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អត្ថបទនេះគឺជាផ្នែកនៃភាគបន្ត:
នយោបាយ និង រដ្ឋាភិបាល
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ប្រទេសថៃបែងចែកជា៧៦ ខេត្ត (ថៃจังหวัด; ព.ប.ប.ស.ថ: changwat)។ រាជធានីបាងកក ជាតំបន់រដ្ឋបាលពិសេសមួយ។ ខេត្តជាផ្នែករដ្ឋបាលមួយ ហៅថាអភិបាលខេត្ត and one special administrative area representing the capital Bangkok. The provinces are part of the provincial government, whilst Bangkok is part of the local government.

ខេត្ត[កែប្រែ]


ទំព័រគំរូ:Provinces of Thailand Image Map

ឈ្មោះ ទីរួមចង្វាត-ក្រុង ចំនួនប្រជាជន Area (km²) ដង់ស៊ីតេប្រជាជន Largest Metropolitan Area Abbr. ISO FIPS
Seal Bangkok.png បាងកក (ក្រុងទេពមហានគរ)
ស្រុកអភិបាលពិសេស
បាងកក 5,701,394 1,568.7 3,634.5 តំបន់ទីក្រុងមេបាងកក BKK TH-10 TH40
អំណាចច្រើន អំណត់ចម្រើន 372,137 3,161.2 117.7 អំណត់ចម្រើន ACR TH-37 TH77
Seal Ang Thong.png អាងទង អាងទង 284,970 968.4 294.3 អាងទង ATG TH-15 TH35
Seal Bueng Kan.png បឹងកាល បឹងកាល 385,053 4,305 89.4 បឹងកាល --- TH-38 ---
Seal Buriram.png បុរីរម្យ បុរីរម្យ 1,553,765 10,322.9 150.5 បុរីរម្យ BRM TH-31 TH28
Seal Chachoengsao.png ស្ទឹងជ្រៅ ស្ទឹងជ្រៅ 673,933 5,351.0 125.9 ស្ទឹងជ្រៅ CCO TH-24 TH44
Seal Chainat.png ជ័យនាថ ជ័យនាថ 334,934 2,469.7 135.6 ជ័យនាថ CNT TH-18 TH32
Seal Chaiyaphum.png ជ័យភូមិ ជ័យភូមិ 1,127,423 12,778.3 88.2 ជ័យភូមិ CPM TH-36 TH26
Seal Chanthaburi.png ចន្ទបុរី ចន្ទបុរី 514,616 6,338.0 81.2 ចន្ទបុរី CTI TH-22 TH48
Seal Chiang Mai.png ជើងថ្មី ជើងថ្មី 1,640,479 20,107.0 81.6 ជើងថ្មី CMI TH-50 TH02
Seal Chiang Rai.png ជើងរាយ ជើងរាយ 1,198,218 11,678.4 102.6 ជើងរាយ CRI TH-57 TH03
Seal Chonburi.png ជលបុរី ជលបុរី 1,316,293 4,363.0 301.7 ព័ទ្យា CBI TH-20 TH46
Seal Chumphon.png ជុំពរ ជុំពរ 489,964 6,009.0 81.5 ជុំពរ CPN TH-86 TH58
Seal Kalasin.png កាលសិន្ធុ កាលសិន្ធុ 982,578 6,946.7 141.4 កាលសិន្ធុ KSN TH-46 TH23
Seal Kamphaeng Phet.png កំពែងពេជ្រ កំពែងពេជ្រ 727,093 8,607.5 84.5 កំពែងពេជ្រ KPT TH-62 TH11
Seal Kanchanaburi.png កញ្ចនបុរី កញ្ចនបុរី 839,776 19,483.2 43.1 កញ្ចនបុរី KRI TH-71 TH50
Seal Khon Kaen.png ខនកែន ខនកែន 1,767,601 10,886.0 162.4 ខនកែន KKN TH-40 TH22
Seal Krabi.png ក្រៈបី ក្រៈបី 432,704 4,708.5 91.9 ក្រៈបី KBI TH-81 TH63
Seal Lampang.png ល្ខោន ល្ខោន 761,949 12,534.0 60.8 ល្ខោន LPG TH-52 TH06
Seal Lamphun.png លាំពូន លាំពូន 404,560 4,505.9 89.8 លាំពូន LPN TH-51 TH05
Seal Loei.png លេយ លេយ 624,066 11,424.6 54.6 លេយ LEI TH-42 TH18
