សង្គ្រាមអ៊ីរ៉ាក់

ពីវិគីភីឌា
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Iraq War
ផ្នែកនៃthe Iraqi conflict and the War on terror
Iraq War montage.png
Clockwise from top: US troops at Uday and Qusay Hussein's hideout; insurgents in northern Iraq; the toppling of the Saddam Hussein statue in Firdos Square
កាលបរិច្ឆេទ
  • ២០ ខែមីនា ២០០៣ – ១៥ ខែធ្នូ ២០១១ (២០០៣-០៣-២០ – ២០១១-១២-១៥)
    (8 years, 8 months and 26 days)
ទីតាំង Iraq
លទ្ធផល
ភាគីសង្គ្រាម
Invasion phase (2003)
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Australia
 Poland
អ៊ីរ៉ាក់ INC
KDP
PUK
Supported by:
 Netherlands[១៣]
 Italy[១៤]
 Spain[១៥]
Invasion phase (2003)
ទំព័រគំរូ:ទិន្នន័យប្រទេស Ba'athist Iraq
Ansar al-Islam
Post-invasion
(2003–11)

Iraq
 United States
 United Kingdom

Post-invasion (2003–11)
Ba'ath loyalists

Sunni insurgents


Shia insurgents

Supported by:
 អ៊ីរ៉ង់

មេបញ្ជាការ និង មេដឹកនាំ
Jalal Talabani
Ayad Allawi
Ibrahim al-Jaafari
Nouri al-Maliki
ហុល្លង់ Jan Peter Balkenende
Ricardo Sanchez
George W. Casey, Jr.
David Petraeus
Raymond T. Odierno
Lloyd Austin
George W. Bush
Barack Obama
Tommy Franks
Donald Rumsfeld
Robert Gates
Tony Blair
Gordon Brown
David Cameron
Roh Moo-hyun
John Howard
Kevin Rudd
Silvio Berlusconi
Romano Prodi
José María Aznar
Anders Fogh Rasmussen
Aleksander Kwaśniewski
Lech Kaczyński
អ៊ីរ៉ង់ Mohammad Salimi
អ៊ីរ៉ង់ Ataollah Salehi
អ៊ីរ៉ង់ Nasser Mohammadifar
អ៊ីរ៉ង់ Mohammad-Hossein Dadras
អ៊ីរ៉ង់ Ahmad Reza Pourdastan
Saddam Hussein (ន.ទ.ស.) Skull and crossbones.svg
Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri #
អ៊ីរ៉ាក់ Qusay Hussein 
អ៊ីរ៉ាក់ Uday Hussein 
អ៊ីរ៉ាក់ Abid Hamid Mahmud (ន.ទ.ស.) Skull and crossbones.svg
អ៊ីរ៉ាក់ Ali Hassan al-Majid (ន.ទ.ស.) Skull and crossbones.svg
អ៊ីរ៉ាក់ Barzan Ibrahim (ន.ទ.ស.) Skull and crossbones.svg
អ៊ីរ៉ាក់ Taha Yasin Ramadan (ន.ទ.ស.) Skull and crossbones.svg
អ៊ីរ៉ាក់ Tariq Aziz (ន.ទ.ស.)
អ៊ីរ៉ាក់ Mohammed Younis al-Ahmed

Sunni insurgency
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi 
Abu Ayyub al-Masri 
Abu Omar al-Baghdadi 
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi 
ឯកសារ:IAILogo.png Ishmael Jubouri
Abu Abdullah al-Shafi'i (ន.ទ.ស.)


Shia insurgency
Muqtada al-Sadr
Shiism arabic blue.svg Abu Deraa
ឯកសារ:Asa'ib Ahl Al-Haq flag.png Qais al-Khazali
Akram al-Kaabi
អ៊ីរ៉ង់ Yahya Rahim Safavi
អ៊ីរ៉ង់ Mohammad Ali Jafari
អ៊ីរ៉ង់ Qasem Soleimani[១៨]

កម្លាំង
Invasion forces (2003)
309,000
 United States: 192,000[១៩]
 United Kingdom: 45,000
 Australia: 2,000
 Poland: 194
ទំព័រគំរូ:ទិន្នន័យប្រទេស Kurdistan Peshmerga: 70,000

