ហុងកុង

ដោយវិគីភីឌា

កូអរដោនេ: 22°16′42″N 114°09′32″E / 22.27833°N 114.15889°E / 22.27833; 114.15889

Hong Kong Skyline Restitch - Dec 2007.jpg

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តំបន់រដ្ឋបាលពិសេសហុងកុង
នៃសាធារណរដ្ឋប្រជាមានិតចិន

中華人民共和國香港特別行政區
A flag with a white 5-petalled flower design on solid red background A red circular emblem, with a white 5-petalled flower design in the centre, and surrounded by the words "Hong Kong" and "中華人民共和國香港特別行政區"
ទង់ Emblem
បទភ្លេង: 《義勇軍進行曲》
ចលនាទ័ពស្ម័គ្រចិត្ត
A panorama overlooking the skyscrapers of Hong Kong at night, with Victoria Harbour in the background
ទិដ្ឋភាពពេលរាត្រីមើលពីកំពូលភ្នំវិកតូរៀ
Hong Kong is situated on a peninsula and series of islands on the south coast of China, to the east of the Pearl River Delta and bordered to the north by Guangdong province
ភាសាផ្លូវការ[កំណត់ ១]
ប្រជានាម អ្នកហុងកុង
រដ្ឋាភិបាល តំបន់រដ្ឋបាលពិសេសនៃសាធារណរដ្ឋប្រជាមានិតចិន
 -  អគ្គប្រតិបត្តិ លឿង-ឈុនយីង
 -  នាយលេខាធិការ
សម្រាប់រដ្ឋបាល
ឃាំររី-ឡាំ
 -  Financial Secretary John Tsang
 -  Secretary for Justice Rimsky Yuen
នីតិបញ្ញត្តិ Legislative Council
Establishment
 -  Treaty of Nanking ២៩ សីហា ១៨៤២ 
 -  Japanese occupation 25 December 1941
to 15 August 1945
 
 -  Conveyance from British to Chinese sovereignty
១ កក្ដដា ១៩៩៧ 
ផ្ទៃដី
 -  សរុប 1.104 គ.ម. (ទី១៧៩)
426 ម៉ាយការ៉េ
 -  ទឹក (%) 4.58 (50 km2; 19 mi2)[២]
ប្រជាជន
 -  ជំរឿន 2010 7,061,200[៣]
 -  សន្ទភាព 6,480[៤]/គម (ទី៤)
16.576/ម៉ាយ​ការ៉េ
ផសស (យអទ) ការ​ប៉ាន់​ស្មាន ឆ្នាំ២០១១
 -  សរុប $351.119 billion[៥]
 -  ក្នុង​ម្នាក់ $49,137[៥]
ផសស  (មធ្យម) ការ​ប៉ាន់​ស្មាន ឆ្នាំ២០១១
 -  សរុប $243.302 billion[៥]
 -  ក្នុងម្នាក់ $34,049[៥]
ជីនី (2007) 43.4[៦]
មធ្យម
លអម (2013)  0.906[៧]
ខ្ពស់​ណាស់ · 13th
រូបិយបណ្ណ ដុល្លារហុងកុង (HKD)
តំបន់​ម៉ោង HKT (មសស+8)
ទម្រង់​កាល​បរិច្ឆេទ
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វថកអន្តរជាល
ហុងកុង
Hong Kong in Chinese 2.svg
ចិន 香港
Cantonese Yale Hēunggóng
Cantonese Jyutping Hoeng1gong2
Hanyu Pinyin Xiānggǎng
Literal meaning Fragrant harbour
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Traditional Chinese 香港特別行政區 (or 香港特區)
Simplified Chinese 香港特别行政区 (or 香港特区)
Cantonese Jyutping Hoeng1gong2 Dak6bit6 Hang4zing3 Keoi1 (or Hoeng1gong2 Dak6keoi1)
Hanyu Pinyin Xiānggǎng Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū (or Xiānggǎng Tèqū)

ហុងកុង (香港, Hong Kong, សូមមើល ឈ្មោះ) គឺជាតំបន់មួយក្នុងចំណោមតំបន់រដ្ឋបាលពិសេសទាំង២ នៃសាធារណរដ្ឋប្រជាមានិតចិន (មួយទៀតគីម៉ាកាវ។ វាមានទីតាំងស្ថិតនៅតំបន់ឆ្នេរខាងត្បូងនៃប្រទេសចិន ហើយត្រូវបានហ៊ុំព័ទ្ធដោយ Pearl River Delta និងសមុទ្រចិនខាងត្បូង,[៨] it is known for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour. With a land mass of ១១០៤ គ.ម (៤២៦ ម៉ាយ ក.) and a population of seven million people, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated areas in the world.[៩] Hong Kong's population is 93.6% ethnic Chinese and 6.4% from other groups.[១០] Hong Kong's Han Chinese majority originate mainly from the cities of Guangzhou and Taishan in the neighbouring Guangdong province.[១១]

Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after the First Opium War (1839–42). Originally confined to Hong Kong Island, the colony's boundaries were extended in stages to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and then the New Territories in 1898. It was occupied by Japan during the Pacific War (1941–45), after which the British resumed control until 1997, when China resumed sovereignty.[១២][១៣] The region espoused minimum government intervention under the ethos of positive non-interventionism during the colonial era.[១៤] The time period greatly influenced the current culture of Hong Kong, often described as "East meets West",[១៥] and the educational system, which used to loosely follow the system in England[១៦] until reforms implemented in 2009.[១៧]

Under the principle of "one country, two systems", Hong Kong has a different political system from mainland China.[១៨] Hong Kong's independent judiciary functions under the common law framework.[១៩][២០] Hong Kong Basic Law, its constitutional document, which stipulates that Hong Kong shall have a "high degree of autonomy" in all matters except foreign relations and military defence, governs its political system.[២១][២២] Although it has a burgeoning multi-party system, a small-circle electorate controls half of its legislature. The head of the government, Chief Executive of Hong Kong is chosen by an Election Committee of 400 to 1,200 members, a situation that will be in effect during the first 20 years of Chinese rule.[២៣][២៤][២៥]

As one of the world's leading international financial centres, Hong Kong has a major capitalist service economy characterised by low taxation and free trade, and the currency, Hong Kong dollar, is the eighth most traded currency in the world.[២៦] The lack of space caused demand for denser constructions, which developed the city to a centre for modern architecture and the world's most vertical city.[២៧][២៨] Hong Kong has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.[៥] The dense space also led to a highly developed transportation network with public transport travelling rate exceeding 90 percent,[២៩] the highest in the world.[៣០] Hong Kong has numerous high international rankings in various aspects. For instance, its economic freedom, financial and economic competitiveness,[៣១] quality of life, corruption perception,[៣២] Human Development Index are all ranked highly. According to estimates from both UN and WHO, Hong Kong had the longest life expectancy of any region in the world in 2012.[៣៣] Hong Kong also has the highest average IQ score in 81 countries around the world.[៣៤]

ឈ្មោះ[កែប្រែ]

ឈ្មោះ "Hong Kong" is an approximate phonetic rendering of the pronunciation of the spoken Cantonese or Hakka name 香港, meaning "fragrant harbour".[៣៥] Before 1842, the name referred to a small inlet – now Aberdeen Harbour or 香港仔 hoeng1 gong2 zai2 "Little Hong Kong" – between Aberdeen Island and the south side of Hong Kong Island, which was one of the first points of contact between British sailors and local fishermen.[៣៦]

The reference to fragrance may refer to the harbour waters sweetened by the fresh water estuarine influx of the Pearl River, or to the incense from factories lining the coast to the north of Kowloon, which was stored around Aberdeen Harbour for export before the development of Victoria Harbour.[៣៥] In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking was signed, and the name Hong Kong was first recorded on official documents to encompass the entirety of the island.[៣៧]

The name was often written as the single word Hongkong until the government adopted the current form in 1926.[៣៨] Nevertheless, some century-old organisations still use the single-word form, such as the Hongkong Post, Hongkong Electric and The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation.

