv and Gill, N.S។ "Henotheism"។ About, Inc។ http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/egyptmyth/g/henotheism.htm។ បានយកមក 2007-07-05។
- Kenneth, Kramer (1986), World scriptures: an introduction to comparative religions, ទ. 34, ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-8091-2781-8, http://books.google.com/books?id=RzUAu-43W5oC&pg=PA34
- Monier-Williams 1974, ទទ. 20–37
- & Bhaskarananda 1994
- Vivekananda 1987
- Werner 1994, ទ. p37
- See Theistic Explanations of Karma, pg. 146 of Causation and Divine Intervention by BR Reichenbach, citing Uddyotakara, Nyaayavaarttika, IV, 1, 21, at http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/reiche2.htm
- Reichenbach, Bruce R. (April 1989), "Karma, causation, and divine intervention", Philosophy East and West (Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press) 39 (2): 135–149 , អ.វ.ល.:10.2307/1399374, http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/reiche2.htm, បានយកមក 2009-12-29.
- Neville, Robert (2001), Religious truth, ទ. 47, ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-7914-4778-9, http://books.google.com/books?id=ThLR13JpCWsC
- Werner 1994, ទ. 7
- Lisa Hark, Lisa Hark, PH.D., R.D., Horace DeLisser, MD (7 September 2011)។ Achieving Cultural Competency។ John Wiley & Sons។ "Three gods, Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, and other deities are considered manifestations of and are worshipped as incarnations of Brahman."
- John McCannon (1 January 2006)។ World History Examination។ Barron's Educational Series។ "In addition to the Brahman, Hinduism recognizes literally hundreds of gods and goddesses. Thus, Hinduism is a polytheistic religion. However, Hindus consider all deities to be avatars, or incarnations of the Brahman."
- Toropov 2011.
- Orlando O. Espín, James B. Nickoloff (2007)។ An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies។ Liturgical Press។ "The devas are powerful spiritual beings, somewhat like angels in the West, who have certain functions in the cosmos and live immensely long lives. Certain devas, such as Ganesha, are regularly worshiped by the Hindu faithful. Note that, while Hindus believe in many devas, many are monotheistic to the extent that they will recognize only one Supreme Being, a God or Goddess who is the source and ruler of the devas."
- The Popular Encyclopædia។ Blackie & Son។ 1841។ ទំ. 61។ http://books.google.com/books?id=brMrAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA61&dq=Brahman+Supreme+Being+Incarnations&hl=en&sa=X&ei=GdP3T93pJI3U6QHpo-32Bg&ved=0CDIQ6AEwADgU#v=onepage&q=Brahman%20Supreme%20Being%20Incarnations&f=false។
- The Lord'S Song Gita, Dr. Sant K. Bhatnagar, Pustak Mahal, 2009, ISBN 978-81-223-1032-0
- Sen Gupta 1986, ទ. viii
- Rajadhyaksha (1959), The six systems of Indian philosophy, ទ. 95, http://books.google.com/books?id=ihkRAQAAIAAJ, "Under the circumstances God becomes an unnecessary metaphysical assumption. Naturally the Sankhyakarikas do not mention God, Vachaspati interprets this as rank atheism."
- Neville, Robert (2001), Religious truth, ទ. 51, ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-7914-4778-9, http://books.google.com/books?id=ThLR13JpCWsC, "Mimamsa theorists (theistic and atheistic) decided that the evidence allegedly proving the existence of God was insufficient. They also thought there was no need to postulate a maker for the world, just as there was no need for an author to compose the Veda or an independent God to validate the Vedic rituals."
- Coward, Harold (February 2008), The perfectibility of human nature in eastern and western thought, ទ. 114, ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-7914-7336-8, http://books.google.com/books?id=LkE_8uch5P0C, "For the Mimamsa the ultimate reality is nothing other than the eternal words of the Vedas. They did not accept the existence of a single supreme creator god, who might have composed the Veda. According to the Mimamsa, gods named in the Vedas have no existence apart from the mantras that speak their names. The power of the gods, then, is nothing other than the power of the mantras that name them."
- Werner 1994, ទ. 80
- Renou 1961, ទ. 55
- Harman 2004, ទទ. 104–106
- * Apte, Vaman S (1997), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". The Student's English-Sanskrit Dictionary] (New រ.រ.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas, ល.ស.ប.អ. 81-208-0300-0, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�".
- Smith 1991, ទ. 64
- Radhakrishnan 1996, ទ. 254
- Bhagavad Gita 2.22
- See Bhagavad Gita XVI.8-20
- See Vivekananda, Swami (2005), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". Jnana Yoga], Kessinger Publishing, ល.ស.ប.អ. 1-4254-8288-0, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". 301-02 (8th Printing 1993)
- Rinehart 2004, ទទ. 19–21
- Bhaskarananda 1994, ទទ. 79–86
- Europa Publications Staff (2003), The Far East and Australasia, 2003 - Regional surveys of the world, Routledge, ទ. 39, ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-1-85743-133-9, http://books.google.com/?id=e5Az1lGCJwQC&pg=PA39
- Hindu spirituality - Volume 25 of Documenta missionalia, Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 1999, ទ. 1, ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-88-7652-818-7, http://books.google.com/?id=58UZWWzqglMC
- The Christian concepts of Heaven and Hell do not translate directly into Hinduism. Spiritual realms such as Vaikunta (the abode of Vishnu) or loka are the closest analogues to an eternal Kingdom of God.
