សង្គ្រាមឥណ្ឌូចិនលើកទី១

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សង្គ្រាមឥណ្ឌូចិនលើកទី១
ផ្នែកនៃសង្គ្រាមឥណ្ឌូចិន និងសង្គ្រាមត្រជាក់
First Indochina War COLLAGE.jpg
រូបពីឆ្វេងទៅស្តាំចុះក្រោម៖ បន្ទាប់ពីការដួលរលំនៃឌៀនបៀនភូ កងកម្លាំងឡាវបានដកថយឆ្លងកាត់ទន្លេមេគង្គចូលទៅក្នុងប្រទេសខ្លួនវិញ។ កងកុម្ម៉ង់ដូជើងទឹកបារាំងកំពុងបោះជំហានដើរឆ្លងឆ្នេរសមុទ្រនៅអាណ្ណាមក្នុងខែកក្កដា ឆ្នាំ១៩៥០។ រថក្រោះធន់ស្រាលអាមេរិកប្រភេទឆាហ្វី M២៤កំពុងបញ្ជាដោយទាហានបារាំងនៅវៀតណាម។ ទិដ្ឋភាពសន្ធិសីទទីក្រុងហ្សឺណេវនៅថ្ងៃទី២១ ខែកក្កដា ឆ្នាំ១៩៥៤។ យន្ដហោះ Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat មកពី Escadrille 1F ត្រៀមចុះចតលើនាវាដឹកយន្តហោះឈ្មោះ Arromanches (R95) ដែលកំពុងធ្វើប្រតិបត្តិការនៅឈូងសមុទ្រតុងកឹង។
កាលបរិច្ឆេទ ១៩ ធ្នូ ១៩៤៦ – ១ សីហា ១៩៥៤
(៧ឆ្នាំ, ៧ខែ, ១សប្តាហ៍, និង ៦ថ្ងៃ)
ទីតាំង សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន ភាគច្រើននៅវៀតណាមខាងជើង
លទ្ធផល ជ័យជម្នះរបស់វៀតមិញ
• ទឹកដីវៀតណាមត្រូវបានបែងចែកទៅជាពីរ៖ ខាងជើង (គ្រប់គ្រងដោយវៀតមិញ) និងខាងត្បូង (គ្រប់គ្រងដោយរដ្ឋវៀតណាម)
សន្និសីទទីក្រុងហ្សឺណែវ
• ពួកបារាំងបានដកថយចេញពីឥណ្ឌូចិន
រដ្ឋវៀតណាម សាធារណរដ្ឋប្រជាធិបតេយ្យវៀតណាម រាជាណាចក្រឡាវ និងព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា បានទទួលឯករាជ្យពីបារាំង
ការប្រែប្រួល
ទឹកដី
ការបែងចែកទឹកដីវៀតណាមជាបន្តោះអាសន្ន
ភាគីសង្គ្រាម
បារាំង បារាំង

គាំទ្រដោយ
សហរដ្ឋ សហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក[១] (១៩៥០–១៩៥៤)

វៀតណាមខាងជើង សាធារណរដ្ឋប្រជាធិបតេយ្យវៀតណាម

ឡាវឥស្សរ៉ា (១៩៤៥–១៩៤៩)
លាវ ប៉:ថេតឡាវ (១៩៤៩–១៩៥៤)[២]
កម្ពុជា ខ្មែរឥស្សរៈ[៣]

កងទ័ពស្មាគចិត្តជប៉ុន
គាំទ្រដោយ[៥]
 សហភាពសូវៀត[៦]
 ចិន (១៩៤៩–១៩៥៤)[៦]
អាល្លឺម៉ង់ខាងកើត[៧][៨]
ប៉ូឡូញ[៩]

មេបញ្ជាការ និង មេដឹកនាំ
បារាំង ហ្វីលីព លេឃ្លែរ
បារាំង ហ្សង់-អង់ទាន វ៉ាលុយ

បារាំង រ៉ូជើរ ប្លេហ្សូ
បារាំង ម៉ាហ្សេល កាប៉ុងធាអេ
បារាំង ហ្សង់ ដេ ឡាដ្រេ ដេ តាស៊ីងី
បារាំង រ៉ាអ៊ូ សាឡង់
បារាំង ហង់រី ណាវ៉ារ
បាវ ដាយ
ង៉ូ ឌិនយៀម
នរោត្តម សីហនុ
ស្រីស្វាងវង្ស

វៀតណាមខាងជើង ហូ ជីមិញ,
វៀតណាមខាងជើង វ៉ូ ង្វៀនវ៉ាប
ប៉ាម វ៉ាន់ដុង
ត្រឿង ឈីង
ឡេ ដ្វឹន
ឡេ ឌុកថូក
សុផានុវង្ស
កៃសុន​ ផុមវិហ៉ាន
សឺន ង៉ុកមិញ
ទូ សាមុត
កម្លាំង
បារាំង
អង្គភាពបេសនកម្ម: ១៩០,០០០
ជំនួយក្នុងតំបន់: ៥៥,០០០
រដ្ឋវៀតណាម
១៥០,០០០[១០]
សរុប៖ ~៣៩៥,០០០
វៀតមិញ៖
ទាហានទៀងទាត់: ១២៥,០០០
ទាហានតាមតំបន់: ៧៥,០០០
ទាហានមិនទៀតទាត់: ២៥០,០០០[១១]
អតីតកងទ័ពរាជាធិរាជជប៉ុនស្ម័គ្រចិត្ត: ~៥,០០០[១២]
សរុប: ~៤៥០,០០០
សហេតុភាព និង ការខាងបង់
សហភាពបារាំង៖
ស្លាប់ ៧៥,៥៨១ នាក់ (២០,៥២៤ ជាជនជាតិបារាំង)[១៣][១៤]
រងរបួស ៦៤,១២៧ នាក់
៤០,០០០ ត្រូវគេចាប់ខ្លួន
រដ្ឋវៀតណាម៖
អ្នកស្លាប់និងបាត់ខ្លួនចំនួន ៥៨,៨៧៧ នាក់[១៥]
សរុប: អ្នកស្លាប់និងបាត់ខ្លួនទាំងអស់ប្រមាណ ~១៣៤,៥០០ នាក់
វៀងមិញ៖
អ្នកស្លាប់និងបាត់ខ្លួបមានប្រមាណ ១៧៥,០០០ ទៅ ៣០០,០០០ នាក់ (ប៉ានស្មានដោយអ្នកប្រវត្តិវិទូលោកខាងលិច)[១៦][១៧][១៨][១៩]
អ្នកស្លាប់និងបាត់ខ្លួនប្រមាណ ១៩១,៦០៥ នាក់ (តួលេខរបស់រដ្ឋាភិបាលវៀតណាម)[២០]
អ្នកស្លាប់សរុបប្រមាណ ៤០០,០០០ ទៅ ៨៤២,៧០៧ នាក់[២១][១៨][២២]
ជនស៊ីវិលប្រមាណ ១២៥,០០០ ទៅ ៤០០,០០០ នាក់ត្រូវបានស្លាប់[១៨][២៣][២៤][២៥]

សង្គ្រាមឥណ្ឌូចិនលើកទី១ (ភាសាបារាំងGuerre d’Indochine) (ក៏ត្រូវបានគេស្គាល់ដែរថាជា សង្គ្រាមបារំាងឥណ្ឌូចិន សង្គ្រាមតស៊ូប្រឆាំងបារាំង) គឺជាសង្គ្រាមដែលចាប់ផ្ទុះឡើងនៅក្នុងសហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិនចាប់ពីថ្ងៃទី១៩ ខែធ្នូ ឆ្នាំ១៩៤៦ រហូតដល់ថ្ងៃទី១ ខែសីហា ឆ្នាំ១៩៥៤។ ការប្រយុទ្ធចម្បាំងគ្នារវាងកងកម្លាំងបារាំងនិងចលនាតស៊ូវៀតមិញបានចាប់ផ្តើមឡើងតាំងពីឆ្នាំ១៩៤៥ មកម្លេះ។ ជម្លោះនេះមានភាគីសង្គ្រាមជាច្រើនដូចជា អង្គភាពបេសនកម្មចុងបូព៌ារបស់សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន, ដឹកនាំដោយបារាំង និងគាំទ្រដោយកងទ័ពជាតិវៀតណាមដែលដឹកនាំដោយព្រះចៅអធិរាជបាវ-ដាយ ប្រឆាំងនឹងចលនាវៀតមិញ[២៦]ដែលដឹកនាំដោយហូ ជីមិញ[២៧] និងកងទ័ពប្រជាជនវៀតណាមដែលដឹកនាំដោយវ៉ូ ង្វៀនវ៉ាប[២៨] ការប្រយុទ្ធចម្បាំងភាគច្រើនមានទីតាំងស្ថិតនៅតំបន់តុងកឹងនៃវៀតណាមភាគខាងជើង[២៩] ប៉ុន្តែក៏រីករាលដាលដល់ប្រទេសទាំងមូលហើយមិនយូរប៉ុន្មានក៏បន្តរាលដាលដល់រដ្ឋជិតខាងដែលកំពុងស្ថិតនៅក្រោមអាណាព្យាបាលភាពរបស់បារាំងដូចជា ឡាវ និងកម្ពុជា

នៅឯសន្និសីទផតស៍ដាមក្នុងខែកក្កដា ឆ្នាំ១៩៤៥ នាយសេនាធិការចម្រុះបានសម្រេចថាតំបន់ឥណ្ឌូចិនភាគខាងត្បូងនៃខ្សែបន្ទាត់ទី១៦ ខាងជើងនឹងត្រូវដាក់បញ្ចូលទៅក្នុងបញ្ជាការតំបន់អាស៊ីអាគ្នេយ៍ក្រោមការដឹកនាំរបស់ឧត្តមនារីឯកម៉ោនបាតង់។ កងទ័ពជប៉ុននៅភាគខាងត្បូងនៃខ្សែបន្ទាត់នោះក៏បានសុំចុះចាញ់ទៅលោកហើយទ័ពជប៉ុនដែលនៅភាគខាងជើងក៏សុំចុះចាញ់ទៅមេបញ្ជាការចិនឈ្មោះចាង ខាយចៀក។ នៅខែកញ្ញា ឆ្នាំ១៩៤៥ កងកម្លាំងចិនក៏វាយចូលតំបន់តុងកឹងចំណែកឯកងកម្លាំងអង់គ្លេសតូចមួយក៏បានចុះមកដល់ទីក្រុងសៃហ្គន។ ពួកចិនបានទទួលស្គាល់រដ្ឋាភិបាលវៀតណាមដែលនៅក្រោមការគ្រប់គ្រងរបស់ហូ ជីមិញ ដែលពេលនោះគឺកំពុងកាន់អំណាចនៅទីក្រុងហាណូយ។ ប៉ុន្តែអង់គ្លេសនិងបារាំងបានបដិសេដនឹងការគាំទ្រវៀតមិញដោយចិននិងអ្នកតំណាំងអាមេរិកអូអេសអេស។ នៅថ្ងៃដែលជប៉ុនបានចុះចាញ់ គឺថ្ងៃទី២ ខែកញ្ញាក្នុងទីក្រុងហាណូយ លោកហូ ជីមិញបានប្រកាសពីការបង្កើតនៃសាធារណរដ្ឋប្រជាធិបតេយ្យវៀតណាម (សបវ)។ សបវ បានគ្រប់គ្រងជារដ្ឋាភិបាលស៊ីវិលតែមួយគត់នៅក្នុងប្រទេសវៀតណាមបានរយៈពេលប្រហែល ២០ ថ្ងៃបន្ទាប់ពីការដាក់រាជ្យរបស់អធិរាជបាវ ដាយ។ នៅថ្ងៃទី២៣ ខែកញ្ញា ឆ្នាំ១៩៤៥ ដោយបានដំណឹងពីមេបញ្ជាការអង់គ្លេសនៅសៃហ្គន កងកម្លាំងបារាំងបានផ្តួលរលំរដ្ឋាភិបាល សបវ ក្នុងតំបន់នោះហើយបានប្រកាស ការស្តារឡើងវិញនូវអាជ្ញាធរបារាំងក្នុងតំបន់កូសាំងស៊ីន។ សង្គ្រាមទ័ពព្រៃបានចាប់ផ្តើមផ្ទុះនៅជុំវិញទីក្រុងសៃហ្គនភ្លាមៗ[៣០] ប៉ុន្តែបារាំងបានដណ្តើមកាន់កាប់ភាគខាងត្បូងនិងខាងជើងនៃឥណ្ឌូចិនវិញបានបន្តិមម្តងៗ។ ហូ ជីមិញក៏យល់ព្រមចរចាអំពីស្ថានភាពអនាគតរបស់វៀតណាមប៉ុន្តែកិច្ចពិភាក្សាដែលធ្វើឡើងនៅប្រទេសបារាំងមិនបានបង្កើតឱ្យមានដំណោះស្រាយអ្វីនោះឡើយ។ បន្ទាប់ពីមានជម្លោះដ៏តូចមួយរយៈពេលជាងមួយឆ្នាំ សង្គ្រាមក៏បានផ្ទុះឡើងនៅខែធ្នូ ឆ្នាំ១៩៤៦ រវាងកងទ័ពបារាំងនិងវៀតមិញ ហើយបន្ទាប់មកហូ ជីមិញនិងរដ្ឋាភិបាលរបស់គាត់ក៏រត់ដំណើរការជាសម្ងាត់។ បារាំងបានព្យាយាមធ្វើឱ្យមានស្ថេរភាពនៅឥណ្ឌូចិនវិញដោយរៀបចំវាជាសហព័ន្ធនៃរដ្ឋសមាគម។ នៅឆ្នាំ១៩៤៩ បារាំងបានដាក់អតីតព្រះចៅអធិរាជបាវ ដាយអោយកាន់អំណាចជាមេដឹកនាំនៃរដ្ឋដែលទើបនឹងបង្កើតថ្មីគឺរដ្ឋវៀតណាម