The Mandarin Chinese pronunciation of the name 香港 is represented in pinyin as Xiānggǎng. While the names of most places in Mainland China are now romanised into English using (Mandarin-based) pinyin spelling, the official English name in this case remains the traditional Hong Kong rather than Xianggang.

The full official name is "Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China", this being the official convention employed on the Chinese text of the Hong Kong regional emblem, the text of the Hong Kong Basic Law, and the Hong Kong Government website,[៣៩] although "Hong Kong Special Administrative Region" and "Hong Kong" are also accepted. (Chinese versions of the territory's names can be found in the lower box to the right.)

ប្រវត្តិ[កែប្រែ]

សម័យមុនអាណានិគម[កែប្រែ]

Archaeological studies support a human presence in the Chek Lap Kok area from 35,000 to 39,000 years ago, and in Sai Kung Peninsula from 6,000 years ago.[៤០][៤១][៤២] Wong Tei Tung and Three Fathoms Cove are the two earliest sites of human habitation in the Paleolithic period. It is believed the Three Fathom Cove was a river valley settlement and Wong Tei Tung was a lithic manufacturing site. Excavated Neolithic artifacts suggest cultural differences from the Longshan culture in northern China and settlement by the Che people prior to the migration of the Baiyue.[៤៣][៤៤] Eight petroglyphs were discovered on surrounding islands, which dated to the Shang Dynasty in China.[៤៥]


សម័យអាណានិគមនិយមអង់គ្លេស[កែប្រែ]

The Cenotaph commemorates those who died in service in World War I and World War II.

In 1839 the refusal by Qing Dynasty authorities to import opium resulted in the First Opium War between China and Britain. Hong Kong Island was occupied by British forces on 20 January 1841 and was initially ceded under the Convention of Chuenpee as part of a ceasefire agreement between Captain Charles Elliot and Governor Qishan, but the agreement was never ratified due to a dispute between high-ranking officials in both governments.[៤៦] It was not until 29 August 1842 that the island was formally ceded in perpetuity to the United Kingdom under the Treaty of Nanking. The British established a crown colony with the founding of Victoria City the following year.[៤៧]

Under British rule, the population of Hong Kong island had increased from 7,450 Chinese residents, mostly fishermen, in 1841 to over 115,000 Chinese and 8,754 Europeans in Hong Kong (including Kowloon) in 1870.[៤៨] In 1860 after China's defeat in the Second Opium War, the Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutter's Island were ceded in perpetuity to Britain under the Convention of Peking. In 1894 the deadly Third Pandemic of bubonic plague spread from China to Hong Kong, causing 50,000–100,000 deaths.[៤៩]

ការឈ្លានពានរបស់ជប៉ុន[កែប្រែ]

Hong Kong Museum of Coastal Defence

In conjunction with its military campaign, the Empire of Japan invaded Hong Kong on 8 December 1941.[៥០] The Battle of Hong Kong ended with British and Canadian defenders surrendering control of the colony to Japan on 25 December.[៥១] During the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong, civilians suffered widespread food shortages, rationing, and hyper-inflation due to forced exchange of currency for military notes. Through a policy of enforced repatriation of the unemployed to the mainland throughout the period, because of the scarcity of food, the population of Hong Kong had dwindled from 1.6 million in 1941 to 600,000 in 1945, when the United Kingdom resumed control of the colony.[៥២]

សម៏យសង្គ្រាមត្រជាក់[កែប្រែ]

A sky view of Hong Kong Island
Development of Hong Kong Island in 1986

Hong Kong's population recovered quickly as a wave of migrants from China arrived for refuge from the ongoing Chinese Civil War. When the PRC was proclaimed in 1949, more migrants fled to Hong Kong for fear of persecution by the Communist Party.[៥៣] Many corporations in Shanghai and Guangzhou shifted their operations to Hong Kong.[៥៣]

ចាប់តាំងពីឆ្នាំ១៩៩៧[កែប្រែ]

On 1 July 1997 the transfer of sovereignty from United Kingdom to the PRC occurred, officially ending 156 years of British colonial rule. Hong Kong became China's first special administrative region, and Tung Chee-Hwa took office as the first Chief Executive of Hong Kong. That same year, Hong Kong suffered an economic double blow from the Asian financial crisis and the H5N1 avian influenza.[៥៣] In 2003 Hong Kong was gravely affected by the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).[៥៤][៥៥] The World Health Organization reported 1,755 infected and 299 deaths in Hong Kong.[៥៦] An estimated 380 million Hong Kong dollars (US$48.9 million) in contracts were lost as a result of the epidemic.[៥៧]


អភិបាលកិច្ច[កែប្រែ]

Owing to its long history as a colony of the British Empire, Hong Kong is a city-state which continues to enjoy a high degree of autonomy even after its return to China.[៥៨] In accordance with the Sino-British Joint Declaration, and the underlying principle of one country, two systems, Hong Kong has a "high degree of autonomy as a special administrative region in all areas except defence and foreign affairs."[note ១] The declaration stipulates that the region maintain its capitalist economic system and guarantees the rights and freedoms of its people for at least 50 years beyond the 1997 handover.[note ២] The guarantees over the territory's autonomy and the individual rights and freedoms are enshrined in a constitution, the Hong Kong Basic Law (formed based on the Common law of England), which outlines the system of governance of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, but which is subject to the interpretation of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC).[៥៩][៦០]

ប្រព័ន្ធច្បាប់និងតុលាការ[កែប្រែ]

blindfolded lady with sword in right hand held vertically down to floor, and a set of balance scales in her left hand held neck high
Themis or Lady Justice, armed with sword and balance scales (Legislative Council Building, Central, Hong Kong) She is the personification of justice balancing the scales of truth and fairness.

