|-||Financial Secretary||John Tsang|
|-||Secretary for Justice||Rimsky Yuen|
|-||Treaty of Nanking||២៩ សីហា ១៨៤២|
|-||Japanese occupation||25 December 1941
to 15 August 1945
|-||Conveyance from British to Chinese sovereignty||
១ កក្ដដា ១៩៩៧
|-||សរុប||1.104 គ.ម.២ (ទី១៧៩)
|-||ទឹក (%)||4.58 (50 km2; 19 mi2)|
|ផសស (យអទ)||ការប៉ាន់ស្មាន ឆ្នាំ២០១១|
|ផសស (មធ្យម)||ការប៉ាន់ស្មាន ឆ្នាំ២០១១|
|លអម (2013)||▬ 0.906
ខ្ពស់ណាស់ · 13th
|Literal meaning||Fragrant harbour|
|Hong Kong Special Administrative Region|
|Traditional Chinese||香港特別行政區 (or 香港特區)|
|Simplified Chinese||香港特别行政区 (or 香港特区)|
|Cantonese Jyutping||Hoeng1gong2 Dak6bit6 Hang4zing3 Keoi1 (or Hoeng1gong2 Dak6keoi1)|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Xiānggǎng Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū (or Xiānggǎng Tèqū)|
ហុងកុង (香港, Hong Kong, សូមមើល ឈ្មោះ) គឺជាតំបន់មួយក្នុងចំណោមតំបន់រដ្ឋបាលពិសេសទាំង២ នៃសាធារណរដ្ឋប្រជាមានិតចិន (មួយទៀតគីម៉ាកាវ។ វាមានទីតាំងស្ថិតនៅតំបន់ឆ្នេរខាងត្បូងនៃប្រទេសចិន ហើយត្រូវបានហ៊ុំព័ទ្ធដោយ Pearl River Delta និងសមុទ្រចិនខាងត្បូង, it is known for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour. With a land mass of ១១០៤ គ.ម២ (៤២៦ ម៉ាយ ក.) and a population of seven million people, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated areas in the world. Hong Kong's population is 93.6% ethnic Chinese and 6.4% from other groups. Hong Kong's Han Chinese majority originate mainly from the cities of Guangzhou and Taishan in the neighbouring Guangdong province.
Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after the First Opium War (1839–42). Originally confined to Hong Kong Island, the colony's boundaries were extended in stages to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and then the New Territories in 1898. It was occupied by Japan during the Pacific War (1941–45), after which the British resumed control until 1997, when China resumed sovereignty. The region espoused minimum government intervention under the ethos of positive non-interventionism during the colonial era. The time period greatly influenced the current culture of Hong Kong, often described as "East meets West", and the educational system, which used to loosely follow the system in England until reforms implemented in 2009.
Under the principle of "one country, two systems", Hong Kong has a different political system from mainland China. Hong Kong's independent judiciary functions under the common law framework. Hong Kong Basic Law, its constitutional document, which stipulates that Hong Kong shall have a "high degree of autonomy" in all matters except foreign relations and military defence, governs its political system. Although it has a burgeoning multi-party system, a small-circle electorate controls half of its legislature. The head of the government, Chief Executive of Hong Kong is chosen by an Election Committee of 400 to 1,200 members, a situation that will be in effect during the first 20 years of Chinese rule.
As one of the world's leading international financial centres, Hong Kong has a major capitalist service economy characterised by low taxation and free trade, and the currency, Hong Kong dollar, is the eighth most traded currency in the world. The lack of space caused demand for denser constructions, which developed the city to a centre for modern architecture and the world's most vertical city. Hong Kong has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. The dense space also led to a highly developed transportation network with public transport travelling rate exceeding 90 percent, the highest in the world. Hong Kong has numerous high international rankings in various aspects. For instance, its economic freedom, financial and economic competitiveness, quality of life, corruption perception, Human Development Index are all ranked highly. According to estimates from both UN and WHO, Hong Kong had the longest life expectancy of any region in the world in 2012. Hong Kong also has the highest average IQ score in 81 countries around the world.
- ១ ឈ្មោះ
- ២ ប្រវត្តិ
- ៣ អភិបាលកិច្ច
- ៤ ភូមិសាស្ត្រ និងអាកាសធាតុ
- ៥ សេដ្ឋកិច្ច
- ៦ ប្រជាសាស្ត្រ
- ៧ វប្បធម៌
- ៨ មើលផងដែរ
- ៩ Footnotes
- ១០ ឯកសារយោង
- ១១ អានបន្ថែម
- ១២ តំណភ្ជាប់ខាងក្រៅ
ឈ្មោះ "Hong Kong" is an approximate phonetic rendering of the pronunciation of the spoken Cantonese or Hakka name 香港, meaning "fragrant harbour". Before 1842, the name referred to a small inlet – now Aberdeen Harbour or 香港仔 hoeng1 gong2 zai2 "Little Hong Kong" – between Aberdeen Island and the south side of Hong Kong Island, which was one of the first points of contact between British sailors and local fishermen.
The reference to fragrance may refer to the harbour waters sweetened by the fresh water estuarine influx of the Pearl River, or to the incense from factories lining the coast to the north of Kowloon, which was stored around Aberdeen Harbour for export before the development of Victoria Harbour. In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking was signed, and the name Hong Kong was first recorded on official documents to encompass the entirety of the island.
The name was often written as the single word Hongkong until the government adopted the current form in 1926. Nevertheless, some century-old organisations still use the single-word form, such as the Hongkong Post, Hongkong Electric and The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation.