ពីរបីឆ្នាំដំបូងនៃសង្គ្រាមគឺច្រើនតែជាកុបកម្មប្រឆាំងនឹងអាណានិគមបារាំងនៅតាមតំបន់ជនបទ។ ក្នុងឆ្នាំ១៩៤៩ ជម្លោះបានប្រែទៅជាសង្គ្រាមពេញលេញរវាងកងយោធាពីរដែលបំពាក់ដោយអាវុធទំនើបដែលផ្គត់ផ្គង់ផ្តល់ដោយសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក ចិន និងសហភាពសូវៀត។[៣១] ក្នុងជួរកងកម្លាំងសហភាពបារាំងមានទាហានដែលមកពីរដ្ឋអាណានិគមនៃអតីតចក្រភពទាំងមូល (មានដូចជា៖ ម៉ារ៉ុក អាល់ហ្សេរី ទុយនីស៊ី ឡាវ ខ្មែរ និងជនជាតិភាគតិចវៀតណាមមួយចំនួន) ហើយនិងទាហានអាជីពនិងអង្គភាពនៃកងកម្លាំងបរទេសបារាំង។ ការកេណ្ឌមនុស្សពីទីប្រជុំជនមកធ្វើជាទាហានត្រូវបានរដ្ឋាភិបាលហាមឃាត់ដោយសារតែខ្លាចអ្នកស្រុកកំណើត (បារាំង) របស់ខ្លួនមិនពេញចិត្ត។ សង្គ្រាមនេះត្រូវបានអ្នកឆ្វេងនិយមបារាំងហៅថា"សង្គ្រាមដ៏ថោកទាប" (la sale guerre)។[៣២]

យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រនៃការរុញច្រានពួកវៀតមិញចូលទៅក្នុងមូលដ្ឋានទ័ពការពារនៅតាមតំបន់ជនបទ (ខាងជើងប្រទេសវៀតណាម) នៅក្នុងសមរភូមិណាសានគឺមានប្រសឹទ្ធភាពយ៉ាងខ្លាំងសម្រាប់បារាំង។ ទោះជាយ៉ាងណា មូលដ្ឋាននោះមានសភាពខ្សោយដោយសារខ្វះបេតុងនិងដែកការពារ។ ការខិតខំប្រឹងប្រែងរបស់បារាំងក៏កាន់តែមានភាពលំបាកដែរដោយសារតែរថក្រោះរបស់ពួកគេមិនអាចដំណើរការរត់កាត់ព្រៃដ៏ក្រាស់បាន ការខ្វះកងកម្លាំងជើងអាកាស និងទ័ពខ្លួនភាគច្រើនជាជនបរទេសដែលបានកេណ្ឌពីរដ្ឋអាណានិគមខ្លួន។ វ៉ូ ង្វៀនវ៉ាបក៏បានបញ្ចេញយុទ្ធសាស្រ្តប្រកបដោយប្រសឹទ្ធភាពជាច្រើនដូចជា៖ បាញ់កាំភ្លើងធំឱ្យចំតំបន់ទាហានរបស់បារាំង ប្រើកាំភ្លើងធំបាញ់ទម្លាក់យន្តហោះបារាំងដើម្បីបង្អាក់ការផ្គត់ផ្គង់គ្រឿងសព្វាវុធនិងស្បៀងទៅដល់ទាហានជើងគោកបារាំង និងកេណ្ឌបានទាហានទៀងទាត់ជាច្រើននាក់បន្ថែមទៀតព្រោះដោយសារតែវៀតមិញត្រូវបានប្រជាជនវៀតណាមជាច្រើនគាំទ្រ ទោះបីត្រូវតែលះបង់ជីវិតរបស់ពួកគេក៏ដោយ។ ការបង្ហាត់បង្រៀនយុទ្ធសាស្រ្តទ័ពព្រៃដោយចិន ជាមួយនឹងការផ្គត់ផ្គង់អាវុធនិងសម្ភារៈធ្វើសឹកសង្គ្រាមដោយសហភាពសូវៀត បានធ្វើឱ្យវៀតមិញក្លាយជាចលនាតស៊ូមួយដែលបារាំងមិនអាចនឹងងាយយកឈ្នះបាន។ ទីបំផុត វៀតមិញក៏បានយកឈ្នះលើបារាំងវិញនៅក្នុងសមរភូមិឌៀនបៀនភូ[៣៣]

នៅឯសន្និសីទអន្តរជាតិក្រុងហ្សឺណែវ ថ្ងៃទី២១ ខែកក្កដា ឆ្នាំ១៩៥៤ រដ្ឋាភិបាលសង្គមនិយមរបស់បារាំងថ្មីនិងវៀតមិញបានធ្វើកិច្ចព្រមព្រៀងមួយដែលធ្វើឱ្យវៀតមិញមានសឹទ្ធិគ្រប់គ្រងវៀតណាមភាគខាងជើងនៅលើខ្សែស្របទី១៧។ ចំណែកឯខាងត្បូងវិញគឺស្ថិតនៅក្រោមការដឹកនាំរបស់បាវ-ដាយ ដោយកិច្ចព្រមព្រៀងខាងលើនេះមិនត្រូវបានទទួលស្គាល់ដោយរដ្ឋវៀតណាមនិងសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិកឡើយ។ មួយឆ្នាំក្រោយមក បាវ-ដាយក៏ត្រូវបានទម្លាក់ពីអំណាចដោយនាយករដ្ឋមន្រ្តីរបស់ព្រះអង្គគឺលោកង៉ូ ឌិនយៀមហើយក៏បង្កើតរដ្ឋថ្មីមួយទៀតមានឈ្មោះថាសាធារណរដ្ឋវៀតណាម។ ក្រោយមក ក៏មានកុបកម្មដឹកនាំដោយយួនខាងជើងប្រឆាំងនឹងរដ្ឋាភិបាលរបស់ឌិនយៀម។ ជម្លោះកុបកម្មរវាងប្រទេសទាំងពីរក៏បានប្រែក្លាយទៅជាសង្គ្រាមបង្ហូរឈាមគ្នាដែលគេស្គាល់ថា"សង្គ្រាមវៀតណាម" (១៩៥៥–១៩៧៥)។

មូលហេតុ និងផ្ទៃរឿង[កែប្រែ]

ផែនទីឥណ្ឌូចិនបារាំង (១៩១៣)

ប្រទេសវៀតណាមត្រូវបានដាក់បញ្ចូលទៅក្នុងសហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិនក្នុងដំណាក់កាលរវាងឆ្នាំ១៨៥៨ និងឆ្នាំ១៨៨៧។ ជាតិនិយមបានកើនឡើងតាំងពីពេលដំបូងៗមកម្លេះរហូតទាន់តែសង្គ្រាមលោកលើកទី២ បានកើតឡើងទើបបារាំងបានរបូតឥណ្ឌូចិនពីការការគ្រប់គ្រងរបស់ខ្លួន។ ជនតស៊ូដើម្បីឯករាជ្យវៀតណាមដំបូងគឺជាបញ្ញវន្តម្នាក់ឈ្មោះផាន់ ប៊ុនឆាវ។ ឆាវបានយកប្រទេសជប៉ុនជាគំរូ, ជប៉ុនគឺជាប្រទេសដែលធ្វើទំនើបកម្មបានយ៉ាងរហ័សនៅចុងសតវត្សទី១៩ និងដើមសតវត្សទី២០ ហើយជាប្រទេសមួយក្នុងចំណោមប្រជាជាតិអាស៊ីមួយចំនួនតូចដែលអាចទប់ទល់នឹងមហាអំណាចអាណានិគមអឺរ៉ុបបាន។ ជាមួយនឹងព្រះអង្គម្ចាស់គួង ឌេ លោកបានទៅបង្កើតអង្គការរំដោះជាតិចំនួនពីរនៅឯប្រទេសជប៉ុន។

ដោយសារតែមានការដាក់សម្ពាធពីបារាំង ជប៉ុនក៏ត្រូវនិរទេសលោកផាន់ ប៊ុនឆាវទៅប្រទេសចិន។ នៅឯប្រទេសចិន ឆាវបានទទួលបទពិសោធន៍ពីបដិវត្តិន៍ចិនរបស់លោកស៊ុន យ៉ាតសេន។ បដិវត្តន៍របស់ចិនមួយនេះក៏បានញ៉ាំងឆាវឱ្យរៀបចំបង្កើតចលនាបដិវត្តន៍នៅទីក្រុងក្វាងចូវ។ ពីឆ្នាំ១៩១៤ ដល់ឆ្នាំ១៩១៧ ឆាវក៏ត្រូវបានរដ្ឋាភិបាលប្រឆាំងបដិវត្តន៍របស់លោកយ័ន ស៊ីខាយចាប់ដាក់គុក។ នៅឆ្នាំ១៩២៥ គាត់ត្រូវបានចាប់ខ្លួនដោយភ្នាក់ងារបារាំងនៅទីក្រុងស៊ាងហៃហើយក៏ត្រូវបានជំរុញឱ្យត្រឡប់មកវៀតណាមវិញ។ ដោយសារប្រជាប្រិយភាពរបស់គាត់នៅវៀតណាម ឆាវមិនបានទទួលទោសប្រហារជីវិតឡើយដោយបារាំងបានដាក់លោកឃុំជាប់នៅក្នុងគេហដ្ឋានគាត់រហូតទាន់តែបានឆាវបានស្លាប់នៅក្នុងឆ្នាំ១៩៤០។