Coalition forces (2004–09)
176,000 at peak
United States Forces – Iraq (2010–11)
112,000 at activation
Security contractors 6,000–7,000 (estimate)[២០]
Iraqi security forces
805,269 (military and paramilitary: 578,269,[២១] police: 227,000)
Awakening militias
≈103,000 (2008)[២២]
Iraqi Kurdistan
≈400,000 (Kurdish Border Guard: 30,000,[២៣] Peshmerga 75,000)

Coat of arms (emblem) of Iraq 1991-2004.svg Iraqi Armed Forces: 375,000 (disbanded in 2003)
Iraqi Republican Guard Symbol.svg Special Iraqi Republican Guard: 12,000
Iraqi Republican Guard Symbol.svg Iraqi Republican Guard: 70,000–75,000
Fedayeen Saddam SSI.svg Fedayeen Saddam: 30,000

Sunni Insurgents
≈70,000 (2007)[២៤]
Al-Qaeda
≈1,300 (2006)[២៥]
Islamic State of Iraq
≈1,000 (2008)
Army of the Men of the Naqshbandi Order
≈500–1,000 (2007)

សហេតុភាព និង ការខាងបង់
Iraqi security forces (post-Saddam)

Killed: 17,690[២៦]
Wounded: 40,000+[២៧]
Coalition forces
Killed: 4,825 (4,507 US,[២៨] 179 U.K.,[២៩] 139 other)[៣០]
Missing/captured (US): 17 (9 died in captivity, 8 rescued)[៣១]
Wounded: 32,776+ (32,292 US,[៣២] 315 U.K., 210+ other[៣៣])[៣៤][៣៥][៣៦][៣៧] Injured/diseases/other medical*: 51,139 (47,541 US,[៣៨] 3,598 UK)[៣៤][៣៦][៣៧]
Contractors
Killed: 1,554[៣៩][៤០]
Wounded & injured: 43,880[៣៩][៤០]
Awakening Councils
Killed: 1,002+[៤១]
Wounded: 500+ (2007),[៤២] 828 (2008)[៤៣] Total dead: 25,071
Total wounded: 117,961

Iraqi combatant dead (invasion period): 5,388–10,800[៤៤][៤៥][៤៦]
Insurgents (post-Saddam)
Killed: 26,544 (2003–11)[៤៧]
(4,000 foreign fighters killed by Sep. 2006)[៤៨]
Detainees: 12,000 (Iraqi-held, in 2010 only)[៤៩]
119,752 insurgents arrested (2003–2007)[៥០]
Total dead: 31,608–37,344

Documented deaths from violence:
Iraq Body Count (2003 – 14 December 2011): 103,160–113,728 civilian deaths recorded[៥១] and 12,438 new deaths added from the Iraq War Logs[៥២]
Associated Press (March 2003 – April 2009): 110,600 Iraqi deaths in total[៥៣]


Statistical estimates
Lancet survey** (March 2003 – July 2006): 654,965 (95% CI: 392,979–942,636)[៥៤][៥៥]
Iraq Family Health Survey*** (March 2003 – July 2006): 151,000 (95% CI: 104,000–223,000)[៥៦]
Opinion Research Business**: (March 2003 – August 2007): 1,033,000 (95% CI: 946,258–1,120,000)[៥៧]
PLOS Medicine Study**: (March 2003 – June 2011): 405,000 (60% violent) (95% CI: 48,000–751,000)[៥៨]

For more information see Casualties of the Iraq War.

* "injured, diseased, or other medical": required medical air transport. UK number includes "aeromed evacuations".
** Total excess deaths include all additional deaths due to increased lawlessness, degraded infrastructure, poorer healthcare, etc.
*** Violent deaths only – does not include excess deaths due to increased lawlessness, poorer healthcare, etc.