Hong Kong's legal system is completely independent from the legal system of mainland China. In contrast to mainland China's civil law system, Hong Kong continues to follow the English Common Law tradition established under British rule.[៦១] The essence of English common law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying legal precedent (stare decisis) to the facts before them. For example, murder is a common law crime rather than one established by an Act of Parliament. Common law can be amended or repealed by Parliament; murder, for example, now carries a mandatory life sentence rather than the death penalty. According to Article 92 of the Basic Law, Hong Kong's courts may refer to decisions rendered by courts of other common law jurisdictions as precedents,[១៩][៦២] and judges from other common law jurisdictions, most commonly England, Canada and Australia, are allowed to sit as non-permanent judges of the Court of Final Appeal.[១៩][៦២]

សិទ្ធិមនុស្ស[កែប្រែ]

1 July march is an annual protest rally in Hong Kong.

Hong Kong's Basic law is based on the English law and so in general, Hong Kong is perceived to enjoy a high level of civil liberties.[៦៣] The Hong Kong government generally respects the human rights of its citizens, although core issues remain.[៦៤] There are concerns over the freedom of assembly which is restricted by the Public Order Ordinance. The police has been occasionally accused of using heavy-handed tactics towards protestors[៦៥] and questions are asked towards the extensive powers of the police.[៦៦] As to the right of privacy, covert surveillance remains the major concern.[៦៧] There is a lack of protection for gay men and lesbians due to the absence of a sexual orientation discrimination law, though there are currently no laws that criminalize homosexuality per se.[៦៨] There are also comments regarding a lack of protection for labour rights.[៦៤]

Internet censorship in Hong Kong operates under different principles and regulations from those of mainland China.[៦៩]

Administrative districts[កែប្រែ]

Hong Kong has a unitary system of government; no local government has existed since the two municipal councils were abolished in 2000. As such there is no formal definition for its cities and towns. Administratively, Hong Kong is subdivided into 18 geographic districts, each represented by a district council which advises the government on local matters such as public facilities, community programmes, cultural activities, and environmental improvements.[៧០]

There are a total of 534 district council seats, 405 of which are elected; the rest are appointed by the Chief Executive and 27 ex officio chairmen of rural committees.[៧០] The Home Affairs Department communicates government policies and plans to the public through the district offices.[៧១]

យោធា[កែប្រែ]

When Hong Kong was a British colony and later, a dependent territory, defence was provided by the British military under the command of the Governor of Hong Kong who was ex officio Commander-in-chief.[៧២] When the PRC assumed sovereignty in 1997 the British barracks were replaced by a garrison of the People's Liberation Army, comprising ground, naval, and air forces, and under the command of the Chinese Central Military Commission. The Hong Kong Basic Law protects local civil affairs against interference by the garrison, and members of the garrison are subject to Hong Kong laws. The Hong Kong Government remains responsible for the maintenance of public order; however, it may ask the PRC government for help from the garrison in maintaining public order and in disaster relief. The PRC government is responsible for the costs of maintaining the garrison.[២១][៧៣]

ភូមិសាស្ត្រ និងអាកាសធាតុ[កែប្រែ]

Topographical satellite image with enhanced colours showing areas of vegetation and conurbation. Purple areas around the coasts indicate the areas of urban development
Areas of urban development and vegetation are visible in this false-colour satellite image.

Hong Kong is located on China's south coast, ៦០ គ.ម. (៣៧ ម៉ៃ.) east of Macau on the opposite side of the Pearl River Delta. It is surrounded by the South China Sea on the east, south, and west, and borders the Guangdong city of Shenzhen to the north over the Shenzhen River. The territory's ១១០៤ គ.ម (៤២៦ ម៉ាយ ក.) area consists of Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula, the New Territories, and over 200 offshore islands, of which the largest is Lantau Island. Of the total area, ១០៥៤ គ.ម (៤០៧ ម៉ាយ ក.) is land and ៥០ គ.ម (១៩ ម៉ាយ ក.) is inland water. Hong Kong claims territorial waters to a distance of ៣ nautical miles (៥,៦ គ.ម.)ទំព័រគំរូ:Convert/test/Aout. Its land area makes Hong Kong the 179th largest inhabited territory in the world.[២][៨]

As much of Hong Kong's terrain is hilly to mountainous with steep slopes, less than 25% of the territory's landmass is developed, and about 40% of the remaining land area is reserved as country parks and nature reserves.[៧៤] Most of the territory's urban development exists on Kowloon peninsula, along the northern edge of Hong Kong Island, and in scattered settlements throughout the New Territories.[៧៥] The highest elevation in the territory is at Tai Mo Shan, ៩៥៧ មាត្រ (៣១៤០ ភត) above sea level.[៧៦] Hong Kong's long and irregular coast provides it with many bays, rivers and beaches.[៧៧] On 18 September 2011, UNESCO listed the Hong Kong National Geopark as part of its Global Geoparks Network. Hong Kong Geopark is made up of eight Geo-Areas distributed across the Sai Kung Volcanic Rock Region and Northeast New Territories Sedimentary Rock Region.[៧៨]

Despite Hong Kong's reputation of being intensely urbanised, the territory has tried to promote a green environment,[៧៩] and recent growing public concern has prompted the severe restriction of further land reclamation from Victoria Harbour.[៨០] Awareness of the environment is growing as Hong Kong suffers from increasing pollution compounded by its geography and tall buildings. Approximately 80% of the city's smog originates from other parts of the Pearl River Delta.[៨១]

Though it is situated just south of the Tropic of Cancer, Hong Kong has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa). Summer is hot and humid with occasional showers and thunderstorms, and warm air coming from the southwest. Summer is when typhoons are most likely, sometimes resulting in flooding or landslides. Winters are mild and usually start sunny, becoming cloudier towards February; the occasional cold front brings strong, cooling winds from the north. The most temperate seasons are spring, which can be changeable, and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry.[៨២] Hong Kong averages 1,948 hours of sunshine per year,[៨៣] while the highest and lowest ever recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory are ៣៦,១ °C (៩៧�០ °F) and ០,០ °C (៣២�០ °F), respectively.[៨៤]

សេដ្ឋកិច្ច[កែប្រែ]

View from Ice House Street in 1930s. Looking west along Chater Road. The building at the end of the Road is Jardine House (2nd generation) [1908-1955], which is located across the Pedder St / Des Voeux Rd junction.

As one of the world's leading international financial centres, Hong Kong has a major capitalist service economy characterised by low taxation and free trade. The currency, Hong Kong dollar, is the eighth most traded currency in the world as of 2010.[២៦] Hong Kong was once described by Milton Friedman as the world's greatest experiment in laissez-faire capitalism, but has since instituted a regime of regulations including a minimum wage.[៨៧] It maintains a highly developed capitalist economy, ranked the freest in the world by the Index of Economic Freedom every year since 1995.[៨៨][៨៩][៩០] It is an important centre for international finance and trade, with one of the greatest concentrations of corporate headquarters in the Asia-Pacific region,[៩១] and is known as one of the Four Asian Tigers for its high growth rates and rapid development from the 1960s to the 1990s. Between 1961 and 1997 Hong Kong's gross domestic product grew 180 times while per-capita GDP increased 87 times over.[៩២][៩៣][៩៤]

The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the seventh largest in the world, with a market capitalisation of US$2.3 trillion as of December 2009.[៩៥] In that year, Hong Kong raised 22 percent of worldwide initial public offering (IPO) capital, making it the largest centre of IPOs in the world [៩៦] and the easiest place to raise capital.[៩៧] The Hong Kong dollar has been pegged to the U.S. dollar since 1983.[៩៨]

The Hong Kong Government has traditionally played a mostly passive role in the economy, with little by way of industrial policy and almost no import or export controls. Market forces and the private sector were allowed to determine practical development. Under the official policy of "positive non-interventionism", Hong Kong is often cited as an example of laissez-faire capitalism. Following the Second World War, Hong Kong industrialised rapidly as a manufacturing centre driven by exports, and then underwent a rapid transition to a service-based economy in the 1980s.[៩៩] Since then, it has grown to become a leading center for management, financial, IT, business consultation and professional services.[៩៧]

Hong Kong matured to become a financial centre in the 1990s, but was greatly affected by the Asian financial crisis in 1998, and again in 2003 by the SARS outbreak. A revival of external and domestic demand has led to a strong recovery, as cost decreases strengthened the competitiveness of Hong Kong exports and a long deflationary period ended.[១០០][១០១] Government intervention, initiated by the later colonial governments and continued since 1997, has steadily increased, with the introduction of export credit guarantees, a compulsory pension scheme, a minimum wage, anti-discrimination laws, and a state mortgage backer.[៨៧]