នៅខែកញ្ញា ឆ្នាំ១៩៤០ ភ្លាមៗបន្ទាប់ពីមរណភាពរបស់លោកផាន់ ប៊ុនឆាវ ជប៉ុនក៏បានចូលមកឈ្លានពានតំបន់ឥណ្ឌូចិនរបស់បារាំងក្រោយពីសម្ព័ន្ធមិត្តរបស់ខ្លួនគឺប្រទេសអាឡឺម៉ង់បានសម្រេចដណ្តើមកាន់កាប់បារាំងនៅអឺរ៉ុប។ ដោយរក្សានូវរដ្ឋបាលអាណានិគមបារាំង ជប៉ុនបានគ្រប់គ្រងតំបន់ឥណ្ឌូចិននៅពីក្រោយខ្នង។ រឿងក៏គួរឱ្យព្រួយបារម្ភបំផុតរបស់អ្នកជាតិនិយមវៀតណាមក៏បានក្លាយជាការពិត នៅពេលដែលដឹងថាវៀតណាមបានក្លាយជារដ្ឋអាយ៉ងដែលគ្រប់គ្រងដោយប្រទេសពីរ។ ក៏ដូចជាមួយបារាំងដែរ អធិរាជបាវ ដាយបានសហការជាមួយជប៉ុនដើម្បីបន្តរក្សានូវតំណែងរបស់ព្រះអង្គ។

ចាប់ពីខែតុលា ឆ្នាំ១៩៤០ រហូតដល់ខែឧសភា ឆ្នាំ១៩៤១ នៅក្នុងសង្គ្រាមបារាំង–ថៃ ទ័ពបារាំងវិឈីនៅតំបន់ឥណ្ឌូចិនបានការពារទឹកដីអាណានិគមរបស់ខ្លួននៅក្នុងជម្លោះព្រំដែនដែលកងកម្លាំងថៃបានកំពុងលុកលុយឈ្លានពាន។ ទោះជាយ៉ាងណា ជ័យជម្នះរបស់ថៃនៅក្នុងសង្គ្រាមនេះត្រូវមានកំណត់ហើយនៅខែមករា ឆ្នាំ១៩៤១ កងកម្លាំងទ័ពជើងទឹកបារាំងវិឈីបាញ់កម្ទេចកងកម្លាំងទ័ពជើងទឹកថៃនៅឯសមរភូមិកោះឆាង។ សង្រ្គាមក៏បានបញ្ចប់នៅខែឧសភា ដោយបារាំងបានយល់ព្រមកាត់ទឹកដីបន្តិចបន្តួចដែលពីមុនៗធ្លាប់ជារបស់ថៃទៅឱ្យប្រទេសថៃវិញ។

នៅឆ្នាំ១៩៤១ ហូ ជីមិញបានយល់ឃើញថាមានតែបដិវត្តន៍កុម្មុយនិស្តតែមួយទេដែលជាមាគ៌ានៃសេរីភាពវៀតណាម ហើយក៏បានវិលត្រឡប់មកស្រុកកំណើតលោកវិញហើយចាប់បង្កើត"សម្ព័ន្ធដើម្បីឯករាជ្យវៀតណាម" (យួនViệt Nam độc lập đồng minh) ឫគេច្រើនហៅថាវៀតមិញ។ ហូ ជីមិញបានបង្កើតវៀតមិញឡើងជាលក្ខណៈអង្គការធំមួយសម្រាប់ចលនាតស៊ូជាតិនិយមវៀងណាមទាំងអស់ដោយមិនបានសង្កត់ធ្ងន់ឫបង្ហាញពីសាវតាបដិវត្តន៍សង្គមកុម្មុយនិស្តរបស់គាត់នោះទេ។

ក្នុងពេលនៃភាពអត់ឃ្លាននៅវៀតណាមក្នុងឆ្នាំ១៩៤៥ ហូ ជីមិញបានចោទប្រកាន់ជប៉ុនពីការកេងប្រវ័ញ្ចដោយគ្មានមេត្តាភាព ហើយនិងមកពីអាកាសធាតុមិនល្អ ដែលជាហេតុធ្វើឱ្យជនជាតិវៀតណាមរហូតដល់ទៅ ២ លាននាក់បានបាត់បង់ជីវិត។ ជាលទ្ធផល វៀតមិញបានរៀបចំកិច្ចខិតខំប្រឹងប្រែងជួយសង្គ្រោះនៅភាគខាងជើងនៃប្រទេស ហើយក៏ទទួលបានការគាំទ្រយ៉ាងសន្ធឹកសន្ធាប់នៅតំបន់នោះ។[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង]

នៅខែមីនា ឆ្នាំ១៩៤៥ ជប៉ុនបានចាប់ផ្តើមនូវយុទ្ធនាការបារាំងឥណ្ឌូចិនលើកទី២ ដើម្បីទម្លាក់វិឈីបារាំងចេញពីអំណាចហើយតម្លើងអធិរាជបាវ ដាយជាប្រមុខដឹកនាំនៃចក្រភពវៀតណាមថ្មី។ ពួកជប៉ុនបានចាប់ខ្លួនរាល់មន្រ្តីនិងមន្រ្តីយោធាបារាំងទាំងប៉ុន្មានដែលនៅសេសសល់ក្នុងប្រទេស។

ប្រធានាធិបតីអាមេរិកកាលនោះគឺលោកហ្រ្វែងគ្លីន រ៉ូសឺវេលត៍ និងឧត្តមសេនីយ៍ចូសែហ្វ ស្ទីលវែល បានបញ្ជាក់យ៉ាងច្បាស់ថាបារាំងនឹងមិនបន្តគ្រប់គ្រងសហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិនតទៅទៀតទេនៅពេលចប់សង្គ្រាម។ រូសឺវេលត៍បានលើកឡើងថា ចាង កាយចៀកគួរតែដាក់ឥណ្ឌូចិនឱ្យនៅក្រោមការគ្រប់គ្រងរបស់ចិន, លោកចាង កាយចៀកបានតបមកវិញថា "នៅក្នុងកាលៈទេសៈណាក៏ដោយ!" (មានន័យថា ឥណ្ឌូចិនអាចនឹងក្លាយជារបស់ចិនឫមិនមែនគឺអាស្រ័យទៅតាមកាលៈទេសៈនៃប្រទេសចិន)។[៣៤] បន្ទាប់ពីមរណភាពរបស់លោករ៉ូសឺវេលត៍នៅខែមេសា ឆ្នាំ១៩៤៥ ការប្រឆាំងរបស់សហរដ្ឋអាមេរិកទៅនឹងការគ្រប់គ្រងរបស់បារាំងនៅឥណ្ឌូចិនក៏បានចុះខ្សោយ។[៣៥]

ក្រោយការចុះចាញ់របស់ជប៉ុន[កែប្រែ]

បទឈប់បាញ់ត្រូវបានចុះរវាងប្រទេសជប៉ុននិងសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិកនៅថ្ងៃទី២០ ខែសីហា ឆ្នាំ១៩៤៥។ រដ្ឋាភិបាលបណ្តោះអាសន្ននៃសាធារណរដ្ឋបារាំងចង់ស្តារការគ្រប់គ្រងអាណានិគមរបស់ខ្លួនវិញនៅឥណ្ឌូចិនសម្រាប់ជំហានចុងក្រោយនៃការរំដោះបារាំង

នៅថ្ងៃទី២២ ខែសីហា ឆ្នាំ១៩៤៥ ភ្នាក់ងារអូអេសអេសចំនួនពីរនាក់បានមកដល់ទីក្រុងហាណូយក្នុងបេសកកម្មប្រោសប្រណីដើម្បីរំដោះអ្នកឈ្លើយសង្គ្រាមខាងសម្ព័ន្ធមិត្តខ្លួន និងត្រូវបានអមដំណើរដោយមន្រ្តីរដ្ឋាភិបាលបារាំងលោកហ្សង់ សាងតេនី[៣៦] កងទ័ពរាជាធិរាជជប៉ុនដែលជាកងកម្លាំងតែមួយគត់ដែលអាចរក្សាច្បាប់និងសណ្តាប់ធ្នាប់បាន នូវតែជាអ្នកកាន់អំណាចខណៈពេលដែលកំពុងរក្សាឃុំខ្លួនកងទ័ពអាណានិគមបារាំងនិងលោកសាងតេនី។[៣៧]

កងកម្លាំងជប៉ុនបានអនុញ្ញាតឱ្យវៀតមិញនិងក្រុមជាតិនិយមផ្សេងទៀតកាន់កាប់អាគារសាធារណៈនិងអាវុធយ៉ាងស្រួល នេះគឺជាការចាប់ផ្តើមនៃបដិវត្តន៍ខែសីហា។ នៅថ្ងៃទី២៥ ខែសីហា ហូ ជីមិញក៏បានបង្ខំឱ្យអធិរាជបាវ-ដាយដាក់រាជ្យ។ រួចហើយ បាវ-ដាយក៏ត្រូវបានតែងតាំងជាទីប្រឹក្សាជាន់ខ្ពស់នៃរដ្ឋាភិបាលថ្មីដែលដឹកនាំដោយវៀតមិញនៅហាណូយ។

កងទ័ពជប៉ុនកំពុងទម្លាក់អាវុធនៅមុខកងទ័ពអង់គ្លេសក្នុងពិធីមួយនៅទីក្រុងសៃហ្គន (១៩៤៥)។

នៅថ្ងៃទី២ ខែកញ្ញា នៅលើនាវាមីស៊ូរី នៅឯឈូងសមុទ្រទីក្រុងតូក្យូ, កុម៉្មង់ដូនៃអង្គភាពបេសនកម្មចុងបូព៌ាបារាំងគឺលោកលេឃ្លែរបានធ្វើជាអ្នកតំណាងបារាំងហើយបានចុះហត្ថលេខាលើបទឈប់បាញ់ជាមួយជប៉ុន។ នាថ្ងៃដដែលនោះហូ ជីមិញបានប្រកាសពីឯករាជ្យភាពនៃវៀតណាមពីប្រទេសបារាំង។ ដោយយកត្រាបតាមសេចក្តីប្រកាសឯករាជ្យរបស់សហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក ហូ ជីមិញបានប្រកាសថា៖

យើងប្រកាន់ការពិតថាមនុស្សកើតមកគឺមានភាពស្មើៗគ្នាទាំងអស់, ម្នាក់ៗកើតមកត្រូវតែមានសឹទ្ធិពេញលេញនៅក្នុងជីវិតរបស់គេ សឹទ្ធិសេរីភាព និងការស្វែងរកសុភមង្គល។[៣៨]

បន្ទាប់ពីការសុំទទួលចុះចាញ់របស់ពួកគេទៅនឹងក្រុមសម្ព័ន្ធមិត្ត កងទ័ពជប៉ុនបានប្រគល់គ្រឿងសព្វាវុធទាំងប៉ុន្មានមកឱ្យពួកវៀតមិញទាំងអស់។ ដើម្បីជួយដល់ក្រុមជាតិនិយមបន្ថែមទៀត ជប៉ុនបានឃុំឃាំងមន្ដ្រីបារាំងនិងមន្រ្តីយោធាឱ្យជាប់ពន្ធនាគារអស់រយៈពេលជាងមួយខែបន្ទាប់ពីការចុះចាញ់របស់គេ។ ភ្នាក់ងារអូអេសអេស បានសូមជួបគ្នាម្តងហើយម្តងទៀតជាមួយហូ ជីមិញនិងមន្រ្តីវៀតមិញផ្សេងទៀតក្នុងអំឡុងពេលនេះ។[៣៩] ពួកវៀតមិញបានកេណ្ឌទាហានជប៉ុនប្រមាណជាង ៦០០ នាក់ហើយប្រគល់តួនាទីឱ្យពួកគេហ្វឹកហាត់និងបញ្ជាទាហានវៀតណាម។[៤០][៤១]