ទំព័រគំរូ:Campaignbox Iraq Warទំព័រគំរូ:Campaignbox Persian Gulf Wars

សង្គ្រាមអ៊ីរ៉ាក់ គឺជាជម្លោះប្រដាប់អាវុធអូសបន្លាយក្នុងប្រទេសអ៊ីរ៉ាក់ពីឆ្នាំ 2003 ដល់ឆ្នាំ 2011 ដែលបានចាប់ផ្តើមជាមួយនឹងការឈ្លានពានអ៊ីរ៉ាក់ដោយក្រុមសម្ព័ន្ធដឹកនាំដោយសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក ដែលបានផ្តួលរំលំរដ្ឋាភិបាលអ៊ីរ៉ាក់របស់សាដាម ហ៊ូសេន ជម្លោះ​នេះ​បាន​បន្ត​អស់​រយៈពេល​ជាច្រើន​ទសវត្សរ៍​បន្ទាប់ ខណៈ​ការ​បះបោរ​មួយ​បាន​កើត​ឡើង​ដើម្បី​ប្រឆាំង​នឹង​កងកម្លាំង​ចម្រុះ និង​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​អ៊ីរ៉ាក់​ក្រោយ​ការ​ឈ្លានពាន[៥៩] ប្រជាជនអ៊ីរ៉ាក់ប្រមាណពី 151,000 ទៅ 1,033,000 នាក់បានស្លាប់នៅក្នុងជម្លោះពី 3 ទៅ 5 ឆ្នាំដំបូង ទាហាន​អាមេរិក​ត្រូវ​បាន​ដក​ចេញ​ជា​ផ្លូវ​ការ​ក្នុង​ឆ្នាំ 2011 សហរដ្ឋ​អាមេរិក​បាន​ចូល​រួម​ជាសម្ព័ន្ធថ្មី​ក្នុង​ឆ្នាំ 2014 នៅ​ក្នុង​ប្រធាន​ក្រុម​ចម្រុះ​ថ្មី ហើយ​ការ​បះបោរ និង​ទំហំ​ជាច្រើន​នៃ​ជម្លោះ​ប្រដាប់អាវុធ​បាន​បន្ត​រហូត​ដល់​សព្វថ្ងៃ ការលុកលុយបានកើតឡើងជាផ្នែករបស់សង្រ្គាមលើភេរវកម្មរបស់រដ្ឋបាល ចច ដាបឺលយូ ប៊ូស បន្ទាប់ពីការវាយប្រហារកាលពីថ្ងៃទី 11 ខែកញ្ញា ទោះបីជាមិនមានទំនាក់ទំនងរវាងការវាយប្រហារ និងអ៊ីរ៉ាក់ក៏ដោយ[៦០]

ឯកសារយោង[កែប្រែ]