The territory has little arable land and few natural resources, so it imports most of its food and raw materials. Agricultural activity—relatively unimportant to Hong Kong's economy and contributing just 0.1% of its GDP—primarily consists of growing premium food and flower varieties.[៩៧] Hong Kong is the world's eleventh largest trading entity,[១០២] with the total value of imports and exports exceeding its gross domestic product. It is the world's largest re-export centre.[១០៣] Much of Hong Kong's exports consist of re-exports,[១០៤] which are products made outside of the territory, especially in mainland China, and distributed via Hong Kong. Its physical location has allowed the city to establish a transportation and logistics infrastructure that includes the world's second busiest container port and the world's busiest airport for international cargo.[៩៧] Even before the transfer of sovereignty, Hong Kong had established extensive trade and investment ties with the mainland, which now enable it to serve as a point of entry for investment flowing into the mainland. At the end of 2007, there were 3.46 million people employed full-time, with the unemployment rate averaging 4.1% for the fourth straight year of decline.[១០៥] Hong Kong's economy is dominated by the service sector, which accounts for over 90% of its GDP, while industry constitutes 9%. Inflation was at 2.5% in 2007.[១០៦] Hong Kong's largest export markets are mainland China, the United States, and Japan.[២]

As of 2010 Hong Kong is the eighth most expensive city for expatriates, falling from fifth position in the previous year.[១០៧] Hong Kong is ranked fourth in terms of the highest percentage of millionaire households, behind Switzerland, Qatar, and Singapore with 8.5 percent of all households owning at least one million US dollars.[១០៨] In 2011, Hong Kong was ranked second in the Ease of Doing Business Index, behind Singapore.[១០៩]

ហេដ្ឋារចនាសម្ព័ន្ធ[កែប្រែ]

Hong Kong's transportation network is highly developed. Over 90% of daily travels (11 million) are on public transport,[២៩] the highest such percentage in the world.[៣០] Payment can be made using the Octopus card, a stored value system introduced by the Mass Transit Railway (MTR), which is widely accepted on railways, buses and ferries, and accepted like cash at other outlets.[១១០][១១១]

The city's main railway company (KCRC) was merged with MTR in 2007, creating a comprehensive rail network for the whole territory (also called MTR).[១១២] This MTR rapid transit system has 152 stations, which serve 3.4 million people a day.[១១៣] Hong Kong Tramways, which has served the territory since 1904, covers the northern parts of Hong Kong Island.[១១៤]

A map of the Mass Transit Railway network.
The Mass Transit Railway has more than 150 stations in its network.
Ship-Star-Cruises-Star-Pisces-Hong-Kong
A Tram in City of Victoria, Hong Kong
CityBus Alexander Dennis Enviro 400 10.5m-A double-decker in Hong Kong heading to Stanley.

Hong Kong's bus service is franchised and run by private operators. Five privately owned companies provide franchised bus service across the territory, together operating more than 700 routes. The two largest, Kowloon Motor Bus provides 402 routes in Kowloon and New Territories; Citybus operates 154 routes on Hong Kong Island; both run cross-harbour services. Double-decker buses were introduced to Hong Kong in 1949, and are now almost exclusively used; single-decker buses remain in use for routes with lower demand or roads with lower load capacity. Public light buses serve most parts of Hong Kong, particularly areas where standard bus lines cannot reach or do not reach as frequently, quickly, or directly.[១១៥]

The Hong Kong-Kowloon Ferry

The Star Ferry service, founded in 1888, operates two lines across Victoria Harbour and provides scenic views of Hong Kong's skyline for its 53,000 daily passengers.[១១៦] It acquired iconic status following its use as a setting on The World of Suzie Wong. Travel writer Ryan Levitt considered the main Tsim Sha Tsui to Central crossing one of the most picturesque in the world.[១១៧] Other ferry services are provided by operators serving outlying islands, new towns, Macau, and cities in mainland China. Hong Kong is famous for its junks traversing the harbour, and small kai-to ferries that serve remote coastal settlements.[១១៨][១១៩] The Port of Hong Kong is a busy deepwater port, specialising in container shipping.[១២០]

The Peak Tram of Hong Kong

Hong Kong Island's steep, hilly terrain was initially served by sedan chairs.[១២១] The Peak Tram, the first public transport system in Hong Kong, has provided vertical rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since 1888.[១២២] In Central and Western district, there is an extensive system of escalators and moving pavements, including the longest outdoor covered escalator system in the world, the Mid-Levels escalator.[១២៣]

Hong Kong International Airport is a leading air passenger gateway and logistics hub in Asia and one of the world's busiest airports in terms of international passenger and cargo movement, serving more than 47 million passengers and handling 3.74 million tonnes (4.12 million tons) of cargo in 2007.[១២៤] It replaced the overcrowded Kai Tak Airport in Kowloon in 1998, and has been rated as the world's best airport in a number of surveys.[១២៥] Over 85 airlines operate at the two-terminal airport and it is the primary hub of Cathay Pacific, Dragonair, Air Hong Kong, Hong Kong Airlines, and Hong Kong Express.[១២៤][១២៦]

ប្រជាសាស្ត្រ[កែប្រែ]

The territory's population is 7.03 million. In 2009 Hong Kong had a birth rate of 11.7 per 1,000 population and a fertility rate of 1,032 children per 1,000 women.[១២៧] Residents from mainland China do not have the right of abode in Hong Kong, nor are they allowed to enter the territory freely.[១២៨] However, the influx of immigrants from mainland China, approximating 45,000 per year, is a significant contributor to its population growth – a daily quota of 150 Mainland Chinese with family ties in Hong Kong are granted a "one way permit".[១២៩] Life expectancy in Hong Kong is 79.16 years for males and 84.79 years for females as of 2009, making it one of the highest life expectancies in the world.[២]

About 93.6% of the people of Hong Kong are of Chinese descent,[១០] the majority of whom are Taishanese, Chiu Chow, other Cantonese people, and Hakka. Hong Kong's Han majority originate mainly from the Guangzhou and Taishan regions in Guangdong province.[១១] The remaining 6.4% of the population is composed of non-ethnic Chinese.[១០] There is a South Asian population of Indians, Pakistanis and Nepalese; some Vietnamese refugees have become permanent residents of Hong Kong. There are also Britons, Americans, Canadians, Japanese, and Koreans working in the city's commercial and financial sector.[note ៣] In 2008, there were an estimate of 252,500 foreign domestic helpers from Indonesia and the Philippines working in Hong Kong.[១៣១]

Hong Kong's de facto official language is Cantonese, a Chinese language originating from Guangdong province to the north of Hong Kong.[១៣២] English is also an official language, and according to a 1996 by-census is spoken by 3.1 percent of the population as an everyday language and by 34.9 percent of the population as a second language.[១៣៣] Signs displaying both Chinese and English are common throughout the territory. Since the 1997 handover, an increase in immigrants from mainland China and greater integration with the mainland economy have brought an increasing number of Mandarin speakers to Hong Kong.[១៣៤]