នៅថ្ងៃទី១៣ ខែកញ្ញា ឆ្នាំ១៩៤៥ កងប៉ូលីសនិងក្រុមការងារបារាំង–អង់គ្លេសក៏បានមកដល់កោះជ្វា, ដែលកាលនោះជាកោះសំខាន់បំផុតរបស់ឥណ្ឌាខាងលិចហូឡង់ (ដើម្បីដោះស្រាយរឿងកិច្ចការឯករាជ្យដែលស្នើដោយលោកស៊ូការណូ) ហើយក្រោយមកក៏បានមកដល់ទីក្រុងសៃហ្គន (នៅក្រោមកាន់កាប់ដោយជប៉ុននៅឡើយ)។[៤២] សៃហ្គនក៏ត្រូវបានឡោមព័ទ្ធដោយកងកម្លាំងជើងអាកាស កងវរសេនាធំអង់គ្លេស–ឥណ្ឌាចំនួនពីរ និងកងរវសេនាធំអាណានិគមបារាំងទី៥ ដែលមានលោកឧត្តមសេនីយ៍អង់គ្លេសម្នាក់ឈ្មោះឌូក្លាស ក្រាស៊ី ជាមេបញ្ជាការកំពូល។ ក្រោយមកទៀតក៏បានប្រកាសច្បាប់អាជ្ញាសឹកនៅថ្ងៃទី២១ ខែកញ្ញា។ នៅយប់បន្ទាប់កងទ័ពបារាំង–អង់គ្លេសក៏បានសម្រេចកាន់កាប់ទីក្រុងសៃហ្គន។[៤៣]

តេឡេក្រាមពីហូ ជីមិញផ្ញើទៅប្រធានាធិបតីអាមេរិក ហារី ទ្រូម៉ាន់ ស្នើសុំការគាំទ្រឯករាជ្យ (ហាណូយ, ថ្ងៃទី២៨ ខែកុម្ភៈ ១៩៤៦)

ការបញ្ជូនទ័ពចិនប្រមាណ ២០០,០០០ នាក់ចូលទៅក្នុងឥណ្ឌូចិនទៅតាមសន្ធិសិទផតស៍ដាមក៏បានប្រព្រឹត្តិទៅដើម្បីបណ្តេញទ័ពជប៉ុនចេញពីតំបន់។[៤៤][៤៥] សកម្មភាពនេះក៏បានបញ្ចប់នូវអធិបតេយ្យភាពនៃរដ្ឋាភិបាលហូ ជីមិញនៅហាណូយ។ ដំបូងឡើយចិនបានរក្សាទាហានអាណានិគមបារាំងឱ្យធ្វើអន្តរាគមន៍បន្ទាប់ពីមានការយល់ស្របពីអាមេរិក។[៣៧] ចិនក៏បានប្រើប្រាស់ គជវ ជាឈ្នាន់ដើម្បីបង្កើនឥទ្ធិពលរបស់ខ្លួននៅឥណ្ឌូចិននិងដើម្បីដាក់សម្ពាធទៅលើគូប្រជែងរបស់ខ្លួន។[៤៦]

នៅថ្ងៃទី៩ ខែតុលា ឆ្នាំ១៩៤៥ ឧត្តមសេនីយ៍លេក្លែរបានទៅដល់សៃហ្គន ដោយមានការអមដោយក្រុមទាហានរបស់លោកវរសេនីយ៍ឯកម៉ាស៊ូ។ គោលបំណងចំបងរបស់លេក្លែរគឺ ស្តារសណ្តាប់ធ្នាប់សាធារណៈឡើងវិញនៅវៀតណាមខាងត្បូងនិងបង្កើនចំនួនទ័ពនៅតុងកឹង (វៀតណាមខាងជើង)។ គោលបំណងបន្ទាប់គឺរងចាំទ័ពបម្រុងរបស់បារាំងមកដល់រួចនាំគ្នាសម្រុកយកទីក្រុងហាណូយពីចិនមកវិញ ហើយបន្ទាប់មកចូលធ្វើការចរចាជាមួយពួកមន្រ្តីវៀតមិញ។[៤៣]

ចាង កាយចៀកបានគំរាមបារាំងថានឹងមានសង្គ្រាមប្រសិនបើបារាំងនិងហូ ជីមិញធ្វើសមយុទ្ធប្រឆាំងគ្នា នេះគឺជាហេតុដែលបង្ខំឱ្យពួកគេធ្វើកិច្ចព្រមព្រៀងសន្តិភាព។ នៅខែកុម្ភៈ ឆ្នាំ១៩៤៦ ចិនបានបង្ខំបារាំងឱ្យបោះបង់និងប្រគល់ដីសម្បទាននិងកំពង់ផែទាំងប៉ុន្មានដែលធ្លាប់ជាកម្មសឹទ្ធរបស់ចិនដូចជាទីក្រុងស៊ាងហៃជាដើម។ ជាការស្នងវិញ ចិនក៏បានដកទ័ពរបស់ខ្លួនចេញពីភាគខាងជើងឥណ្ឌូចិននិងអនុញ្ញាតឱ្យកងទ័ពបារាំងធ្វើសមាហរណកម្មតំបន់នេះឡើងវិញ ចាប់ផ្តើមពីខែមីនា ឆ្នាំ១៩៤៦។[៤៧][៤៨][៤៩][៥០] បន្ទាប់ពីបញ្ចប់កិច្ចព្រមព្រៀងនេះ កងកម្លាំងជាតិនិយមវៀតណាមអាចនឹងងាយរងគ្រោះយ៉ាងធ្ងន់បន្ទាប់ពីចិនបានដកទ័ពចេញ ហើយក៏ត្រូវបានវាយប្រហារដោយកងទ័ពវៀតមិញ ហើយនិងកងទ័ពបារាំង។ វៀតមិញបានសម្លាប់សមាជិក គជវ រាប់ពាន់នាក់និងព្រមទាំងអ្នកជាតិនិយមផ្សេងទៀតផងដែរនៅក្នុងយុទ្ធនាការធ្វើវិសុទ្ធកម្មរបស់ពួកគេ។[៥១][៥២]

ដំណាក់កាលនៃសង្គ្រាម[កែប្រែ]

បន្ទុះសង្គ្រាម (១៩៤៦)[កែប្រែ]

ហូ ជីមិញ និងលោកម៉ារីស មូទិតកំពុងចាប់ដៃគ្នានៅក្នុងកិច្ចព្រមព្រៀងហ្វនតេណេព្លាវ

នៅដើមឆ្នាំ១៩៤៦ កងកម្លាំងយោធាបារាំងបានចុះនៅក្រុងហៃហ្វុងហើយកិច្ចចរចាក៏បានធ្វើឡើងស្តីពីអនាគតរបស់វៀតណាមក្នុងនាមជារដ្ឋមួយនៅក្នុងសហភាពបារាំង។[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] ការឈ្លោះប្រឆាំងគ្នាក៏បានផ្ទុះឡើងនៅហៃហ្វុងរវាងរដ្ឋាភិបាលវៀតមិញនិងបារាំងនៅជុំវិញទំនាស់ហ៊ុននៃពន្ធនាំចូលនៅកំពង់ផែ។[៥៣] នៅថ្ងៃទី២៣ ខែវិច្ឆិកា ឆ្នាំ១៩៤៦ កងនាវាបារាំងបានបើកការបាញ់ប្រហារមកលើផ្នែកមួយនៃទីក្រុងដែលបណ្តាលឱ្យជនស៊ីវិលប្រមាណ ៦,០០០ នាក់បានស្លាប់ក្នុងវេលារសៀលតែមួយ។[៥៤][៥៥][៥៦] ពួកវៀតមិញក៏បានទទួលយល់ស្របនឹងបទឈប់បាញ់ភ្លាមៗហើយក៏បានចាកចេញពីទីក្រុង។ ព្រឹត្តិការណ៍នេះត្រូវបានគេស្គាល់ថាជាឧប្បត្តិហេតុហៃហ្វុង

តែវៀតមិញមិនមានចេតនាសុំចុះចាញ់អ្វីនោះទេ មិនយូរប៉ុន្មានឧត្តមសេនីយ៍វ៉ូ ង្វៀនវ៉ាបក៏បានលើកទ័ពចំនួន ៣០,០០០ នាក់មកវាយប្រហារលើទីក្រុងហៃហ្វុង។ ទោះបីជាបារាំងមានចំនួនទ័ពតិចជាក៏ដោយតែបារាំងមានរអាវុធទំនើបៗនិងកងទ័ពជើងទឹកដ៏ខ្លាំងពូកែរបស់ពួកគេបានធ្វើឱ្យការវាយលុករបស់វៀតមិញបរាជ័យ។ នៅអំឡុងខែធ្នូ អរិភាពរវាងវៀតមិញនិងបារាំងក៏បានផ្ទុះឡើងនៅទីក្រុងហាណូយ ហើយហូ ជីមិញក៏ត្រូវបង្ខំចិត្តរត់ចូលទៅក្នុងព្រៃក្រាស់ៗនិងតំបន់ភ្នំ។ សង្គ្រាមទ័ពព្រៃបានកើតឡើង ហើយបារាំងវិញបានត្រួតត្រាទឹកដីភាគច្រើននៃវៀតណាមលើកលែងតែតំបន់ឆ្ងាយៗ និងតំបន់ដាច់ស្រយ៉ាល។

ការវាយប្រហារដោយបារាំង និងការបង្កើតរដ្ឋវៀតណាម (១៩៤៧–១៩៤៩)[កែប្រែ]

"Envoys probe Indo-China rebellion " (១៦ មករា ១៩៤៧), ភាពយន្តបច្ចុប្បន្នភាពសកល

Fighting broke out in Haiphong after a conflict of interest in import duty at the port between the Viet Minh government and the French.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] On November 23, 1946 the French fleet began a naval bombardment of the city that killed over 6,000 Vietnamese civilians in one afternoon according to one source[៥៤] or over 2,000 according to another.[៥៧] The Việt Minh quickly agreed to a cease-fire and left the cities. There was never any intention among the Vietnamese to give up, as General Vo Nguyen Giap soon brought up 30,000 men to attack the city. Although the French were outnumbered, their superior weaponry and naval support made any Việt Minh attack impossible. In December, hostilities also broke out in Hanoi between the Việt Minh and the French, and Hồ Chí Minh was forced to evacuate the capital in favor of remote mountain areas. Guerrilla warfare ensued, with the French controlling most of the country except far-flung areas.

Campaign of 1947[កែប្រែ]

In 1947, General Võ Nguyên Giáp moved his command to Tân Trào. The French sent military expeditions to attack his bases, but Giáp refused to meet them head-on in battle. Wherever the French troops went, the Việt Minh disappeared. Late in the year the French launched Operation Lea to take out the Việt Minh communications center at Bac Kan. They failed to capture Hồ Chí Minh and his key lieutenants as intended, but 9,000 Việt Minh soldiers were killed during the campaign which was a major blow for the insurgency.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង]

Campaign of 1948[កែប្រែ]

In 1948, France started looking for means of opposing the Việt Minh politically, with an alternative government in Saigon. They began negotiations with the former Vietnamese emperor Bảo Đại to lead an "autonomous" government within the French Union of nations, the State of Vietnam. Two years before, the French had refused Hồ's proposal of a similar status (albeit with some restrictions on French power and the latter's eventual withdrawal from Vietnam); however, they were willing to give it to Bảo Ðại as he had freely collaborated with French rule of Vietnam in the past and was in no position to seriously negotiate or impose demands (Bảo Ðại had no military of his own, but soon he would have one).

