ដែក

ដោយវិគីភីឌា
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Iron
26Fe
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Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
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Fe

Ru
manganeseironcobalt
Iron នៅក្នុងតារាងខួបនៃធាតុគីមី
រូបរាង
lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge
A rough wedge of silvery metal

Spectral lines of iron
លក្ខណៈទូទៅ
ឈ្មោះ, និមិត្តសញ្ញា, លេខ iron, Fe, 26
Pronunciation /ˈ.ərn/
Element category transition metal
ក្រុម, ខួប, block 8, 4, d
ទម្ងន់អាតូម 55.845(2)
លេខអេឡិចត្រុង [Ar] 3d6 4s2
2, 8, 14, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
ដង់ស៊ីតេ (near r.t.) 7.874 g·cm−3
ដង់ស៊ីតេអង្គធាតុរាវ នៅ ចំណុចរលាយ 6.98 g·cm−3
ចំណុចរលាយ 1811 K, 1538 °C, 2800 °F
ចំណុចរំពុះ 3134 K, 2862 °C, 5182 °F
Heat of fusion 13.81 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 340 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 25.10 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1728 1890 2091 2346 2679 3132
Atomic properties
ចំនួនអុកស៊ីតកម្ម 6, 5,[១] 4, 3, 2, 1[២], -1, -2
(amphoteric oxide)
អេឡិចត្រូនេកាទីវ 1.83 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 762.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1561.9 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2957 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 126 pm
Covalent radius 132±3 (low spin), 152±6 (high spin) pm
Miscellanea
ទម្រង់គ្រីស្តាល body-centered cubic

a=286.65 pm;
face-centered cubic

between 1185–1667 K
Magnetic ordering ferromagnetic
1043 K
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 96.1 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 80.4 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 11.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) (electrolytic)
5120 m·s−1
Young's modulus 211 GPa
Shear modulus 82 GPa
Bulk modulus 170 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.29
Mohs hardness 4
Vickers hardness 608 MPa
Brinell hardness 490 MPa
CAS registry number 7439-89-6
History
Discovery before 5000 BC
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of iron
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
54Fe 5.8% >3.1×1022 y β+β+ 0.6800 54Cr
55Fe syn 2.73 y ε 0.231 55Mn
56Fe 91.72% 56Fe is stable with 30 neutrons
57Fe 2.2% 57Fe is stable with 31 neutrons
58Fe 0.28% 58Fe is stable with 32 neutrons
59Fe syn 44.503 d β 1.565 59Co
60Fe syn 2.6×106 y β 3.978 60Co
· references

ដែក គឺជាធាតុគីមីមួយដែលមាននិមិត្តសញ្ញា Fe (from ឡាតាំងferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element (by mass) forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Iron's very common presence in rocky planets like Earth is due to its abundant production as a result of fusion in high-mass stars, where the production of nickel-56 (which decays to the most common isotope of iron) is the last nuclear fusion reaction that is exothermic. This causes radioactive nickel to become the last element to be produced before collapse of a supernova leads to the explosive events that scatter this precursor radionuclide of iron abundantly into space.

Like other group 8 elements, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +6, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust. Unlike many other metals which form passivating oxide layers, iron oxides occupy more volume than iron metal, and thus iron oxides flake off and expose fresh surfaces for corrosion.

Iron metal has been used since ancient times, though copper alloys, which have lower melting temperatures, were used first in history. Pure iron is soft (softer than aluminium), but is unobtainable by smelting. The material is significantly hardened and strengthened by impurities from the smelting process, such as carbon. A certain proportion of carbon (between 0.002% and 2.1%) produces steel, which may be up to 1000 times harder than pure iron. Crude iron metal is produced in blast furnaces, where ore is reduced by coke to pig iron, which has a high carbon content. Further refinement with oxygen reduces the carbon content to the correct proportion to make steel. Steels and low carbon iron alloys with other metals (alloy steels) are by far the most common metals in industrial use, due to their great range of desirable properties and the abundance of iron.

Iron chemical compounds, which include ferrous and ferric compounds, have many uses. Iron oxide mixed with aluminium powder can be ignited to create a thermite reaction, used in welding and purifying ores. It forms binary compounds with the halogens and the chalcogens. Among its organometallic compounds is ferrocene, the first sandwich compound discovered.

Iron plays an important role in biology, forming complexes with molecular oxygen in hemoglobin and myoglobin; these two compounds are common oxygen transport proteins in vertebrates. Iron is also the metal used at the active site of many important redox enzymes dealing with cellular respiration and oxidation and reduction in plants and animals.


មើលផងដែរ[កែប្រែ]

ឯកសារយោង[កែប្រែ]

  1. Demazeau, G.; Buffat, B.; Pouchard, M.; Hagenmuller, P. (1982)។ "Recent developments in the field of high oxidation states of transition elements in oxides stabilization of Six-coordinated Iron(V)"។ Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie 491: 60។ អ.វ.ល.:10.1002/zaac.19824910109 
  2. Ram, R. S. and Bernath, P. F. (2003)។ "Fourier transform emission spectroscopy of the g4Δ-a4Δ system of FeCl"Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 221 (2): 261។ Bibcode 2003JMoSp.221..261Rអ.វ.ល.:10.1016/S0022-2852(03)00225-Xhttp://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/266.pdf 

Bibliography[កែប្រែ]

  • Weeks, Mary Elvira; Leichester, Henry M. (1968)។ "Elements Known to the Ancients"។ Discovery of the Elements។ Easton, PA: Journal of Chemical Education។ ទំ. 29–40។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-7661-3872-0LCCN 68-15217 

អានបន្ថែម[កែប្រែ]

  • H. R. Schubert, History of the British Iron and Steel Industry… to 1775 AD (Routledge, London, 1957)
  • R. F. Tylecote, History of Metallurgy (Institute of Materials, London 1992).
  • R. F. Tylecote, "Iron in the Industrial Revolution" in J. Day and R. F. Tylecote, The Industrial Revolution in Metals (Institute of Materials 1991), 200–60.

តំណភ្ជាប់ខាងក្រៅ[កែប្រែ]

វិគីនានុក្រមខ្មែរ
វិគីនានុក្រមខ្មែរមានអត្ថន័យពាក្យ ​អំពី:

ទំព័រគំរូ:Iron compounds