  1. Michael Petrou (9 September 2011). "The decline of al-Qaeda".
  2. Spencer C. Tucker (14 December 2015). U.S. Conflicts in the 21st Century: Afghanistan War, Iraq War, and the War on Terror. ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-1440838798. "Al Qaeda in Iraq was decimated by the end of the Iraq War in 2011" 
  3. "The JRTN Movement and Iraq's Next Insurgency | Combating Terrorism Center at West Point". Ctc.usma.edu. https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/the-jrtn-movement-and-iraq%E2%80%99s-next-insurgency. 
  4. "Al-Qaeda's Resurgence in Iraq: A Threat to U.S. Interests". US Department of State. 5 February 2014. https://2009-2017.state.gov/p/nea/rls/rm/221274.htm. 
  5. Galbraith, Peter W. (2007). The End of Iraq: How American Incompetence Created a War Without End. Simon & Schuster. ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0743294249. [ទំព័រត្រូវការ]
  6. "Iran expands regional 'empire' ahead of nuclear deal". Reuters. 23 March 2015. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-iran-region-insight-idUSKBN0MJ1G520150323. 
  7. How to Stop Iran's Growing Hegemony – National Review Online National Review Online (10 April 2015)
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named us-army-iran-victor
  9. Iraqi protesters block major port near Basra as unrest continues Al Jazeera (2 November 2019)
  10. Anti-government protests : Is This Iraq's Arab Spring?—Qantara.de Qantara.de (6 November 2019)
  11. Protests in Iraq turn into anti-Iranian demonstrations Daily Sabah (27 October 2019)
  12. Ghaith Abdul-Ahad (29 October 2019) Iraq's young protesters count cost of a month of violence The Guardian
  13. Regering (12 January 2010) Rapport Commissie-Davids rijksoverheid.nl
  14. Il discorso di Berlusconi alla Camera Toscana Oggi
  15. Aznar faces 91% opposition to war The Guardian (29 March 2003)
  16. ទំព័រគំរូ:Cite AV mediaទំព័រគំរូ:Cbignore
  17. Operations By Iran's Military Mastermind – Business Insider Business Insider (9 July 2014)
  18. Operations By Iran's Military Mastermind – Business Insider Business Insider (9 July 2014)
  19. A Timeline of Iraq War, Troop Levels The Huffington Post
  20. Deputy Assistant Secretary for International Programs Charlene Lamb's Remarks on Private Contractors in Iraq. US Department of State (17 July 2009)
  21. International Institute for Strategic Studies; Hackett, James (ed.) (3 February 2010). The Military Balance 2010. London: Routledge. ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-1-85743-557-3. [ទំព័រត្រូវការ]
  22. Rubin, Alissa J.; Nordland, Rod (29 March 2009). "Troops Arrest an Awakening Council Leader in Iraq, Setting Off Fighting". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/29/world/middleeast/29iraq.html. 
  23. The Kurdish peshmerga forces will not be integrated into the Iraqi army: Mahmoud Sangawi — Interview. Ekurd.net (22 January 2010)
  24. The Brookings Institution Iraq Index: Tracking Variables of Reconstruction & Security in Post-Saddam Iraq Archived 2 October 2007 at the វេយប៊ែខ ម៉ាស៊ីន. 1 October 2007
  25. Pincus, Walter. "Violence in Iraq Called Increasingly Complex". The Washington Post, 17 November 2006.
  26. 260 killed in 2003,[១] 15,196 killed from 2004 through 2009 (with the exceptions of May 2004 and March 2009),[២] 67 killed in March 2009,[៣] 1,100 killed in 2010,[៤] and 1,067 killed in 2011,[៥] thus giving a total of 17,690 dead
  27. Iraq War. US Department of State
  28. The US DoD and the DMDC list 4,505 US fatalities during the Iraq War.[៦][៧] In addition to these, two service members were also previously confirmed by the DoD to have died while supporting operations in Iraq,[៨][៩] but have been excluded from the DoD and DMDC list. This brings the total of US fatalities in the Iraq War to 4,507.
  29. Fact Sheets | Operations Factsheets | Operations in Iraq: British Fatalities. Ministry of Defence of the United Kingdom
  30. Operation Iraqi Freedom. iCasualties
  31. "POW and MIA in Iraq and Afghanistan Fast Facts". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2013/10/30/world/pow-and-mia-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-fast-facts. ; As of July 2012, seven American private contractors remain unaccounted for. Their names are: Jeffrey Ake, Aban Elias, Abbas Kareem Naama, Neenus Khoshaba, Bob Hamze, Dean Sadek and Hussain al-Zurufi. Healy, Jack, "With Withdrawal Looming, Trails Grow Cold For Americans Missing In Iraq", The New York Times, 22 May 2011, p. 6.
  32. Casualty