Seal Lopburi.png លវបុរី លវបុរី 755,854 6,199.8 121.9 លវបុរី LRI TH-16 TH34
Seal Mae Hong Son.png មេហងសន មេហងសន 242,742 12,681.3 19.1 មេហងសន MSN TH-58 TH01
Seal Maha Sarakham.png មហាសារខាម មហាសារខាម 940,911 5,291.7 177.8 មហាសារខាម MKM TH-44 TH24
មុក្ដាហារ មុក្ដាហារ 339,575 4,339.8 78.2 មុក្ដាហារ MDH TH-49 TH78
Seal Nakhon Nayok.png នគរនាយក នគរនាយក 252,734 2,122.0 119.1 នគរនាយក NYK TH-26 TH43
Seal Nakhon Pathom.png នគរបឋម នគរបឋម 860,246 2,168.3 396.7 នគរបឋម NPT TH-73 TH53
Seal Nakhon Phanom.png នគរភ្នំ នគរភ្នំ 703,392 5,512.7 127.6 នគរភ្នំ NPM TH-48 TH73
Seal Nakhon Ratchasima.png នគររាជសីមា នគររាជសីមា 2,582,089 20,494.0 126.0 នគររាជសីមា NMA TH-30 TH27
Seal Nakhon Sawan.png នគរសួគ៌ នគរសួគ៌ 1,073,495 9,597.7 111.8 នគរសួគ៌ NSN TH-60 TH16
Seal Nakhon Si Thammarat.png នគរស្រីធម្មរាជ នគរស្រីធម្មរាជ 1,522,561 9,942.5 153.1 នគរស្រីធម្មរាជ NRT TH-80 TH64
Seal Nan.png នាន នាន 476,363 11,472.1 41.5 នាន NAN TH-55 TH04
នរាធិវាស នរាធិវាស 737,162 4,475.4 164.7 សុហ្ងៃកោលក NWT TH-96 TH31
Seal Nong Bua Lamphu.png ហ្នងប័វលាំភូ ហ្នងប័វលាំភូ 502,868 3,859.0 130.3 ហ្នងប័វលាំភូ NBP TH-39 TH79
Seal Nong Khai.png ហ្នងខាយ ហ្នងខាយ 912,937
#
3,027.0 124.5
#
ហ្នងខាយ NKI TH-43 TH17
Seal Nonthaburi.png នន្ទបុរី នន្ទបុរី 1,101,743 622.3 1,770.4 តំបន់ទីក្រុងមេបាងកក NBI TH-12 TH38
Seal Pathum Thani.png បឋមធានី បឋមធានី 985,643 1,525.9 645.9 តំបន់ទីក្រុងមេបាងកក PTE TH-13 TH39
Seal Pattani.png ប័ត្តានី ប័ត្តានី 655,259 1,940.4 337.7 ប័ត្តានី PTN TH-94 TH69
Seal Phang Nga.png ព័ង្ងា ព័ង្ងា 253,112 4,170.0 60.7 ទាយមឿង PNA TH-82 TH61
Seal Phatthalung.png ព័ទ្លុង ព័ទ្លុង 509,534 3,424.5 148.8 ព័ទ្លុង PLG TH-93 TH66
Seal Phayao.png ពៈយៅ ពៈយៅ 486,304 6,335.1 76.8 ពៈយៅ PYO TH-56 TH41
Seal Phetchabun.png ពេជ្របូរណ៍ ពេជ្របូរណ៍ 996,031 12,668.4 78.6 ពេជ្របូរណ៍ PNB TH-67 TH14
Seal Phetchaburi.png ពេជ្របុរី ពេជ្របុរី 464,033 6,225.1 74.5 ពេជ្របុរី PBI TH-76 TH56
Seal Phichit.png វិចិត្រ វិចិត្រ 552,690 4,531.0 122.0 វិចិត្រ PCT TH-66 TH13
ពិស្ណុលោក ពិស្ណុលោក 849,692 10,815.8 78.6 ពិស្ណុលោក PLK TH-65 TH12
Seal Ayutthaya.png ព្រះនគរស្រីអយុធ្យា ព្រះនគរស្រីអយុធ្យា 782,096 2,556.6 305.9 ព្រះនគរស្រីអយុធ្យា AYA TH-14 TH36
Seal Phrae.png ព្រែ ព្រែ 460,756 6,538.6 70.5 ព្រែ PRE TH-54 TH07
Seal Phuket.png ភូកេត ភូកេត 345,067 543.0 635.5 ភូកេត PKT TH-83 TH62
Seal Prachinburi.png បស្ចិមបុរី បស្ចិមបុរី 466,572 4,762.4 98.0 បស្ចិមបុរី PRI TH-25 TH74