Campaign of 1949[កែប្រែ]

In 1949, France officially recognized the "independence" of the State of Vietnam as an associated state within the French Union under Bảo Ðại. However, France still controlled all foreign relations and every defense issue as Vietnam was only nominally an independent state within the French Union . The Việt Minh quickly denounced the government and stated that they wanted "real independence, not Bảo Ðại independence". Later on, as a concession to this new government and a way to increase their numbers, France agreed to the formation of the Vietnamese National Army to be commanded by Vietnamese officers. These troops were used mostly to garrison quiet sectors so French forces would be available for combat. Private Cao Dai, Hoa Hao and the Binh Xuyen gangster armies were used in the same way. The Vietnamese Communists in return obtained outside support in 1949 when Chairman Mao Zedong succeeded in taking control of China by defeating the Kuomintang, thus gaining a major political ally and supply area just across the border. In the same year, the French also granted independence (within the framework of the French Union) to the other two nations in Indochina, the Kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia.

The United States recognized the South Vietnamese state, but many other nations viewed it as simply a French puppet regime and would not deal with it at all[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង]. The United States began to give military aid to France in the form of weaponry and military observers. By then with almost unlimited Chinese military supplies entering Vietnam, General Giáp re-organized his local irregular forces into five full conventional infantry divisions, the 304th, 308th, 312th, 316th and the 320th. The war began to intensify when Giáp went on the offensive, attacking isolated French bases along the Chinese border.

Campaign of 1950[កែប្រែ]

A map of dissident activities in Indochina in 1950.

In February 1950, Giáp seized the vulnerable 150-strong French garrison at Lai Khe in Tonkin just south of the border with China. Then, on May 25, he attacked the garrison of Cao Bang manned by 4,000 French-controlled Vietnamese troops, but his forces were repulsed.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] Giáp launched his second offense again against Cao Bang as well as Dong Khe on September 15. Dong Khe fell on September 18, and Cao Bang finally fell on October 3. Lang Son, with its 4,000-strong French Foreign Legion garrison, was attacked immediately after. The retreating French on Route 4, together with the relief force coming from That Khe, were attacked all the way by ambushing Việt Minh forces. The French air-dropped a paratroop battalion south of Dong Khe to act as diversion only to see it surrounded and destroyed. On October 17, Lang Son, after a week of intense fighting, finally fell. By the time the remains of the garrisons reached the safety of the Red River Delta, 4,800 French troops had been killed, captured or missing in action and 2,000 wounded out of a total garrison force of over 10,000. Also lost were 13 artillery pieces, 125 mortars, 450 trucks, 940 machine guns, 1,200 submachine guns and 8,000 rifles destroyed or captured during the fighting. China and the Soviet Union recognized Hồ Chí Minh as the legitimate ruler of Vietnam and sent him more and more supplies and material aid. The year 1950 also marked the first time that napalm was ever used in Vietnam (this type of weapon was supplied by the U.S. for the use of the French Aeronovale at the time).

The military situation improved for France when their new commander, General Jean Marie de Lattre de Tassigny, built a fortified line from Hanoi to the Gulf of Tonkin, across the Red River Delta, to hold the Việt Minh in place and use his troops to smash them against this barricade, which became known as the "De Lattre Line". This led to a period of success for the French.

Campaign of 1951[កែប្រែ]

General Trinh Minh The.

On January 13, 1951, Giap moved the 308th and 312th Divisions, made up of over 20,000 men, to attack Vinh Yen, ២០ ម៉ាយល៍ (៣២ គ.ម.) northwest of Hanoi which was manned by the 6,000 strong 9th Foreign Legion Brigade. The Việt Minh entered a trap. Caught for the first time in the open and actually forced to fight the French head-on, without the ability to quickly hide and retreat, they were mowed down by concentrated French artillery and machine gun fire. By January 16, Giap was forced to withdraw, having lost over 6,000 killed, 8,000 wounded and 500 captured.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] The Battle of Vinh Yen had been a catastrophe.

On March 23, Giap tried again, launching an attack against Mao Khe, ២០ ម៉ាយល៍ (៣២ គ.ម.) north of Haiphong. The 316th Division, composed of 11,000 men, with the partly rebuilt 308th and 312th Divisions in reserve, went forward and were beaten in bitter hand-to-hand fighting against French troops. Giap, having lost over 3,000 dead and wounded by March 28, withdrew.

Giap launched yet another attack on May 29 with the 304th Division at Phu Ly, the 308th Division at Ninh Binh, and the main attack delivered by the 320th Division at Phat Diem south of Hanoi. The attacks fared no better and the three divisions lost heavily. Taking advantage of this, de Lattre mounted his counter offensive against the demoralized Việt Minh, driving them back into the jungle and eliminating the enemy pockets in the Red River Delta by June 18 costing the Việt Minh over 10,000 killed.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង]

Every effort by Vo Nguyen Giap to break the line failed and every attack he made was answered by a French counter-attack that destroyed his forces. Việt Minh casualties rose alarmingly during this period, leading some to question the leadership of the Communist government, even within the party. However, any benefit this may have reaped for France was negated by the increasing domestic opposition to the war in France.

On July 31, French General Chanson was assassinated during a kamikaze attentat at Sa Đéc in South Vietnam that was blamed on the Việt Minh although it was argued in some quarters that Cao Dai nationalist Trinh Minh The could have been involved in its planning.

On November 14, 1951, the French seized Hòa Bình, ២៥ ម៉ាយល៍ (៤០ គ.ម.) west of the De Lattre line, by a parachute drop and expanded their perimeter.

Campaign of 1952[កែប្រែ]

French foreign airborne 1st BEP firing with a FM 24/29 during an ambush (1952).

Việt Minh launched attacks on Hòa Binh forcing the French to withdraw back to their main positions on the De Lattre line by February 22, 1952. Each side lost nearly 5,000 men in this campaign and it showed that the war was far from over. In January, General de Lattre fell ill from cancer and had to return to France for treatment; he died there shortly thereafter and was replaced by General Raoul Salan as the overall commander of French forces in Indochina. Within that year, throughout the war theater, the Việt Minh cut French supply lines and began to seriously wear down the resolve of the French forces. There were continued raids, skirmishes and guerrilla attacks, but through most of the rest of the year each side withdrew to prepare itself for larger operations. Starting on October 2, the Battle of Na San saw the first use of the French commanders "hedgehog" tactics consisting in setting up a well defended outpost to get the Việt Minh out of the jungle and force it to fight a conventional battle instead of ambushes. At first this strategy was successful for the French Union but it ended with a fiasco in 1954.

On October 17, 1952, Giáp launched attacks against the French garrisons along Nghia Lo, northwest of Hanoi, and overran much of the Black River valley, except for the airfield of Na San where a strong French garrison entrenched. Giáp by now had control over most of Tonkin beyond the De Lattre line. Raoul Salan, seeing the situation as critical, launched Operation Lorraine along the Clear river to force Giáp to relieve pressure on the Nghia Lo outposts. On October 29, 1952, in the largest operation in Indochina to date, 30,000 French Union soldiers moved out from the De Lattre line to attack the Việt Minh supply dumps at Phu Yen. Salan took Phu Tho on November 5, and Phu Doan on November 9 by a parachute drop, and finally Phu Yen on November 13. Giáp at first did not react to the French offensive. He planned to wait until their supply lines were over extended and then cut them off from the Red River Delta. Salan correctly guessed what the Việt Minh were up to and cancelled the operation on November 14, beginning to withdraw back to the de Lattre line. The only major fighting during the operation came during the withdrawal, when the Việt Minh ambushed the French column at Chan Muong on November 17. The road was cleared after a bayonet charge by the Indochinese March Battalion and the withdrawal could continue. Though the operation was partially successful, it proved that although the French could strike out at any target outside the De Lattre line, it failed to divert the Việt Minh offensive or seriously damage its logistical network.

Campaign of 1953[កែប្រែ]

A Bearcat of the Aéronavale drops napalm on Việt Minh Division 320th's artillery during Operation Mouette (11.1953).

On April 9, 1953, Giáp, after having failed repeatedly in direct attacks on French positions in Vietnam, changed strategy and began to pressure the French by invading Laos, surrounding and defeating several French outposts such as Muong Khoua. The only real change came in May when General Navarre replaced General Salan as supreme commander in Indochina. He reported to the government "…that there was no possibility of winning the war in Indo-China" saying that the best the French could hope for was a stalemate. Navarre, in response to the Việt Minh attacking Laos, concluded that "hedgehog" centers of defense were the best plan. Looking at a map of the area, Navarre chose the small town of Ðiện Biên Phủ, located about ១០ ម៉ាយល៍ (១៦ គ.ម.) north of the Lao border and ១៧៥ ម៉ាយល៍ (២៨២ គ.ម.) west of Hanoi as a target to block the Việt Minh from invading Laos. Ðiện Biên Phủ had a number of advantages; it was on a Việt Minh supply route into Laos on the Nam Yum River, it had an old airstrip for supply and it was situated in the T'ai hills where the T'ai tribesmen, still loyal to the French, operated. Operation Castor was launched on November 20, 1953 with 1,800 men of the French 1st and 2nd Airborne Battalions dropping into the valley of Ðiện Biên Phủ and sweeping aside the local Việt Minh garrison. The paratroopers gained control of a heart-shaped valley ១២ ម៉ាយល៍ (១៩ គ.ម.) long and eight miles (13 km) wide surrounded by heavily wooded hills. Encountering little opposition, the French and T'ai units operating from Lai Châu to the north patrolled the hills. The operation was a tactical success for the French. However, Giáp, seeing the weakness of the French position, started moving most of his forces from the De Lattre line to Ðiện Biên Phủ. By mid-December, most of the French and T'ai patrols in the hills around the town were wiped out by Việt Minh ambushes.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] The fight for control of this position would be the longest and hardest battle for the French Far East Expeditionary Corps and would be remembered by the veterans as "57 Days of Hell".

Campaign of 1954[កែប្រែ]

Franco-Vietnamese medics treating a wounded Việt Minh POW at Hung Yen (1954).

By 1954, despite official propaganda presenting the war as a "crusade against communism ",[៥៨][៥៩] the war in Indochina was still growing unpopular with the French public. The political stagnation of the Fourth Republic meant that France was unable to extract itself from the conflict. The United States initially sought to remain neutral, viewing the conflict as chiefly a decolonization war. The Battle of Dien Bien Phu occurred in 1954 between Viet Minh forces under Vo Nguyen Giap supported by China and the Soviet Union and the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps supported by Indochinese allies. The battle was fought near the village of Dien Bien Phu in northern Vietnam and became the last major battle between the French and the Vietnamese in the First Indochina War. The battle began on March 13 when preemptive Việt Minh attack surprised the French with heavy artillery. Their supply lines interrupted, the French position became untenable, particularly when the advent of the monsoon season made dropping supplies and reinforcements by parachute difficult. With defeat imminent, the French sought to hold on till the opening of the Geneva peace meeting on April 26. The last French offensive took place on May 4, but it was ineffective. The Việt Minh then began to hammer the outpost with newly supplied Russian Katyusha rockets along with all the other inventions and implements now being turned against the French.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង]. The final fall took two days, May 6 and 7, during which the French fought on but were eventually overrun by a huge frontal assault. General Cogny based in Hanoi ordered General de Castries, who was commanding the outpost to cease fire at 5:30 pm and to destroy all material (weapons, transmissions, etc.) to deny their use to the enemy. A formal order was given to not use the white flag so that it would not be considered to be a surrender but a ceasefire. Much of the fighting ended on May 7; however, a ceasefire was not respected on Isabelle, the isolated southern position, where the battle lasted until May 8 1:00 am.[៦០] At least 2,200 members of the 20,000-strong French forces died during the battle. Of the 100,000 or so Vietnamese thought to be involved, there were an estimated 8,000 killed and another 15,000 wounded.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] The prisoners taken at Dien Bien Phu were the greatest number the Việt Minh had ever captured: one-third of the total captured during the entire war. One month after Dien Bien Phu, the composite Groupe Mobile 100 (GM100) of the French Union forces evacuated the An Khe outpost and was ambushed by a larger Việt Minh force at the Battle of Mang Yang Pass from June 24 to July 17. On the same time, Giap launched some offensives against the delta but they all failed[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង]. The Việt Minh victory at Dien Bien Phu heavily influenced the outcome of the 1954 Geneva accords that took place on July 21. In August began Operation Passage to Freedom consisting of the evacuation of Catholic and loyalist Vietnamese civilians from communist North Vietnamese persecution.