A majority of residents of Hong Kong would claim no religious affiliation, professing a form of agnosticism or atheism.[១៣៥] According to the U.S Department of State only 43 percent of the population practices some form of religion.[១៣៦] Some figures put it higher, according to a Gallup poll, 64% of Hong Kong residents do not believe in any religion,[១៣៧][១៣៨] and possibly 80% of Hong Kong claim no religion.[១៣៩] In Hong Kong teaching evolution won out in curriculum dispute about whether to teach other explanations, and that creationism and intelligent design will form no part of the senior secondary biology curriculum.[១៤០][១៤១]

Bell tower of St. John's Cathedral in Central, Hong Kong (22 May 2007)

Hong Kong enjoys a high degree of religious freedom, guaranteed by the Basic Law. Hong Kong's main religions are Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism; a local religious scholar in contact with major denominations estimates there are approximately 1.5 million Buddhists and Taoists.[១៣៦] A Christian community of around 833,000 forms about 11.7% of the total population;[១៤២] Protestants forms a larger number than Catholics at a rate of 4:3, although smaller Christian communities exist, including the Latter-Day Saints[១៤៣] and Jehovah's Witnesses.[១៤៤] The Anglican and Roman Catholic churches each freely appoint their own bishops, unlike in mainland China. There are also Sikh, Muslim, Jewish, Hindu and Bahá'í communities.[១៤៥] The practice of Falun Gong is tolerated.[១៤៦]

Statistically Hong Kong's income gap is the greatest in Asia Pacific. According to a report by the United Nations Human Settlements Programme in 2008, Hong Kong's Gini coefficient, at 0.53, was the highest in Asia and "relatively high by international standards".[១៤៧][១៤៨] However, the government has stressed that income disparity does not equate to worsening of the poverty situation, and that the Gini coefficient is not strictly comparable between regions. The government has named economic restructuring, changes in household sizes, and the increase of high-income jobs as factors that have skewed the Gini coefficient.[១៤៩][១៥០]

វិស័យអប់រំ[កែប្រែ]

3-storey red brick building with gabled roof adjacent to 7-storey modern building with flat roof.
A view over the University of Hong Kong

Hong Kong's education system used to roughly follow the system in England,[១៦] although international systems exist. The government maintains a policy of "mother tongue instruction" (ចិន母語教學) in which the medium of instruction is Cantonese,[១៥១] with written Chinese and English. In secondary schools, 'biliterate and trilingual' proficiency is emphasised, and Mandarin-language education has been increasing.[១៥២] The Programme for International Student Assessment ranked Hong Kong's education system as the second best in the world.[១៥៣] Hong Kong's public schools are operated by the Education Bureau. The system features a non-compulsory three-year kindergarten, followed by a compulsory six-year primary education, a compulsory three-year junior secondary education, a non-compulsory two-year senior secondary education leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examinations and a two-year matriculation course leading to the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examinations.[១៥៤] The New Senior Secondary academic structure and curriculum was implemented in September 2009, which provides for all students to receive three years of compulsory junior and three years of compulsory senior secondary education.[១៧][១៥៥] Under the new curriculum, there is only one public examination, namely the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education.[១៥៦]

Most comprehensive schools in Hong Kong fall under three categories: the rarer public schools; the more common subsidised schools, including government aids-and-grant schools; and private schools, often run by Christian organisations and having admissions based on academic merit rather than on financial resources. Outside this system are the schools under the Direct Subsidy Scheme and private international schools.[១៥៥]

There are eight public and one private universities in Hong Kong with the University of Hong Kong (HKU) being the oldest which was established in 1910-1912.[១៥៧] Competition among students to receive an offer for an undergraduate program is fierce as the annual number of intakes is limited, especially when some disciplines are just offered by some of those tertiary institutions, like medicine which is provided by merely two medical schools in the territory, the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine owned by the University of Hong Kong and the Faculty of Medicine of the The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Besides, there is also a number of private higher institutions which offer higher diplomas and associate degree courses for those who fail to enter a college for a degree study so as to boost their qualification of education, some of whom can have a second chance of getting into a university if they have a good performance in these sub-degree courses.[១៥៨][១៥៩]

វិស័យសុខាភិបាល[កែប្រែ]

There are 13 private hospitals and more than 40 public hospitals in Hong Kong.[១៦០] There is little interaction between public and private healthcare.[១៦១] The hospitals offer a wide range of healthcare services, and some of the territory's private hospitals are considered to be world class.[១៦២] According to UN estimates, Hong Kong has one of the longest life expectancy of any country or territory in the world.[១៦៣] As of 2012, Hong Kong women are the longest living demographic group in the world.[១៦៤]

There are two medical schools in the territory, one based at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the other at Hong Kong University.[១៦៥][១៦៦] Both have links with public sector hospitals.[១៦៥][១៦៧] With respect to postgraduate education, traditionally many doctors in Hong Kong have looked overseas for further training, and many took British Royal College exams such as the MRCP(UK) and the MRCS(UK). However, Hong Kong has been developing its own postgraduate medical institutions, in particular the Hong Kong Academy of Medicine, and this is gradually taking over the responsibility for all postgraduate medical training in the territory.

By 2011, there have been growing concerns that mothers-to-be from mainland China, in a bid to obtain the right of abode in Hong Kong and the benefits that come with it, have saturated the neonatal wards of the city's hospitals, both public and private sectors, which has led to outcries and protests from local pregnant women for the government to remedy the issue, as they have found difficulty securing a bed space for giving birth and arrange routine check-ups. Other concerns in the decade of 2001–2010 relate to the workload medical staff experience; and medical errors and mishaps, which are frequently highlighted in local news.[១៦៨]

វប្បធម៌[កែប្រែ]

A group of British fans at the Rugby Sevens in Hong Kong. The south side of the stadium is known for the enthusiasm of its fans.
City lights of Kowloon: Mong Kok, Sai Yeung Choi Street South, at the corner with Nelson Street. (2011)

Hong Kong is frequently described as a place where "East meets West", reflecting the culture's mix of the territory's Chinese roots with influences from its time as a British colony.[១៥] Hong Kong balances a modernised way of life with traditional Chinese practices. Concepts like feng shui are taken very seriously, with expensive construction projects often hiring expert consultants, and are often believed to make or break a business.[១៦៩] Other objects like Ba gua mirrors are still regularly used to deflect evil spirits,[១៧០] and buildings often lack any floor number that has a 4 in it,[១៧១] due to its similarity to the word for "die" in Cantonese.[១៧២] The fusion of east and west also characterises Hong Kong's cuisine, where dim sum, hot pot, and fast food restaurants coexist with haute cuisine.[១៧៣]

Hong Kong is a recognised global centre of trade, and calls itself an "entertainment hub".[១៧៤] Its martial arts film genre gained a high level of popularity in the late 1960s and 1970s. Several Hollywood performers, notable actors and martial artists have originated from Hong Kong cinema, notably Bruce Lee, Jackie Chan, Chow Yun-fat, Michelle Yeoh, Maggie Cheung and Jet Li. A number of Hong Kong film-makers have achieved widespread fame in Hollywood, such as John Woo, Wong Kar-wai, and Stephen Chow.[១៧៤] Homegrown films such as Chungking Express, Infernal Affairs, Shaolin Soccer, Rumble in the Bronx, In the Mood for Love and Echoes of the Rainbow have gained international recognition. Hong Kong is the centre for Cantopop music, which draws its influence from other forms of Chinese music and Western genres, and has a multinational fanbase.[១៧៥]