Seal Prachuap Khiri Khan.png ប្រជួបគីរីខណ្ឌ ប្រជួបគីរីខណ្ឌ 509,134 6,367.6 80.0 ហួហិន PKN TH-77 TH57
Seal Ranong.png រៈនង រៈនង 183,079 3,298.0 55.5 រៈនង RNG TH-85 TH59
Seal Ratchaburi.png រាជបុរី រាជបុរី 839,075 5,196.5 161.5 រាជបុរី RBR TH-70 TH52
Seal Rayong.png រៈយង រៈយង 626,402 3,552.0 176.4 រៈយង RYG TH-21 TH47
Seal Roi Et.png រយឯក រយឯក 1,309,708 8,299.4 157.8 រយឯក RET TH-45 TH25
ស្រះកែវ ស្រះកែវ 485,632 7,195.1 75.6 ស្រះកែវ SKW TH-27 TH80
Seal Sakon Nakhon.png សកលនគរ សកលនគរ 1,122,905 9,605.8 116.9 សកលនគរ SNK TH-47 TH20
Seal Samut Prakan.png សមុទ្រប្រាការ សមុទ្រប្រាការ 1,185,180 1,004.1 1,180.3 តំបន់ទីក្រុងមេបាងកក SPK TH-11 TH42
Seal Samut Sakhon.png សមុទ្រសកល សមុទ្រសកល 491,887 872.3 563.9 សមុទ្រសកល SKN TH-74 TH55
Seal Samut Songkhram.png សមុទ្រសង្គ្រាម សមុទ្រសង្គ្រាម 194,057 416.7 465.7 សមុទ្រសង្គ្រាម SKM TH-75 TH54
Seal Saraburi.png ស្រះបុរី ស្រះបុរី 617,384 3,576.5 172.6 ស្រះបុរី SRI TH-19 TH37
Seal Satun.png ស្ថូល ស្ថូល 297,163 2,479.0 119.9 ស្ថូល STN TH-91 TH67
Seal Sing Buri.png សិង្ហបុរី សិង្ហបុរី 214,661 822.5 261.0 សិង្ហបុរី SBR TH-17 TH33
Seal Sisaket.png សិរីសាកេត សិរីសាកេត 1,452,471 8,840.0 164.3 សិរីសាកេត SSK TH-33 TH30
Seal Songkhla.png ស្ទឹងបុរ ស្ទឹងបុរ 1,357,023 7,393.9 183.5 ហាតហ្ញៃ SKA TH-90 TH68
Seal Sukhothai.png សុខោទ័យ សុខោទ័យ 601,778 6,596.1 91.2 សុខោទ័យ STI TH-64 TH09
Seal Suphanburi.png សុពណ៌បុរី សុពណ៌បុរី 845,950 5,358.0 157.9 សុពណ៌បុរី SPB TH-72 TH51
Seal Surat Thani.png សុរដ្ឋធានី សុរដ្ឋធានី 1,000,383 12,891.5 77.6 សុរដ្ឋធានី SNI TH-84 TH60
Seal Surin.png សុរិន្ទ សុរិន្ទ 1,381,761 8,124.1 170.1 សុរិន្ទ SRN TH-32 TH29
Seal Tak.png តាក តាក 525,684 16,406.6 32.0 មេស៊ក TAK TH-63 TH08
Seal Trang.png ត្រ័ង ត្រ័ង 622,659 4,917.5 126.6 ត្រ័ង TRG TH-92 TH65
Seal Trat.png ត្រាច ត្រាច 220,921 2,819.0 78.4 ត្រាច TRT TH-23 TH49
Seal Ubon Ratchathani.png ឧប្បលរាជធានី ឧប្បលរាជធានី 1,813,088 15,744.8 115.2 ឧប្បលរាជធានី UBN TH-34 TH75
Seal Udon Thani.png ឧត្តរធានី ឧត្តរធានី 1,544,786 11,730.3 131.7 ឧត្តរធានី UDN TH-41 TH76
ឧទ័យធានី ឧទ័យធានី 327,959 6,730.3 48.7 ឧទ័យធានី UTI TH-61 TH15
Seal Uttaradit.png ឧត្តរទិដ្ឋ ឧត្តរទិដ្ឋ 462,618 7,838.6 59.0 ឧត្តរទិដ្ឋ UTD TH-53 TH10
Seal Yala.png ជាល ជាល 487,380 4,521.1 107.8 ជាល YLA TH-95 TH70
យសោធរ យសោធរ 539,257 4,161.7 129.6 យសោធរ YST TH-35 TH72
# the population and population density figures for Nong Khai province include those for Bueng Kan province, which was split off from Nong Khai in 2011.