Geneva Conference and Partition[កែប្រែ]

Geneva Conference.

Negotiations between France and the Việt Minh started in Geneva in April 1954 at the Geneva Conference. During this time the French Union and the Việt Minh were fighting the most epic battle of the war at Dien Bien Phu. In France, Pierre Mendès-France, opponent of the war since 1950, had been invested as Prime Minister on June 17, 1954, on a promise to put an end to the war, reaching a ceasefire in four months:

"Today it seems we can be reunited in a will for peace that may express the aspirations of our country... Since already several years, a compromise peace, a peace negotiated with the opponent seemed to me commanded by the facts, while it commanded, in return, to put back in order our finances, the recovery of our economy and its expansion. Because this war placed on our country an unbearable burden. And here appears today a new and formidable threat: if the Indochina conflict is not resolved — and settled very fast — it is the risk of war, of international war and maybe atomic, that we must foresee. It is because I wanted a better peace that I wanted it earlier, when we had more assets. But even now there is some renouncings or abandons that the situation does not comprise. France does not have to accept and will not accept settlement which would be incompatible with its more vital interests [applauding on certain seats of the Assembly on the left and at the extreme right]. France will remain present in Far-Orient. Neither our allies, nor our opponents must conserve the least doubt on the signification of our determination. A negotiation has been engaged in Geneva... I have longly studied the report... consulted the most qualified military and diplomatic experts. My conviction that a pacific settlement of the conflict is possible has been confirmed. A "cease-fire" must henceforth intervene quickly. The government which I will form will fix itself — and will fix to its opponents — a delay of 4 weeks to reach it. We are today on 17th of June. I will present myself before you before the 20th of July... If no satisfying solution has been reached at this date, you will be freed from the contract which would have tied us together, and my government will give its dismissal to Mr. the President of the Republic. "[៦១]

The Geneva Conference on July 21, 1954, recognized the 17th parallel as a "provisional military demarcation line" temporarily dividing the country into two zones, Communist North Vietnam and pro-Western South Vietnam.

Students demonstration in Saigon, July 1964, observing the tenth anniversary of the July 1954 Geneva Agreements.

The Geneva Accords promised elections in 1956 to determine a national government for a united Vietnam. However, the United States and the State of Vietnam refused to sign the document. From his home in France, Emperor Bảo Đại appointed Ngô Ðình Diệm as Prime Minister of South Vietnam. With American support, in 1955 Diệm used a referendum to remove the former Emperor and declare himself the president of the Republic of Vietnam.

When the elections were prevented from happening by the Americans and the South, Việt Minh cadres who stayed behind in South Vietnam were activated and started to fight the government. North Vietnam also invaded and occupied portions of Laos to assist in supplying the guerilla fighting National Liberation Front in South Vietnam. The war gradually escalated into the Second Indochina War, more commonly known as the Vietnam War in the West and the American War in Vietnam.

ហូ ជីមិញ[កែប្រែ]

In 1923, Hồ Chí Minh moved to Guangzhou, China. From 1925–26, he organized the 'Youth Education Classes' and occasionally gave lectures at the famous Whampoa Military Academy on the revolutionary movement in Indochina. He stayed there in Hong Kong as a representative of the Communist International organization. In June 1931, he was arrested and incarcerated by British police until his release in 1933. He then made his way back to the Soviet Union, where he spent several years recovering from tuberculosis. In 1938, he returned to China and served as an adviser with the Chinese Communist armed forces.

Vo Nguyen Giap and Ho Chi Minh (1942).

In 1941, Ho Chi Minh, seeing communist revolution as the path to freedom, returned to Vietnam and formed the Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội (Allied Association of Independent Vietnam), better known as the Việt Minh . He spent many years in Moscow and participated in the International Comintern. At the direction of Moscow, he combined the various Vietnamese communist groups into the Indochinese Communist Party in Hong Kong in 1930. Hồ Chí Minh created the Viet Minh as an umbrella organization for all the nationalist resistance movements, de-emphasizing his communist social revolutionary background. Late in the war, the Japanese created a nominally independent government of Vietnam under the overall leadership of Bảo Đại. Around the same time, the Japanese arrested and imprisoned most of the French officials and military officers left in the country. After the French army and other officials were freed from Japanese prisons in Vietnam, they began reasserting their authority over parts of the country. At the same time, the French government began negotiations with both the Việt Minh and the Chinese for a return of the French army to Vietnam north of the 16th parallel. The Việt Minh were willing to accept French rule to end Chinese occupation. Hồ Chí Minh and others had fears of the Chinese, based on China's historic domination and occupation of Vietnam. The French negotiated a deal with the Chinese where pre-war French concessions in Chinese ports such as Shanghai were traded for Chinese cooperation in Vietnam. The French landed a military force at Haiphong in early 1946. Negotiations then took place about the future for Vietnam as a state within the French Union. These talks eventually failed and the Việt Minh fled into the countryside to wage guerrilla war. In 1946, Vietnam created its first constitution.

Telegram from Hồ Chí Minh to U.S. President Harry S. Truman requesting support for independence (Hanoi, Feb. 28, 1946).

The British had supported the French in fighting the Viet Minh, armed militias from the religious Cao Dai and Hoa Hao sects and the Binh Xuyen organized crime groups which were all individually seeking power in the country. In 1948, as part of a post-colonial solution, the French re-installed Bảo Ðại as head of state of Vietnam under the French Union. The Viet Minh were militarily ineffective in the first few years of the war and could do little more than harass the French in remote areas of Indochina. In 1949, the war changed with the triumph of the communists in China on Vietnam's northern border. China was able to give almost unlimited support in terms of weapons and supplies to the Việt Minh which transformed itself into a conventional army. After World War II, the United States and the USSR entered into the Cold War. The Korean War broke out in 1950 between communist North Korea (DPRK) supported by China and the Soviet Union, and South Korea (ROK) supported by the United States and its allies in the UN. The Cold War was now turning 'hot' in East Asia, and the American government feared communist domination of the entire region would have deep implications for American interests. The US became strongly opposed to the government of Hồ Chí Minh, in part, because it was supported and supplied by China. Hồ's government gained recognition from China and the Soviet Union by January 1950 in response to Western support for the State of Vietnam that the French had proposed as an associate state within the French Union. In the French-controlled areas of Vietnam, in the same year, the government of Bảo Đại gained recognition by the United States and the United Kingdom.

French domestic situation[កែប្រែ]

The 1946 Constitution creating the Fourth Republic (1946–1958) made France a Parliamentary republic. Because of the political context, it could find stability only by an alliance between the three dominant parties: the Christian Democratic Popular Republican Movement (MRP), the French Communist Party (PCF) and the socialist French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO). Known as tripartisme , this alliance briefly lasted until the May 1947 crisis, with the expulsion from Paul Ramadier's SFIO government of the PCF ministers, marking the official start of the Cold War in France. This had the effect of weakening the regime, with the two most significant movements of this period, Communism and Gaullism, in opposition.

Unlikely alliances had to be made between left and right-wing parties in order to form a government invested by the National Assembly, which resulted in strong parliamentary unstability. Hence, France had fourteen prime ministers in succession between the creation of the Fourth Republic in 1947 and the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954. The rapid turnover of governments (there were 17 different governments during the war) left France unable to prosecute the war with any consistent policy according to veteran General René de Biré (Lieutenant at Dien Bien Phu).[៦២]

France was increasingly unable to afford the costly conflict in Indochina and, by 1954, the United States was paying 80% of France's war effort which was $3,000,000 per day in 1952.[៦៣][៦៤]

A strong anti-war movement came into existence in France driven mostly by the then powerful French Communist Party (outpowering the socialists) and its young militant associations, major trade unions like the General Confederation of Labour as well as notable leftist intellectuals.[៦៥][៦៦] The first occurrence was probably at the National Assembly on March 21, 1947 when the communist deputees refused to back the military credits for Indochina. The following year a pacifist event was organized, the "1st Worldwide Congress of Peace Partisans" (1er Congrès Mondial des Partisans de la Paix , the World Peace Council's predecessor) which took place from March 25 to March 28, 1948 in Paris, with the French communist Nobel laureate atomic physicist Frédéric Joliot-Curie as president. Later on April 28, 1950, Joliot-Curie would be dismissed from the military and civilian Atomic Energy Commission for political reasons.[៦៧] Young communist militants (UJRF) were also accused of sabotage actions like the famous Henri Martin Affair and the case of Raymonde Dien who was jailed one year for having blocked an ammunition train, with the help of other militants, in order to prevent the supply of French forces in Indochina in February 1950.[៦៥][៦២] Similar actions against trains occurred in Roanne, Charleville, Marseille, and Paris. Even ammunition sabotage by PCF agents have been reported, such as grenades exploding in the hands of legionaries.[៦២] These actions became such a cause for concern by 1950 that the French Assembly voted a law against sabotage from March 2 to 8. At this session tension was so high between politicians that fighting ensued in the assembly following communist deputees speeches against the Indochinese policy.[៦៧] This month saw the French navy mariner and communist militant Henri Martin arrested by military police and jailed for five years for sabotage and propaganda operations in Toulon's arsenal. On May 5 communist Ministers were dismissed from the government, marking the end of Tripartism.[៦៧] A few months later on November 11, 1950, the French Communist Party leader Maurice Thorez went to Moscow.

Some military officers involved in the Revers Report scandal (Rapport Revers ) like General Salan were very pessimistic about the way the war was being conducted,[៦៨] with multiple political-military scandals all happening during the war, starting with the Generals' Affair (Affaire des Généraux ) from September 1949 to November 1950.

As a result, General Revers was dismissed in December 1949 and socialist Defense Ministry Jules Moch (SFIO) was brought on court by the National Assembly on November 28, 1950. Emerging media[ត្រូវការបញ្ជាក់] played their role.[ត្រូវការបញ្ជាក់] The scandal started the commercial success of the first French news magazine L'Express created in 1953.[៦៩]

The third scandal was a financial-political scandal, concerning military corruption, money and arms trading involving both the French Union army and the Viet Minh, known as the Piastres Affair.

The US Communist Party was outlawed in 1954. The war ended that year but its sequel started in French Algeria where the French Communist Party played an even stronger role by supplying the National Liberation Front (FLN) rebels with intelligence documents and financial aids. They were called "the suitcase carriers" (les porteurs de valises ).