A statue of Bruce Lee on the Avenue of Stars, a tribute to the city's martial arts

The Hong Kong government supports cultural institutions such as the Hong Kong Heritage Museum, the Hong Kong Museum of Art, the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts, and the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra. The government's Leisure and Cultural Services Department subsidises and sponsors international performers brought to Hong Kong. Many international cultural activities are organised by the government, consulates, and privately.[១៧៦][១៧៧]

Hong Kong has two licensed terrestrial broadcastersATV and TVB. There are three local and a number of foreign suppliers of cable and satellite services.[១៧៨] The production of Hong Kong's soap dramas, comedy series, and variety shows reach audiences throughout the Chinese-speaking world. Magazine and newspaper publishers in Hong Kong distribute and print in both Chinese and English, with a focus on sensationalism and celebrity gossip.[១៧៩] The media in Hong Kong is relatively free from official interference compared to Mainland China, although the Far Eastern Economic Review points to signs of self-censorship by media whose owners have close ties to or business interests in the People's Republic of China and states that even Western media outlets are not immune to growing Chinese economic power.[១៨០]

Hong Kong offers wide recreational and competitive sport opportunities despite its limited land area. It sends delegates to international competitions such as the Olympic Games and Asian Games, and played host to the equestrian events during the 2008 Summer Olympics.[១៨១] There are major multipurpose venues like Hong Kong Coliseum and MacPherson Stadium. Hong Kong's steep terrain and extensive trail network with expansive views attracts hikers, and its rugged coastline provides many beaches for swimming.[១៨២]

កីឡា[កែប្រែ]

Sports in Hong Kong are a significant part of its culture. Due mainly to British influence going as far back as the late 19th century, Hong Kong had an earlier introduction to Western athletics compared to other Asia regions. Football, basketball, swimming, badminton, table tennis, cycling and running have the most participants and spectators. In 2009, Hong Kong successfully organized the V East Asian Games and was the biggest sporting event ever held in the territory. Other major international sporting events including the Equestrian at the 2008 Summer Olympics, Hong Kong Sevens, Hong Kong Marathon, AFC Asian Cup, EAFF East Asian Cup, Hong Kong Tennis Classic, Premier League Asia Trophy, and Lunar New Year Cup. Hong Kong athletes over see improved, as of 2010, there are 32 Hong Kong athletes from seven sports ranking in world's Top 20, 29 athletes in six sports in Asia top 10 ranking. Moreover, Hong Kong is equally impressive performance of athletes with disabilities in 2009, having won four world championships and two Asian Champions.[១៨៣]

ស្ថាបត្យកម្ម[កែប្រែ]

According to Emporis, there are 1,223 skyscrapers in Hong Kong, which puts the city at the top of world rankings.[១៨៤] It has more buildings higher than 500 ft (or 150m) than any other city. The high density and tall skyline of Hong Kong's urban area is due to a lack of available sprawl space, with the average distance from the harbour front to the steep hills of Hong Kong Island at ១,៣ គ.ម. (០,៨១ ម៉ៃ.),[១៨៥] much of it reclaimed land. This lack of space causes demand for dense, high-rise offices and housing. Thirty-six of the world's 100 tallest residential buildings are in Hong Kong.[១៨៦] More people in Hong Kong live or work above the 14th floor than anywhere else on Earth, making it the world's most vertical city.[២៧][២៨]

As a result of the lack of space and demand for construction, few older buildings remain, and the city is becoming a centre for modern architecture. The International Commerce Centre (ICC), at ៤៨៤ ម (១៥៨៨ ភត) high, is the tallest building in Hong Kong and the third tallest in the world, by height to roof measurement.[១៨៧] The tallest building prior to the ICC is Two International Finance Centre, at ៤១៥ ម (១៣៦២ ភត) high.[១៨៨] Other recognisable skyline features include the HSBC Headquarters Building, the triangular-topped Central Plaza with its pyramid-shaped spire, The Center with its night-time multi-coloured neon light show; A Symphony of Lights and I. M. Pei's Bank of China Tower with its sharp, angular façade. According to the Emporis website, the city skyline has the biggest visual impact of all world cities.[១៨៩] Also, Hong Kong's skyline is often regarded to be the best in the world,[១៩០] with the surrounding mountains and Victoria Harbour complementing the skyscrapers.[១៩១][១៩២] Most of the oldest remaining historic structures, including the Tsim Sha Tsui Clock Tower, the Central Police Station, and the remains of Kowloon Walled City were constructed during the 19th and early 20th centuries.[១៩៣][១៩៤][១៩៥]

There are many development plans in place, including the construction of new government buildings,[១៩៦] waterfront redevelopment in Central,[១៩៧] and a series of projects in West Kowloon.[១៩៨] More high-rise development is set to take place on the other side of Victoria Harbour in Kowloon, as the 1998 closure of the nearby Kai Tak Airport lifted strict height restrictions.[១៩៩]

panorama: looking down on a city of skyscrapers, land mass in the distance separated by a body of water.
A view from Victoria Peak, looking north over Central, Victoria Harbour and Kowloon (2011).
A view from Victoria Peak, looking north over Central, Victoria Harbour and Kowloon at night (2011).
Night time city skyline with Victoria Harbour in front and low hills behind
A panoramic view of the Hong Kong Island skyline at night

មើលផងដែរ[កែប្រែ]

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Footnotes[កែប្រែ]

  1. Section 3(2) of the Sino-British Joint Declaration states in part, "The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region will enjoy a high degree of autonomy, except in foreign and defence affairs which, are the responsibilities of the Central People's Government."
  2. Section 3(5) of the Sino-British Joint Declaration states that the social and economic systems and lifestyle in Hong Kong will remain unchanged, and mentions rights and freedoms ensured by law. Section 3(12) states in part, "The above-stated basic policies of the People's Republic of China ... will remain unchanged for 50 years."
  3. The results of the 2006 census showed that the "white" population had declined from 46,584 in 2001 to 36,384, a decline of 22 percent.[១៣០]

ឯកសារយោង[កែប្រែ]