អភិបាលកិច្ច[កែប្រែ]

ក្នុងខេត្តនីមួយៗគ្រប់គ្រងដោយអភិបាលមួយរូប តាមរយៈក្រសួងមហាផ្ទៃ។ ដោយឡែងរាជធានីបាងកកត្រូវបានជ្រើសរើសតាមរយៈការបោះឆ្នោត។ Each province is administered by a governor, who is appointed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The only exception is the specially governed district Bangkok, whose governor is elected by its population.

The provinces are named by their original main city, which not necessarily is still the most populous city within the province today. Also, in several provinces the administration was moved into a new building outside the city.

History[កែប្រែ]

Before 1892[កែប្រែ]

Many provinces date back to semi-independent local chiefdoms or kingdoms, which made up the Ayutthaya kingdom. As today, the provinces were created around a capital city (mueang), and included surrounding villages or satellite towns. The provinces were administered either by a governor, who was appointed by the king; or by a local ruling family, who were descendants of the old local kings and princes of that area and had been given this privilege by the central king. De facto the king did not have much choice but to choose someone from the local nobility or an economically strong man, as against these local power groups the administration would have become impossible. The governor was not paid by the king, but instead financed himself and his administration by imposing taxes by himself, thus effectively a kleptocracy. Every province was required to send an annual tribute to Bangkok.

The provinces were divided into four different classes. The first class were the border provinces. The second class were those that once had their own princely house. Third class were provinces that were created recently by splitting them from other provinces. Fourth class were provinces near the capital. Additionally tributary states like the principalities of Lannathai, the Laotian kingdoms of Vientiane and Luang Prabang, Cambodia, or the Malay sultanate Kedah were also part of the country, but with an even higher autonomy than the provinces. In this Mandala system the semi-independent countries sometimes were tributary to more than one country.