In the French news, the Indochina War was presented as a direct continuation of the Korean War where France had fought as a UN French battalion then incorporated in a U.S. unit, which was later involved in the terrible Battle of Mang Yang Pass of June and July 1954.[៥៨] In an interview taped in May 2004, General Bigeard (6th BPC) argues that "one of the deepest mistakes done by the French during the war was the propaganda telling you are fighting for Freedom, you are fighting against Communism ",[៥៩] hence the sacrifice of volunteers during the climactic battle of Dien Bien Phu. In the latest days of the siege, 652 non-paratrooper soldiers from all army corps from cavalry to infantry to artillery dropped for the first and last time of their life to support their comrades. The Cold War excuse was later used by General Challe through his famous "Do you want Mers El Kébir & Algiers to become soviet bases as soon as tomorrow? ", during the Generals' putsch (Algerian War) of 1961, with limited effect though.[៧០] The same propaganda existed in the United States with local newsreels using French news footage, probably supplied by the army's cinematographic service. Occurring during the Red Scare years, propaganda was necessary both to justify financial aid and at the same time to promote the American effort in the ongoing Korean War.[៦៣][៧១] A few hours after the French Union defeat at Dien Bien Phu in May 1954, United States Secretary of State John Foster Dulles made an official speech depicting the "tragic event " and "its defense for fifty seven days and nights will remain in History as one of the most heroic of all time. " Later on, he denounced Chinese aid to the Việt Minh, explained that the United States could not act openly because of international pressure, and concluded with the call to "all concerned nations " concerning the necessity of "a collective defense " against "the communist aggression ".[៧២]

War crimes & re-education camps[កែប្រែ]

  • The Boudarel Affair. Georges Boudarel was a French communist militant who used brainwashing and torture against French Union POWs in Việt Minh reeducation camps.[៧៣] The French national association of POWs brought Boudarel to court for a war crime charge. Most of the French Union prisoners died in the Việt Minh camps and many POWs from the Vietnamese National Army were missing.
  • Passage to Freedom was a Franco-American operation to evacuate refugees. Loyal Indochinese evacuated to metropolitan France were kept in detention camps.[៧៤]
  • In 1957, the French Chief of Staff with Raoul Salan would use the POWs experience with the Viet Minh reeducation camps to create two "Instruction Center for Pacification and Counter-Insurgency" (Centre d'Instruction à la Pacification et à la Contre-Guérilla aka CIPCG) and train thousands of officers during the Algerian War.

Other countries' involvement[កែប្រែ]

By 1946, France headed the French Union. As successive governments had forbidden the sending of metropolitan troops, the French Far East Expeditionary Corps (CEFEO) was created in March 1945. The Union gathered combatants from almost all French territories made of colonies, protectorates and associated states (Madagascar, Senegal, Tunisia, etc.) to fight in French Indochina, which was then occupied by the Japanese. About 325,000 of the 500,000 French troops were Indochinese, almost all of whom were used in conventional units.[៧៥]

The Afrique Occidentale Française (AOF) was a federation of African colonies. Senegalese and other African troops were sent to fight in Indochina. Some African alumni were trained in the Infantry Instruction Center no.2 (Centre d'Instruction de l'Infanterie no.2 ) located in southern Vietnam. Senegalese of the Colonial Artillery fought at the siege of Dien Bien Phu. As a French colony (later a full province), French Algeria sent local troops to Indochina including several RTA (Régiment de Tirailleurs Algériens ) light infantry battalions. Morocco was a French protectorate and sent troops to support the French effort in Indochina. Moroccan troops were part of light infantry RTMs (Régiment de Tirailleurs Marocains ) for "Moroccan Sharpshooters Regiment".

As a French protectorate, Bizerte, Tunisia, was a major French base. Tunisian troops, mostly RTT (Régiment de Tirailleurs Tunisiens ), were sent to Indochina. Part of French Indochina, then part of the French Union and later an associated state, Laos fought the communists along with French forces. The role played by Laotian troops in the conflict was depicted by veteran Pierre Schoendoerffer's famous 317th Platoon released in 1964.[៧៦] The French Indochina state of Cambodia played a significant role during the Indochina War through its infantrymen and paratroopers.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង]

While Bảo Đại's State of Vietnam (formerly Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchine) had the Vietnamese National Army supporting the French forces, some minorities were trained and organized as regular battalions (mostly infantry tirailleurs ) that fought with French forces against the Việt Minh. The Tai Battalion 2 (BT2, 2e Bataillon Thai ) is famous for its desertion during the siege of Dien Bien Phu. Propaganda leaflets written in Tai and French sent by the Việt Minh were found in the deserted positions and trenches. Such deserters were called the Nam Yum rats by Bigeard during the siege, as they hid close to the Nam Yum river during the day and searched at night for supply drops.[៧៧] Another allied minority was the Muong people (Mường ). The 1st Muong Battalion (1er Bataillon Muong ) was awarded the Croix de guerre des TOE after the victorious battle of Vinh Yen in 1951.[៧៨] In the 1950s, the French established secret commando groups based on loyal montagnard ethnic minorities referred as "partisans" or "maquisards", called the Groupement de Commandos Mixtes Aéroportés (Composite Airborne Commando Group or GCMA), later renamed Groupement Mixte d'Intervention (GMI, or Mixed Intervention Group), directed by the SDECE counter-intelligence service. The SDECE's "Service Action" GCMA used both commando and guerrilla techniques and operated in intelligence and secret missions from 1950 to 1955.[៧៩][៨០] Declassified information about the GCMA include the name of its commander, famous Colonel Roger Trinquier, and a mission on April 30, 1954, when Jedburgh veteran Captain Sassi led the Mèo partisans of the GCMA Malo-Servan in Operation Condor during the siege of Dien Bien Phu.[៨១] In 1951, Adjutant-Chief Vandenberghe from the 6th Colonial Infantry Regiment (6e RIC) created the "Commando Vanden" (aka "Black Tigers", aka "North Vietnam Commando #24") based in Nam Dinh. Recruits were volunteers from the Thổ people, Nung people and Miao people. This commando unit wore Việt Minh black uniforms to confuse the enemy and used techniques of the experienced Bo doi (Bộ đội , regular army) and Du Kich (guerrilla unit). Việt Minh prisoners were recruited in POW camps. The commando was awarded the Croix de guerre des TOE with palm in July 1951, however Vandenberghe was betrayed by a Việt Minh recruit, commander Nguien Tinh Khoi (308th Division's 56th Regiment), who assassinated him (and his Vietnamese fiancee) with external help on the night of January 5, 1952.[៨២][៨៣][៨៤] Coolies and POWs known as PIM (Prisonniers Internés Militaires which is basically the same as POW) were civilians used by the army as logistical support personnel. During the battle of Dien Bien Phu, coolies were in charge of burying the corpses – the first days only, after they were abandoned hence a terrible smell according to veterans – and they had the dangerous job of gathering supply packets delivered in drop zones while the Việt Minh artillery was firing hard to destroy the crates. The Việt Minh also used thousands of coolies to carry the Chu-Luc (regional units) supplies and ammunition during assaults. The PIM were civilian males old enough to join Bảo Đại's army. They were captured in enemy controlled villages, and those who refused to join the State of Vietnam's army were considered prisoners or used as coolies to support a given regiment.[៨៥]

China supplied the Viet Minh with hundreds of Soviet-built GAZ-51 trucks in the 1950s.

One point that neither the Americans nor the French seemed to grasp, was the concept of sanctuary. As long as the revolutionaries who are fighting a guerilla war have a sanctuary, in which they can hide out, recoup after losses, and store supplies, it is almost impossible for any foreign enemy to ever destroy them.[ត្រូវការអំណះអំណាង] In the early 1950s, southern China was used as a sanctuary by Việt Minh guerrillas. Several hit and run ambushes were successfully operated against French Union convoys along the neighboring Route Coloniale 4 (RC 4) which was a major supply way in Tonkin (northern Vietnam). One of the most famous attack of this kind was the battle of Cao Bang. China supplied the Việt Minh guerrillas with food (thousands of tons of rice), money, medics, arms, ammunitions, artillery (24 guns were used at Dien Bien Phu) and other military equipment including a large part of material captured from Chiang Kai-shek's National Revolutionary Army during the Chinese Civil War. Evidences of the Chinese secret aid were found in caves during Operation Hirondelle in July 1953.[៨៦][៨៧] 2,000 Chinese and Soviet Union military advisors trained the Việt Minh guerrilla to turn it into a full range army.[៦២] On top of this China sent two artillery battalions at the siege of Dien Bien Phu on May 6, 1954. One operated 12 x 6 Katyusha rockets[៨៨] China and the Soviet Union were the first nations to recognize North Vietnam.

The Soviet Union was the other ally of the Việt Minh supplying GAZ trucks, truck engines, fuel, tires, arms (thousands of Skoda light machine guns), all kind of ammunitions, anti-aircraft guns (4 x 37 mm type) and cigarettes. During Operation Hirondelle, the French Union paratroopers captured and destroyed tons of Soviet supply in the Ky Lua area.[៨៦][៨៩] According to General Giap, the Viet Minh used 400 GAZ-51 soviet-built trucks at the battle of Dien Bien Phu. Using highly effective camouflage, the French Union reconnaissance planes were not able to notice them. On May 6, 1954 during the siege, Katyusha were successfully used against the outpost. Together with China, the Soviet Union sent 2,000 military advisors to train the Viet Minh and turn it into a fully organized army.[៦២] The Soviet Union and China the were first nations to recognize Ho Chi Minh's North Vietnam.

Mutual Defense Assistance Act (1950–1954)[កែប្រែ]

Anti-communist Vietnamese refugees moving from a French LSM landing ship to the USS Montague during Operation Passage to Freedom in 1954.

At the beginning of the war, the U.S. was neutral in the conflict because of opposition to imperialism and consequently to help colonial empires regain their power and influence, because the Việt Minh had recently been their allies, and because most of its attention was focused on Europe where Winston Churchill argued an Iron Curtain had fallen.

Then the U.S. government gradually began supporting the French in their war effort, primarily through Mutual Defense Assistance Act, as a means of stabilizing the French Fourth Republic in which the French Communist Party was a significant political force. A dramatic shift occurred in American policy after the victory of Mao Zedong's Communist Party of China in the Chinese Civil War. By 1949, however, the United States became concerned about the spread of communism in Asia, particularly following the end of the Chinese Civil War, and began to strongly support the French as the two countries were bound by the Cold War Mutual Defense Programme.[៩០] After the Moch–Marshall meeting of September 23, 1950, in Washington, the United States started to support the French Union effort politically, logistically and financially. Officially, US involvement did not include use of armed force. However, recently it has been discovered that undercover (CAT) -or not- US Air Force pilots flew to support the French during Operation Castor in November 1953. Two US pilots were killed in action during the siege of Dien Bien Phu the following year. These facts were declassified and made public more than 50 years after the events, in 2005 during the Légion d'honneur award ceremony by the French ambassador in Washington.[៩១]

In May 1950, after the capture of Hainan island by Chinese Communist forces, U.S. President Harry S. Truman began covertly authorizing direct financial assistance to the French, and on June 27, 1950, after the outbreak of the Korean War, announced publicly that the U.S. was doing so. It was feared in Washington that if Ho were to win the war, with his ties to the Soviet Union, he would establish a puppet state with Moscow with the Soviets ultimately controlling Vietnamese affairs. The prospect of a communist dominated Southeast Asia was enough to spur the U.S. to support France, so that the spread of Soviet-allied communism could be contained.

On June 30, 1950, the first U.S. supplies for Indochina were delivered. In September, Truman sent the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) to Indochina to assist the French. Later, in 1954, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower explained the escalation risk, introducing what he referred to as the "domino principle", which eventually became the concept of Domino theory. During the Korean War, the conflict in Vietnam was also seen as part of a broader proxy war with China and the USSR in Asia.

US Navy assistance (1951–1954)[កែប្រែ]

Bois Belleau (aka [126]) transferred to France in 1953.