  1. [តំណភ្ជាប់ខូច] "Official Languages"។ Hong Kong Government។ 2009http://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/chapter_1.html[តំណភ្ជាប់ខូច]។ បានយកមក 14 October 2012 
  2. ២,០ ២,១ ២,២ ២,៣ "Hong Kong"The World Factbook។ CIA។ 23 August 2010https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/hk.html។ បានយកមក 17 September 2010 
  3. "Population and Vital Events"Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government។ 2010http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/hong_kong_statistics/statistics_by_subject/index.jsp?subjectID=1&charsetID=2&displayMode=T។ បានយកមក 4 October 2010 
  4. "Population Density by Area"។ Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government។ 2009http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/FileManager/EN/Content_803/population.pdf។ បានយកមក 4 October 2010 
  5. ៥,០ ៥,១ ៥,២ ៥,៣ ៥,៤ "Hong Kong"International Monetary Fundhttp://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=29&pr.y=18&sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=532&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=។ បានយកមក 18 April 2012 
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  9. Ash, Russell (2006)។ The Top 10 of Everything 2007Hamlyn។ ទំ. 78។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-600-61532-4 
  10. ១០,០ ១០,១ ១០,២ (PDF) 2011 Population Census – Summary Results (Report). Census and Statistics Department. February 2012. p. 37. http://www.census2011.gov.hk/pdf/summary-results.pdf។ បានយកមក 14 July 2013. 
  11. ១១,០ ១១,១ Fan Shuh Ching (1974)។ "The Population of Hong Kong"World Population Year (Committee for International Coordination of National Research in Demography): 18–20http://www.cicred.org/Eng/Publications/pdf/c-c21.pdf។ បានយកមក 25 August 2010 
  12. "Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong"។ Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau, Hong Kong Government។ 19 December 1984http://www.cmab.gov.hk/en/issues/jd2.htm។ បានយកមក 4 October 2010។ "The Government of the People's Republic of China declares that to recover the Hong Kong area (including Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories, hereinafter referred to as Hong Kong) is the common aspiration of the entire Chinese people, and that it has decided to resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong with effect from 1 July 1997." 
  13. "On This Day: 1997: Hong Kong handed over to Chinese control"។ BBC News។ 1 July 1997http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/1/newsid_2656000/2656973.stm។ បានយកមក 9 September 2008 
  14. "The World's Most Competitive Financial Centers"CNBChttp://www.cnbc.com/id/32970596?slide=14។ បានយកមក 30 October 2009 
  15. ១៥,០ ១៥,១ "24 hours in Hong Kong: Urban thrills where East meets West"។ CNN។ 8 March 2009http://edition.cnn.com/2009/TRAVEL/03/06/24hours.hongkong/index.html?eref=rss_travel។ បានយកមក 27 May 2009 
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  19. ១៩,០ ១៩,១ ១៩,២ "Basic Law, Chapter IV, Section 4"។ Basic Law Promotion Steering Committeehttp://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/chapter_4.html#section_4។ បានយកមក 10 November 2009 
  20. Russell, Peter H.; O'Brien, David M. (2001)។ Judicial Independence in the Age of Democracy: Critical Perspectives from around the WorldUniversity of Virginia Press។ ទំ. 306។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-8139-2016-0 
  21. ២១,០ ២១,១ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BasicLawC2
  22. Ghai, Yash P. (2000)។ Autonomy and Ethnicity: Negotiating Competing Claims in Multi-ethnic StatesCambridge University Press។ ទំ. 92–97។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-521-78642-3 
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  124. ១២៤,០ ១២៤,១ "About Us"Hong Kong International Airport។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[១០] នៅថ្ងៃ 21 August 2007http://web.archive.org/web/20070821101759/http://www.hongkongairport.com/eng/aboutus/index.html។ បានយកមក 28 April 2008 
  125. "International travellers have voted Hong Kong the best airport in the world"Skytrax។ 8 August 2007http://www.airlinequality.com/news/080807-Awards.htm។ បានយកមក 28 April 2008 
  126. "Air Cargo and Aviation Logistic Services"។ Hong Kong International Airport។ p. 1http://www.hongkongairport.com/eng/pdf/business/about-the-airport/air-cargo/AirCsid=argo_brochure.pdf។ បានយកមក 31 August 2010 
  127. "Hong Kong: The Facts – Population"។ Hong Kong Government។ October 2009http://www.gov.hk/en/about/abouthk/factsheets/docs/population.pdf។ បានយកមក 4 December 2009 
  128. "Right of Abode in HKSAR—Verification of Eligibility for Permanent Identity Card"Immigration Department, Hong Kong Government។ 5 June 2007។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[១១] នៅថ្ងៃ 19 January 2008http://web.archive.org/web/20080119033446/http://www.immd.gov.hk/ehtml/hksarvepid.htm។ បានយកមក 1 February 2008 
  129. "Who is entitled to sponsor family members to come to live in Hong Kong? If I am a lawful resident of Hong Kong, can my family members in the Mainland (or elsewhere) apply to immigrate to Hong Kong?"។ Community Legal Information Centrehttp://www.hkclic.org/en/topics/immigration/for_non_residents/q1.shtml។ បានយកមក 4 November 2009 
  130. "Counting Expat Numbers a Complex Task (Hong Kong)"។ Global Auto Industry។ July 2008http://www.globalautoindustry.com/article.php?id=2764&jaar=2008&maand=7&target=China។ បានយកមក 30 August 2010 
  131. International Labour Office (2009)។ Application of International Labour Standards 2009 (I)International Labour Organization។ ទំ. 640។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 92-2-120634-3 
  132. Westra, Nick (5 June 2007)។ "Hong Kong as a Cantonese speaking city"Journalism and Media Studies Centre, University of Hong Konghttp://jmsc.hku.hk/hkstories/content/view/97/35/។ បានយកមក 14 November 2009 
  133. "ICE Hong Kong"University College Londonhttp://www.ucl.ac.uk/english-usage/ice/icehk.htm។ បានយកមក 1 February 2008 
  134. Yum, Cherry (2007)។ Which Chinese? Dialect Choice in Philadelphia’s ChinatownHaverford Collegehttp://www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/Linguistics/Papers08/Yum.pdf។ បានយកមក 25 August 2010 
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  136. ១៣៦,០ ១៣៦,១ "China (Includes Tibet, Hong Kong, Macau)"។ State.govhttp://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2010/148863.htm#hong_kong។ បានយកមក 2 November 2011 
  137. Carballo, Marita។ RELIGION IN THE WORLD AT THE END OF THE MILLENNIUMGallup International Association។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[១២] នៅថ្ងៃ 20http://web.archive.org/web/20110720050317/http://www.gallup-international.com/ContentFiles/millennium15.asp។ បានយកមក 11 May 2012 
  138. "Apostasy"។ Countdown.orghttp://www.countdown.org/end/apostasy_04.htm។ បានយកមក 2 November 2011 
  139. "Do Hong Kong youth know how to practice safe sex?"។ Slidefinder.net។ 14 January 2010http://www.slidefinder.net/h/hong_kong_youth_know_practice/7539973។ បានយកមក 2 November 2011 
  140. "Evolution wins out in Hong Kong curriculum dispute"។ Nature.comhttp://www.nature.com/news/2009/090708/full/460163a.html។ បានយកមក 2 November 2011 
  141. "Victory for Darwin – Creationism rejected in new guidelines on the biology curriculum | 香港獨立媒體"។ Inmediahk.nethttp://www.inmediahk.net/node/1003730។ បានយកមក 2 November 2011 
  142. Hong Kong Year Book (2010): Chapter 18 - Religion and Custom
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  144. "2007 Report of Jehovah's Witnesses Worldwide"The Watchtowerhttp://www.watchtower.org/e/statistics/worldwide_report.htm។ បានយកមក 9 August 2008 