- Nikhilananda 1992
- as discussed in Mahābhārata 12.161; Bilimoria et al. (eds.), Indian Ethics: Classical Traditions and Contemporary Challenges (2007), p. 103; see also Werner 1994, Bhaskarananda 1994, ទ. 7
- [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". The Philosophy of Hinduism : Four Objectives of Human Life ; Dharma (Right Conduct), Artha (Right Wealth), Kama (Right Desire), Moksha (Right Exit (Liberation))], Pustak Mahal, 2006, ល.ស.ប.អ. 81-223-0945-3, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�".
- Swami Prabhupādā, A. C. Bhaktivedanta (1986), Bhagavad-gītā as it is, The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, ទ. 16, ល.ស.ប.អ. 9780892132683, http://books.google.com/?id=dSA3hsIq5dsC&pg=PA16&dq=Sanatana+dharma#v=onepage&q=%22neither%20beginning%20nor%20end%22&f=false
- Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli (1973)។ The Hindu view of life។ Pennsylvania State University: Macmillan។ ទំ. 92។ http://books.google.co.in/books?ei=wClWT8uXDITJrQeAycmNBw&id=pfDZAAAAMAAJ&dq=Hinduism+Artha+radhakrishnan&q=Artha#search_anchor។
- Sivaraman, Krishna (1997)។ Hindu spirituality: an encyclopedic history of the religious quest. Postclassical and modern, Volume 2។ The Crossroad Publishing Co.,។ ទំ. 584 pages។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 9780824507558។ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=xPYp7_kMBK4C&pg=PA136&dq=Hinduism+Artha&hl=en&sa=X&ei=kylWT9DGDM_IrQeh8emVBw&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBTge#v=snippet&q=%22worldy%20prosperity%22%3B%20business%20matter&f=false។
- Kodayanallur, Vanamamalai Soundara Rajan។ Concise classified dictionary of Hinduism។ Concept Publishing Company។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 9788170228578។ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=k9BJcFvJ_acC&pg=PA156&dq=Hinduism+Artha&hl=en&sa=X&ei=JylWT87wEszhrAecybGVBw&ved=0CGAQ6AEwCDgK#v=snippet&q=%22The%20Artha%20sastra%20of%20Kautilya%22&f=false។
- Macy, Joanna (1975)។ "The Dialectics of Desire"។ Numen (BRILL) 22 (2): 145–60។ JSTOR 3269765។
- Kishore, B. R. (2001)។ Hinduism។ Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd។ ទំ. 152។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 9788128800825។ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=t3WzDipk9xwC&pg=PA40&dq=Hinduism+Moksha&hl=en&sa=X&ei=7jRWT67TF4nNrQfflcCyBw&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=%22Liberation%20or%20Moksha%22&f=false។
- Bhaskarananda 1994
- For example, see the following translation of B-Gita 11.54: "My dear Arjuna, only by undivided devotional service can I be understood as I am, standing before you, and can thus be seen directly. Only in this way can you enter into the mysteries of My understanding." (Bhaktivedanta 1997, ch. 11.54)
- "One who knows that the position reached by means of analytical study can also be attained by devotional service, and who therefore sees analytical study and devotional service to be on the same level, sees things as they are." (Bhaktivedanta 1997, ch. 5.5)
- Monier-Williams 1974, ទ. 116
- Vivekananda 1987, ទទ. 6–7 Vol I
- Vivekananda 1987, ទទ. 118–120 Vol III
- Sargeant & Chapple 1984, ទ. 3
- Nikhilananda 1990, ទទ. 3–8
- Rinehart 2004, p. 68.
- Flood 2008, p. 4.
- Note: Nyaya-Vaisheshika believe that the Vedas were created by God, not eternal.
- Harshananda, Swami (1989), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". A Bird's Eye View of the Vedas, in "Holy Scriptures: A Symposium on the Great Scriptures of the World"] (2nd រ.រ.), Mylapore: Sri Ramakrishna Math, ល.ស.ប.អ. 81-7120-121-0, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�".
- Vivekananda 1987, ទ. 374 Vol II
- Rigveda is not only the oldest among the vedas, but is one of the earliest Indo-European texts.
- Werner 1994, ទ. 166
- Monier-Williams 1974, ទទ. 25–41
- Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.3.28
- Sarvopaniṣado gāvo, etc. (Gītā Māhātmya 6). Gītā Dhyānam, cited in Introduction to Bhagavad-gītā As It Is.