New provinces were created when the population of an area outgrew the administration, but also for political reasons if a governor became too dominant in a region former satellite cities were elevated to provincial status, as in the founding of the Maha Sarakham Province.

Reforms of the provincial administration started in the 1870s under increased pressure from the colonial states of the United Kingdom and France. Especially to the areas near the borders commissionaries were sent to have a stronger control on the provinces or tributary states.

Administrative reform of 1892[កែប្រែ]

At the end of the 19th century King Chulalongkorn reformed the central government drastically. In 1892 the ministry, which previously had many overlapping responsibilities, was reorganized with clear areas as in western administrations. Prince Damrong Rajanubhab became minister of the Ministry of the North (Mahatthai), originally responsible for the northern administration. When the Ministry of the South (Kalahom) was dissolved in 1894, Prince Damrong became Minister of the Interior, responsible for the provincial administration of the whole country.

Starting in 1893 the already existing commissionarships in some parts of the country were renamed to superintendent commissioner (khaluang thesaphiban), and their area of responsibility was called monthon. In strategically important areas the monthon were created first, while in other areas the provinces kept their independence a bit longer. Several smaller provinces were reduced in status to a amphoe (district) or even lower to a tambon (subdistrict) and included in a neighboring province, sometimes for administrative reasons, but sometimes also to remove an uncooperative governor.

In some regions rebellions broke out against the new administrative system, usually induced by the local nobility fearing their loss of power. The most notable was the Holy Man rebellion in 1902 in Isan, which even though it was at first a messianic doomsday sect, it also attacked government representative in the North-East. The provincial town Khemarat was even burned by the rebels. After a few months the rebellion fought back.

After 1916 the word changwat became common to use for the provinces, partly to distinguish them from the provincial capital city (Mueang or Amphoe Mueang), but also to stress the new administrative structure of the provinces.[១]

When Prince Damrong resigned in 1915, the whole country was subdivided into 19 monthon (including the area around Bangkok, which was however under the responsibility of another ministry until 1922), with 72 provinces.

In December 1915 King Vajiravudh announced the creation of regions (phak), each administered by a viceroy (upparat), to cover several monthon. Until 1922 four regions were established, however in 1925 they were dissolved again. At the same time several monthon were merged, in an attempt to streamline the administration and reduce the costs.

Since 1932[កែប្រែ]

The monthon were finally dissolved when Thailand transformed from an absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy in 1932, making the provinces the top level administrative division again. Several smaller provinces were also abolished at that time. During World War II, several provinces around Bangkok were merged, which was however undone after the war. Also the occupied area from French Indochina was organized into four provinces - Phra Tabong, Phibunsongkhram, Nakhon Champasak and Lan Chang. The current province of Sukhothai was at first known as Sawankhalok; it was renamed to Sukhothai in 1939 (which is why the railway system goes to Sawankhalok city and not Sukhothai city). Also the province Kalasin was reestablished in 1947, after being dissolved in 1932.

In 1972 the two provinces Phra Nakhon and Thonburi were merged to form the special administrative area of Bangkok, which combines the tasks of the provinces with that of a municipality, including having an elected governor.

Starting in the second half of the 20th century some provinces were newly created by splitting them off from bigger provinces. In 1975, Yasothon province was split off from Ubon Ratchathani. In 1977, Phayao province was created from districts formerly part of Chiang Rai. In 1982, Mukdahan was split off from Nakhon Phanom. In 1993 three provinces were created: Sa Kaeo (split from Prachinburi), Nongbua Lamphu (split from Udon Thani), and Amnat Charoen (split from Ubon Ratchathani). The newest province is Bueng Kan, which was split off fron Nong Khai effective March 23, 2011.

See also[កែប្រែ]

Notes[កែប្រែ]

References[កែប្រែ]

External links[កែប្រែ]

ទំព័រគំរូ:Provinces of Thailand ទំព័រគំរូ:Articles on first-level administrative divisions of Asian countries