The USS Windham Bay delivered Grumman F8F Bearcat fighter aircraft to Saigon on January 26, 1951.[៩២]

On March 2 of that year, the United States Navy transferred the USS Agenor (ARL-3) (LST 490) to the French navy in Indochina in accordance with the MAAG-led MAP. Renamed RFS Vulcain (A-656), she was used in Operation Hirondelle in 1953. The USS Sitkoh Bay carrier delivered Grumman F8F Bearcat aircraft to Saigon on March 26, 1951. During September 1953, the USS Belleau Wood (renamed Bois Belleau ) was lent to France and sent to French Indochina to replace the Arromanches . She was used to support delta defenders in the Halong Bay operation in May 1954. In August, she joined the Franco-American evacuation operation called "Passage to Freedom ".

The same month, the United States delivered additional aircraft, again using the USS Windham Bay .[៩៣] On April 18, 1954, during the siege of Dien Bien Phu, the USS Saipan delivered 25 Korean War AU-1 Corsair aircraft for use by the French Aeronavale in supporting the besieged garrison.

US Air Force assistance (1952–1954)[កែប្រែ]

A 1952 F4U-7 Corsair of the 14.F flotilla who fought at Dien Bien Phu.

A total of 94 F4U-7s were built for the Aeronavale in 1952, with the last of the batch, the final Corsair built, rolled out in December 1952. The F4U-7s were actually purchased by the U.S. Navy and passed on to the Aeronavale through the U.S. Military Assistance Program (MAP). They were supplemented by 25 ex-U.S.MC AU-1s (previously used in the Korean War) and moved from Yokosuka, Japan to Tourane Air Base (Da Nang), Vietnam in April 1952. US Air Force assistance followed in November 1953 when the French commander in Indochina, General Navarre, asked General McCarty, commander of the Combat Cargo Division, for 12 Fairchild C-119 for Operation Castor at Dien Bien Phu. The USAF also provided C-124 Globemasters to transport French paratroop reinforcements to Indochina.

On March 3, 1954, twelve C-119s of the 483rd Troop Carrier Wing ("Packet Rats") based at Ashiya, Japan, were painted with France's insignia and loaned to France with 24 CIA pilots for short term use. Maintenance was carried out by the US Air Force and airlift operations were commanded by McCarty.[៩១]

Central Intelligence Agency covert operations (1954)[កែប្រែ]

France-marked USAF C-119 flown by CIA pilots over Dien Bien Phu in 1954.

Twenty four CIA (CAT) pilots supplied the French Union garrison during the siege of Dien Bien Phu by airlifting paratroopers, ammunition, artillery pieces, tons of barbed wire, medics and other military material. With the reducing DZ areas, night operations and anti-aircraft artillery assaults, many of the "packets" fell into Việt Minh hands. The 37 CIA pilots completed 682 airdrops under anti-aircraft fire between March 13 and May. 6 Two CAT pilots, Wallace Bufford and James B. McGovern, Jr. were killed in action when their Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar was shot down on May 6, 1954 .[៩១] The ceasefire began on May 7 at 5:00 pm under Hanoi-based General Cogny's orders.[៩១] On February 25, 2005, the French ambassador to the United States, Jean-David Levitte, awarded the seven remaining CIA pilots with the Légion d'honneur.[៩១]

Operation Passage to Freedom (1954)[កែប្រែ]

In August 1954, in support to the French navy and the merchant navy, the U.S. Navy launched Operation Passage to Freedom and sent hundreds of ships, including USS Montague, in order to evacuate non-communist – especially Catholic Vietnamese refugees from North Vietnam following the July 20, 1954 armistice and partition of Vietnam. Around 450,000 Vietnamese civilians were transported from North to South during this period, with around one tenth of that number moving in the opposite direction.

Popular culture[កែប្រែ]

French Indochina medal, law of August 1, 1953.

Although a kind of taboo in France, "the dirty war" has been featured in various films, books and songs. Since its declasification in the 2000s television documentaries have been released using new perspectives about the U.S. covert involvement and open critics about the French propaganda used during wartime.

Famous Communist propagandist Roman Karmen was in charge of the media exploitation of the battle of Dien Bien Phu. In his documentary, Vietnam (Вьетнам, 1955), he staged the famous scene with the raising of the Viet Minh flag over de Castries' bunker which is similar to the one he staged over the Berlin Reichstag roof during World War II (Берлин , 1945) and the "S" shaped POW column marching after the battle, where he used the same optical technique he experimented before when he staged the German prisoners after the Siege of Leningrad (Ленинград в борьбе , 1942) and the Battle of Moscow (Разгром немецких войск под Москвой , 1942).[៩៤][៩៥]

Hollywood made a film about Dien Bien Phu in 1955, Jump Into Hell , directed by David Butler and scripted by Irving Wallace, before his fame as a bestselling novelist. Hollywood also made several films about the war, Robert Florey's Rogue's Regiment (1948). Samuel Fuller's China Gate (1957). and James Clavell's Five Gates to Hell (1959).

The first French movie about the war, Shock Patrol (Patrouille de Choc ) aka Patrol Without Hope (Patrouille Sans Espoir ) by Claude Bernard-Aubert, came out in 1956. The French censor cut some violent scenes and made the director change the end of his movie which was seen as "too pessismistic ".[៩៦] Léo Joannon's film Fort du Fou (Fort of the Mad)/Outpost in Indochina was released in 1963. Another film was The 317th Platoon (La 317ème Section ) was released in 1964, it was directed by Indochina War (and siege of Dien Bien Phu) veteran Pierre Schoendoerffer. Schoendoerffer has since become a media specialist about the Indochina War and has focused his production on realistic war movies. He was cameraman for the army ("Cinematographic Service of the Armies", SCA) during his duty time, moreover as he had covered the Vietnam War he released The Anderson Platoon , which won the Academy Award for Documentary Feature.

Graham Greene's novel The Quiet American takes place during this war.

មើលផងដែរ[កែប្រែ]

  • Japanese Invasion of French Indochina
  • French-Thai War
  • Second Japanese Campaign in French Indochina
  • Indochina Wars
  • North Vietnamese invasion of Laos
  • Second Indochina War
  • Third Indochina War
  • Cambodian-Vietnamese War
  • Pathet Lao
  • United Issarak Front

កំណត់សំគាល់[កែប្រែ]

  1. France honors CIA pilots
  2. Jacques Dalloz, La Guerre d'Indochine 1945–1954, Seuil, Paris, 1987,pp. 129–130, 206
  3. Jacques Dalloz, La Guerre d'Indochine 1945–1954, Seuil, Paris, 1987,pp. 129–130
  4. Kiernan, Ben. How Pol Pot Came to Power. London: Verso, 1985. p. 80
  5. US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles on the fall of Dien Bien Phu
  6. ៦,០ ៦,១ "Viện trợ của Trung Quốc đối với cuộc kháng chiến chống Pháp của Việt Nam". Archived from the original on ខែធ្នូ 2, 2013. Retrieved ខែសីហា 19, 2015. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  7. http://geb.uni-giessen.de/geb/volltexte/2013/9311/pdf/DaoDucThuan_2013_02_05.pdf
  8. "East Germany – The National People's Army and the Third World".
  9. Radvanyi, Janos (1980). "Vietnam War Diplomacy: Reflections of a Former Iron Curtain Official" (PDF). Paramaters: Journal of the US Army War College. Carlise Barracks, Pennsylvania. 10 (3): 8–15.
  10. Windrow, Martin (1998). The French Indochina War 1946–1954 (Men-At-Arms, 322). London: Osprey Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-85532-789-4.
  11. Windrow 1998, ទ. 23
  12. Ford, Dan. "Japanese soldiers with the Việt Minh".
  13. Pierre Vermeren (2015). Le Choc des décolonisations: De la guerre d'Algérie aux printemps arabes. Éditions Odile Jacob. p. 16. ISBN 978-2-7381-6477-3.
  14. Duthel, Heinz (2015-02-26). La Legion et la bataille a Điên Biên Phú: LA LEGION EST LEUR PATRIE. ISBN 9783734765964.
  15. Dommen, Arthur J. (2001), The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans, Indiana University Press, pg. 252
  16. Fall, Bernard, The Two Vietnams (1963)
  17. Eckhardt, William, in World Military and Social Expenditures 1987–88 (12th ed., 1987) by Ruth Leger Sivard.
  18. ១៨,០ ១៨,១ ១៨,២ Clodfelter, Michael, Vietnam in Military Statistics (1995)
  19. Stanley Kutler: Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War (1996)
  20. Chuyên đề 4 CÔNG TÁC TÌM KIẾM, QUY TẬP HÀI CỐT LIỆT SĨ TỪ NAY ĐẾN NĂM 2020 VÀ NHỮNG NĂM TIẾP THEO, datafile.chinhsachquandoi.gov.vn/Quản%20lý%20chỉ%20đạo/Chuyên%20đề%204.doc
  21. T. Lomperis, From People's War to People's Rule (1996)
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  23. Smedberg, M (2008), Vietnamkrigen: 1880–1980. Historiska Media, p. 88
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  96. The Cinematheque of Toulouse

ឯកសារយោង[កែប្រែ]

  • Buttinger, Joseph (1972). A dragon defiant: a short history of Vietnam. Praeger.
  • Chaliand, Gérard. 1982. Guerrilla Strategies: An Historical Anthology from the Long March to Afghanistan , California. ISBN 0-520-04443-6
  • Chen Jian. 1993. "China and the First Indo-China War, 1950–54", The China Quarterly , No. 133. (Mar., 1993), pp. 85–110. London: School of Oriental and African Studies.
  • Cogan, Charles G. 2000. "L'attitude des États-Unis à l'égard de la guerre d'Indochine" in Vaïsse (2000: 51–88).
  • Devillers, Philippe; Lacouture, Jean (1969). End of a war; Indochina, 1954. Praeger.
  • Dunstan, Simon. ២០០៤ Vietnam Tracks: Armor in Battle 1945–75 , Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-833-2
  • Fall, Bernard B. (1967). Hell in a very small place: the siege of Dien Bien Phu. Lippincott.
  • Fall, Bernard. 1994. Street Without Joy , Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1700-3
  • Fall, Bernard B. (1963). The two Viet-Nams: a political and military analysis. Praeger.
  • Giap, Vo Nguyen. 1971. The Military Art of People's War . Modern Reader, New York & London. ISBN 0-85345-193-1
  • Hammer, Ellen Joy (1954). The struggle for Indochina. Stanford University Press.
  • Humphries, James. F. 1999. Through the Valley: Vietnam, 1967–1968 , Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 1-55587-821-0
  • Perkins, Mandaley. Hanoi, adieu: A bittersweet memoir of French Indochina. Sydney: Harper Perennial, 2006. ISBN 9780-7322-8197-7, ISBN 0-7322-8197-0
  • Roy, Jules (1963). The battle of Dienbienphu. Pyramid Books.
  • Summers, JR., Harry G. Historical Atlas of the Vietnam War. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1995. ISBN 0-395-72223-3
  • Thi, Lam Quang. 2002. The Twenty-Five Year Century: A South Vietnamese General Remembers the Indochina War to the Fall of Saigon , University of North Texas. ISBN 1-57441-143-8
  • Vaïsse, Maurice (editor). 2000. L'Armée française dans la guerre d'Indochine (1946–1954) . Editions Complexe, Paris. ISBN 978-2-87027-810-9
  • Wiest, Andrew (editor). Rolling Thunder in a Gentle Land. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2006. ISBN 978-1-84693-020-6
  • Windrow, Martin. 1998. The French Indochina War, 1946–1954 , Osprey. ISBN 1-85532-789-9
  • Windrow, Martin. ២០០៤ The Last Valley . Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-306-81386-6

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តំណភ្ជាប់ខាងក្រៅ[កែប្រែ]

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