- Thomas B. Coburn, Scripture" in India: Towards a Typology of the Word in Hindu Life, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 52, No. 3 (September, 1984), pp. 435-459
- Sawant, Ankush (1996), Manu-smriti and Republic of Plato: a comparative and critical study, Himalaya Pub. House, http://books.google.com/?id=WnLaAAAAMAAJ
- Radhakrishnan 1993, p. 119
- The Bhagavad Gita, Eknath Easwaran, Edition 2, Nilgiri Press, 2007, ISBN 978-1-58638-019-9
- Werner 1994, ទ. 73
- Banerji 1992, ទ. 2
- Hacker, Paul; Halbfass, Wilhelm (1995), Philology and Confrontation: Paul Hacker on Traditional and Modern Vedānta, SUNY Press, ទ. 264, ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-7914-2581-7, http://books.google.com/books?id=k91ZnWPTwXoC&pg=PA264
- Sri Aurobindo (2000), Essays On The Gita, Sri Aurobindo Ashram Publ., ទ. 517, ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-81-7058-613-5, http://books.google.com/books?id=gZ6zz981EQoC&pg=PA517
- Cornelissen, R. M. Matthijs; Misra, Girishwar; Varma, Suneet (2011), Foundations of Indian Psychology Volume 2: Practical Applications, Pearson Education India, ទ. 116, ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-81-317-3085-0, http://books.google.com/books?id=BkkgeKXyiOIC&pg=PA116
- Silverberg 1969, ទទ. 442–443
- Smelser & Lipset 2005
- Smith, Huston (1994)។ "Hinduism: The Stations of Life"។ The Illustrated World's Religions។ New York, New York, USA: HarperCollins។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-06-067440-7។
- Michaels 2004, ទទ. 188–197
- de Zwart, Frank (July 2000)។ "The Logic of Affirmative Action: Caste, Class and Quotas in India"។ Acta Sociologica 43 (3): 235–249។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1177/000169930004300304។ JSTOR 4201209។
- Nikhilananda 1992, ទ. 155
- P. 143 Aspects Of Hindu Morality By Saral Jhingran
- S.S. Rama Rao Pappu, "Hindu Ethics", in Rinehart 2004, ទទ. 165–168
- Bhaskarananda 1994, ទ. 112
- Michaels 2004, ទ. 316
- Rig 1.162.2
- Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith (2003). The Vedas: With Illustrative Extracts, p.56-66. Book Tree. ISBN 1585092231 
- A. B. Gajendragadkar and R. D. Karmarkar (editors). The Arthasamgraha of Laugaksi Bhaskara, p.34 
- AB Keith. The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads, p.324-326 
- Ramanuj Prasad. Vedas A Way Of Life, p.32
- Arthur Berriedale Keith and Ralph T.H. Griffith. The Yajur Veda, iii.2.2 - iii.2.3 
- Wout Jac. van Bekkum, Jan Houben, Ineke Sluiter and Kees Versteegh, (1997). The Emergence of Semantics in Four Linguistic Traditions: Hebrew, Sanskrit, Greek, Arabic, p.77 
- The texts of the White Yajurveda, p.212-223
- Arthur Berriedale Keith and Ralph T.H. Griffith. The Yajur Veda, i.8.17 
- Dale McGowan (editor), (2012). Voices of Unbelief: Documents from Atheists and Agnostics, p.10  ISBN 1598849786
- Monier-Williams, Religious Thought and Life in India (New Delhi, 1974 edition)
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- For ahiṃsā as one of the "emerging ethical and religious issues" in the Mahābhārata see: Brockington, John, "The Sanskrit Epics", in Flood (2003), p. 125.
- For text of Y.S. 2.29 and translation of yama as "vow of self-restraint", see: Taimni, I. K. (1961), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". The Science of Yoga], Adyar, India: The Theosophical Publishing House, ល.ស.ប.អ. 81-7059-212-7, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". , p. 206.
- Surveys studying food habits of Indians include: "Diary and poultry sector growth in India", "Indian consumer patterns" and "Agri reform in India". Results indicate that Indians who eat meat do so infrequently with less than 30% consuming non-vegetarian foods regularly, although the reasons may be economical.
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- Walker 1968:257
- Richman 1988:272
- Narayanan, Vasudha. “The Hindu Tradition”. In A Concise Introduction to World Religions, ed. Willard G. Oxtoby and Alan F. Segal. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007
- Williams, Raymond. An Introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism. 1st. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 159
- Rosen, Steven. Essential Hinduism. 1st. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2006. Page 188
- Harold F., Smith (1 Jan 2007), [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". "12"], Outline of Hinduism, Read Books, ល.ស.ប.អ. 1-4067-8944-5, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�".
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- Changing the Game: Why the Battle for Animal Liberation Is So Hard and How We Can Win It By Norm Phelps
- P. 250 Educational Opportunities in Integrative Medicine: The a to Z Healing Arts Guide and Professional Resource Directory By Douglas A. Wengell
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- Resources for Scholars and Students
- Encyclopædia Britannica, Hinduism
- All About Hinduism by Swami Sivananda (pdf)
- Heart of Hinduism: An overview of Hindu traditions
- Information on Hinduism or Santana dharma
- Ethical Democracy Journal - Notes on Hinduism
- Religious Tolerance page on Hinduism
- Paper on Hinduism by Swami Vivekananda - Presented at World Parliament of Religion in 1893 (Text + Audio Version)
- Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies Lectures and seminars in MP3 audio format by the OCHS as reference material for scholars and students.