  145. "International Religious Freedom Report 2007 – Hong Kong"United States Department of State។ 2007http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90133.htm#hk។ បានយកមក 16 May 2009 
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  148. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (2009)។ "State of the World’s Cities 2008/2009"។ Press releasehttp://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/presskitsowc2008/PR%201.pdf។ បានយកមក 31 August 2010 
  149. Subcommittee to Study the Subject of Combating PovertyLegislative Council of Hong Kong។ 23 June 2005http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr04-05/english/hc/sub_com/hs51/minutes/hs510623.pdf។ បានយកមក 30 August 2010 
  150. "Policies in Assisting Low-income Employees"Commission on Poverty (Legislative Council of Hong Kong)។ 23 January 2006http://www.legco.gov.hk/lcsearch/showdoc.htm?mylink=/search/marker?s=21&o=2&t=2&a=30&r=2&k=1,&g=0&PROPERTY=2;&MERGEFIELD=-&CODECONVERT=-&SORTFIELDS=-&SIM_START=1&SIM_NUM=10&REL_START=1&REL_NUM=10&LINK=-&REDIRECTTO=-&PATHLINK=-&p=%22gini%20coefficient%22&c=17,1&i=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.legco.gov.hk%2Fyr04-05%2Fenglish%2Fhc%2Fsub_com%2Fhs51%2Fpapers%2Fhs510125cb2-cop1-e.pdf&j=5398&v=&n=&link=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.legco.gov.hk%2Fyr04-05%2Fenglish%2Fhc%2Fsub_com%2Fhs51%2Fpapers%2Fhs510125cb2-cop1-e.pdf។ បានយកមក 30 August 2010 
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  153. "PISA 2006 Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World"Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development។ 2006http://www.pisa.oecd.org/document/2/0,3343,en_32252351_32236191_39718850_1_1_1_1,00.html។ បានយកមក 14 December 2007 
  154. "Kindergarten, Primary and Secondary Education"។ Education Bureau, Hong Kong Governmenthttp://www.edb.gov.hk/index.aspx?nodeID=97&langno=1។ បានយកមក 1 February 2008 
  155. ១៥៥,០ ១៥៥,១ Li, Arthur (18 May 2005)។ "Creating a better education system"។ Hong Kong Government។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[១៣] នៅថ្ងៃ 3 March 2008http://web.archive.org/web/20080303190339/http://www.news.gov.hk/en/category/ontherecord/050518/html/050518en11001.htm។ បានយកមក 17 August 2010 
  156. "HKDSE"Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority។ 12 October 2010http://www.hkeaa.edu.hk/en/hkdse/។ បានយកមក 20 October 2010 
  157. "History of HKU"http://hku.hk/about/university-history/the-early-years.html 
  158. Tan, Hwee Ann (5 June 2013)។ "Hong Kong Says International Schools Can’t Meet Primary Demand"Bloomberg Businessweekhttp://www.businessweek.com/news/2013-06-05/hong-kong-says-international-schools-can-t-meet-primary-demand។ បានយកមក 9 June 2013 
  159. Hsu, Cathy (12 November 2012)។ Global Tourism Higher Education: Past, Present, and FutureRoutledge។ ទំ. 139–142។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 9781136448478 
  160. "Clusters, Hospitals & Institutions"។ Hospital Authorityhttp://www.ha.org.hk/visitor/ha_visitor_index.asp?Content_ID=10084&Lang=ENG&Dimension=100&Parent_ID=10042។ បានយកមក 2013-05-09 
  161. "Health & safety"។ Lonely Planethttp://www.lonelyplanet.com/china/hong-kong/practical-information/health។ បានយកមក 2013-05-10 
  162. "Private Hospitals in Hong Kong"។ The New Economyhttp://www.healthcareawards2012.theneweconomy.com/private-hospitals-in-hong-kong/។ បានយកមក 2013-05-09 
  163. "Life Expectancy Around the World"។ LiveScience។ 1 August 2012http://www.livescience.com/22005-highest-and-lowest-life-expectancy-at-birth-infographic.html 
  164. "Longest Life Expectancy In World: Women In Hong Kong Now Outlast Japan"។ Huffington Post។ 26 July 2012http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/26/longest-life-expectancy-world-hong-kong-women-japan_n_1705606.html 
  165. ១៦៥,០ ១៦៥,១ "Milestones"។ Chinese University of Hong Konghttp://www.med.cuhk.edu.hk/v7/p5_10_10.htm។ បានយកមក 2013-05-10 
  166. "Education"។ University of Hong Konghttp://www.med.hku.hk/v1/education/។ បានយកមក 2013-05-10 
  167. "Educational objectives"។ University of Hong Konghttp://www.med.hku.hk/v1/education/internship/educational-objectives/។ បានយកមក 2013-05-10 
  168. LaFraniere, Sharon (22 February 2012)។ "Mainland Chinese Flock to Hong Kong to Give Birth"The New York Timeshttp://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/23/world/asia/mainland-chinese-flock-to-hong-kong-to-have-babies.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0។ បានយកមក 9 June 2013 
  169. "Feng shui used in 90% of RP businesses"Philippine Daily Inquirer។ 17 February 2009http://globalnation.inquirer.net/propertyfocus/propertyfocus/view/20090217-189707/Feng-shui-used-in-90-of-RP-businesses។ បានយកមក 14 November 2009 
  170. Fowler, Jeaneane D.; Fowler, Merv (2008)។ Chinese Religions: Beliefs and PracticesSussex Academic Press។ ទំ. 263។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-1-84519-172-6 
  171. Xi, Xu; Ingham, Mike (2003)។ City Voices: Hong Kong writing in English, 1945–present។ Hong Kong University Press។ ទំ. 181។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-962-209-605-9 
  172. Chan, Cecilia; Chow, Amy (2006)។ Death, Dying and Bereavement: a Hong Kong Chinese ExperienceVolume 1។ Hong Kong University Press។ ទំ. 3។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-962-209-787-2 
  173. Stone, Andrew; Chow, Chung Wah; Ho, Reggie (15 January 2008)។ Hong Kong and MacauLonely Planet។ ទំ. 7។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-1-74104-665-6 
  174. ១៧៤,០ ១៧៤,១ "Hong Kong calls itself Asia's entertainment hub"Monsters and Critics។ 23 March 2007http://www.monstersandcritics.com/movies/news/article_1281858.php/Hong_Kong_calls_itself_Asia_s_entertainment_hub 
  175. Corliss, Richard (24 September 2001)។ "Hong Kong music circles the globe with its easy-listening hits and stars"Timehttp://www.time.com/time/musicgoesglobal/asia/mcantopop.html។ បានយកមក 4 November 2009 
  176. "General Information"។ Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Hong Kong Government។ 15 October 2009។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី[១៤] នៅថ្ងៃ 16 November 2004http://web.archive.org/web/20041116010450/http://www.heritagemuseum.gov.hk/english/gen_info.htm។ បានយកមក 31 August 2010 
  177. "About the Museum"។ Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Hong Kong Government។ 25 May 2010http://www.lcsd.gov.hk/ce/Museum/Arts/english/aboutus/aboutus.html។ បានយកមក 31 August 2010 
  178. "Broadcasting: Licences"Commerce and Economic Development Bureau, Hong Kong Governmenthttp://www.cedb.gov.hk/ctb/eng/broad/licences.htm។ បានយកមក 4 November 2009 
  179. Li, Jinquan (2002)។ Global Media Spectacle: News War Over Hong KongState University of New York Press។ ទំ. 69–74។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 978-0-7914-5472-5 
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  181. "Hong Kong Olympic Equestrian Venue (Beas River & Shatin)"Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Gameshttp://en.beijing2008.cn/venues/equ/index.shtml។ បានយកមក 4 November 2009 
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  183. "Legislative Council Panel on Home Affairs Sports Development Policy and Objectives"Home Affairs Bureau។ October 2010http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr10-11/english/panels/ha/papers/ha1020cb2-67-1-e.pdf។ បានយកមក 8 June 2013 
  184. "Cities with the most skyscrapers"Emporishttp://www.emporis.com/statistics/most-skyscraper-cities-worldwide។ បានយកមក 14 June 2012 
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  190. "The world’s top 20 city skylines, CNNGo.com"http://www.cnngo.com/explorations/play/worlds-top-20-skylines-691351។ បានយកមក 1 March 2011 
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