  33. 33 Ukrainians,[១០] 31+ Italians,[១១][១២] 30 Bulgarians,[១៣][១៤] 20 Salvadorans,[១៥] 19 Georgians,[១៦] Archived 13 May 2011 at the វេយប៊ែខ ម៉ាស៊ីន. 18 Estonians,[១៧] 1421+ Poles,[១៨][១៩][២០] 15 Spaniards,[២១][២២] Archived 2 April 2019 at the វេយប៊ែខ ម៉ាស៊ីន. [២៣][២៤] 10 Romanians,[២៥] 6 Australians,[២៦] 5 Albanians, 4 Kazakhs,[២៧] 3 Filipinos,[២៨] and 2 Thais,[២៩][៣០] for a total of 210+ wounded
  34. ៣៤,០ ៣៤,១ Many official US tables at "Military Casualty Information" Archived 3 March 2011 at the វេយប៊ែខ ម៉ាស៊ីន.. See latest totals for injury, disease/other medical Archived 2 June 2011 at the វេយប៊ែខ ម៉ាស៊ីន.
  35. "Casualties in Iraq".
  36. ៣៦,០ ៣៦,១ iCasualties.org (was lunaville.org). Benicia, California. Patricia Kneisler, et al., "Iraq Coalition Casualties" Archived 21 March 2011 at the វេយប៊ែខ ម៉ាស៊ីន.
  37. ៣៧,០ ៣៧,១ "Defence Internet Fact Sheets Operations in Iraq: British Casualties" Archived 14 November 2006 at the វេយប៊ែខ ម៉ាស៊ីន.. UK Ministry of Defense. Latest combined casualty and fatality tables Archived 4 October 2012 at the វេយប៊ែខ ម៉ាស៊ីន..
  38. Archived copy
  39. ៣៩,០ ៣៩,១ Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) – Defense Base Act Case Summary by Nation. US Department of Labor
  40. ៤០,០ ៤០,១ T. Christian Miller (23 September 2009) US Government Private Contract Worker Deaths and Injuries. Projects.propublica.org (23 September 2009)
  41. 185 in Diyala from June 2007 to December 2007,[៣១] 4 in assassination of Abu Risha, 25 on 12 November 2007,[៣២] Archived 14 May 2013 at the វេយប៊ែខ ម៉ាស៊ីន. 528 in 2008,[៣៣] Archived 10 December 2016 at the វេយប៊ែខ ម៉ាស៊ីន. 27 on 2 January 2009,[៣៤] 13 on 16 November 2009,Archived copy 15 in December 2009,[៣៥] 100+ from April to June 2010,[៣៦] [៣៧] 52 on 18 July 2010,[៣៨] [៣៩]total of 1,002+ dead Archived 18 April 2009 at the វេយប៊ែខ ម៉ាស៊ីន.
  42. Moore, Solomon; Oppel, Richard A. (24 January 2008). "Attacks Imperil U.S.-Backed Militias in Iraq". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/24/world/middleeast/24sunni.html?_r=1&pagewanted=print. 
  43. Greg Bruno Finding a Place for the 'Sons of Iraq'. Council on Foreign Relations
  44. [៤០] // comw.org
  45. Press release (28 October 2003). "New Study Finds: 11,000 to 15,000 Killed in Iraq War; 30 Percent are Non-Combatants; Death Toll Hurts Postwar Stability Efforts, Damages US Image Abroad". Project on Defense Alternatives (via Common Dreams NewsCenter). Retrieved 2 September 2010. Archived 17 October 2006 at the វេយប៊ែខ ម៉ាស៊ីន.
  46. Conetta, Carl (23 October 2003). "The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict — Project on Defense Alternative Research Monograph #8". Project on Defense Alternatives (via Commonwealth Institute). Retrieved 2 September 2010.
  47. 597 killed in 2003,[៤១], 23,984 killed from 2004 through 2009 (with the exceptions of May 2004 and March 2009),[៤២] 652 killed in May 2004,[៤៣] 45 killed in March 2009,[៤៤] Archived 3 September 2009 at the វេយប៊ែខ ម៉ាស៊ីន. 676 killed in 2010,[៤៥] and 590 killed in 2011,[៤៦] thus giving a total of 26,544 dead
  48. "4,000 fighters killed, 'al-Qaida in Iraq' tape says." The Guardian. 28 September 2006.
  49. "Amnesty: Iraq holds up to 30,000 detainees without trial". CNN. 13 September 2010. http://articles.cnn.com/2010-09-13/world/iraq.detainees_1_detainees-iraqi-authorities-moussawi?_s=PM:WORLD. 
  50. "Insurgent body count documents released." Archived 27 July 2020 at the វេយប៊ែខ ម៉ាស៊ីន. Stars and Stripes. 1 October 2007. Number of convictions not specified.
  51. Iraq Body Count
  52. Iraq War Logs: What the numbers reveal. Iraq Body Count
  53. Kim Gamel (23 April 2009). "AP Impact: Secret tally has 87,215 Iraqis dead". Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/printer_friendly_wires/2009Apr23/0,4675,MLIraqDeathToll,00.html. 
  54. Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey  (242 KB). By Gilbert Burnham, Riyadh Lafta, Shannon Doocy, and Les Roberts. The Lancet, 11 October 2006
  55. The Human Cost of the War in Iraq: A Mortality Study, 2002–2006  (603 KB). By Gilbert Burnham, Shannon Doocy, Elizabeth Dzeng, Riyadh Lafta, and Les Roberts. A supplement to the October 2006 Lancet study. It is also found here: Archived copy [៤៧]
  56. "Iraq Family Health Survey" New England Journal of Medicine 31 January 2008
  57. Greenspan admits Iraq was about oil, as deaths put at 1.2m (in en) the Guardian (16 September 2007)
  58. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Hagopian
  59. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Utilities at line 60: bad argument #1 to 'ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
  60. Gordon, Michael; Trainor, Bernard (1 March 1995). The Generals' War: The Inside Story of the Conflict in the Gulf. New York: Little Brown & Co. https://archive.org/details/generalswarinsid00gord.