The Mandarin Chinese pronunciation of the name 香港 is represented in pinyin as Xiānggǎng. While the names of most places in Mainland China are now romanised into English using (Mandarin-based) pinyin spelling, the official English name in this case remains the traditional Hong Kong rather than Xianggang.
The full official name is "Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China", this being the official convention employed on the Chinese text of the Hong Kong regional emblem, the text of the Hong Kong Basic Law, and the Hong Kong Government website, although "Hong Kong Special Administrative Region" and "Hong Kong" are also accepted. (Chinese versions of the territory's names can be found in the lower box to the right.)
Archaeological studies support a human presence in the Chek Lap Kok area from 35,000 to 39,000 years ago, and in Sai Kung Peninsula from 6,000 years ago. Wong Tei Tung and Three Fathoms Cove are the two earliest sites of human habitation in the Paleolithic period. It is believed the Three Fathom Cove was a river valley settlement and Wong Tei Tung was a lithic manufacturing site. Excavated Neolithic artifacts suggest cultural differences from the Longshan culture in northern China and settlement by the Che people prior to the migration of the Baiyue. Eight petroglyphs were discovered on surrounding islands, which dated to the Shang Dynasty in China.
In 1839 the refusal by Qing Dynasty authorities to import opium resulted in the First Opium War between China and Britain. Hong Kong Island was occupied by British forces on 20 January 1841 and was initially ceded under the Convention of Chuenpee as part of a ceasefire agreement between Captain Charles Elliot and Governor Qishan, but the agreement was never ratified due to a dispute between high-ranking officials in both governments. It was not until 29 August 1842 that the island was formally ceded in perpetuity to the United Kingdom under the Treaty of Nanking. The British established a crown colony with the founding of Victoria City the following year.
Under British rule, the population of Hong Kong island had increased from 7,450 Chinese residents, mostly fishermen, in 1841 to over 115,000 Chinese and 8,754 Europeans in Hong Kong (including Kowloon) in 1870. In 1860 after China's defeat in the Second Opium War, the Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutter's Island were ceded in perpetuity to Britain under the Convention of Peking. In 1894 the deadly Third Pandemic of bubonic plague spread from China to Hong Kong, causing 50,000–100,000 deaths.
In conjunction with its military campaign, the Empire of Japan invaded Hong Kong on 8 December 1941. The Battle of Hong Kong ended with British and Canadian defenders surrendering control of the colony to Japan on 25 December. During the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong, civilians suffered widespread food shortages, rationing, and hyper-inflation due to forced exchange of currency for military notes. Through a policy of enforced repatriation of the unemployed to the mainland throughout the period, because of the scarcity of food, the population of Hong Kong had dwindled from 1.6 million in 1941 to 600,000 in 1945, when the United Kingdom resumed control of the colony.
Hong Kong's population recovered quickly as a wave of migrants from China arrived for refuge from the ongoing Chinese Civil War. When the PRC was proclaimed in 1949, more migrants fled to Hong Kong for fear of persecution by the Communist Party. Many corporations in Shanghai and Guangzhou shifted their operations to Hong Kong.
On 1 July 1997 the transfer of sovereignty from United Kingdom to the PRC occurred, officially ending 156 years of British colonial rule. Hong Kong became China's first special administrative region, and Tung Chee-Hwa took office as the first Chief Executive of Hong Kong. That same year, Hong Kong suffered an economic double blow from the Asian financial crisis and the H5N1 avian influenza. In 2003 Hong Kong was gravely affected by the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The World Health Organization reported 1,755 infected and 299 deaths in Hong Kong. An estimated 380 million Hong Kong dollars (US$48.9 million) in contracts were lost as a result of the epidemic.
Owing to its long history as a colony of the British Empire, Hong Kong is a city-state which continues to enjoy a high degree of autonomy even after its return to China. In accordance with the Sino-British Joint Declaration, and the underlying principle of one country, two systems, Hong Kong has a "high degree of autonomy as a special administrative region in all areas except defence and foreign affairs."[note ១] The declaration stipulates that the region maintain its capitalist economic system and guarantees the rights and freedoms of its people for at least 50 years beyond the 1997 handover.[note ២] The guarantees over the territory's autonomy and the individual rights and freedoms are enshrined in a constitution, the Hong Kong Basic Law (formed based on the Common law of England), which outlines the system of governance of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, but which is subject to the interpretation of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC).
Hong Kong's legal system is completely independent from the legal system of mainland China. In contrast to mainland China's civil law system, Hong Kong continues to follow the English Common Law tradition established under British rule. The essence of English common law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying legal precedent (stare decisis) to the facts before them. For example, murder is a common law crime rather than one established by an Act of Parliament. Common law can be amended or repealed by Parliament; murder, for example, now carries a mandatory life sentence rather than the death penalty. According to Article 92 of the Basic Law, Hong Kong's courts may refer to decisions rendered by courts of other common law jurisdictions as precedents, and judges from other common law jurisdictions, most commonly England, Canada and Australia, are allowed to sit as non-permanent judges of the Court of Final Appeal.
Hong Kong's Basic law is based on the English law and so in general, Hong Kong is perceived to enjoy a high level of civil liberties. The Hong Kong government generally respects the human rights of its citizens, although core issues remain. There are concerns over the freedom of assembly which is restricted by the Public Order Ordinance. The police has been occasionally accused of using heavy-handed tactics towards protestors and questions are asked towards the extensive powers of the police. As to the right of privacy, covert surveillance remains the major concern. There is a lack of protection for gay men and lesbians due to the absence of a sexual orientation discrimination law, though there are currently no laws that criminalize homosexuality per se. There are also comments regarding a lack of protection for labour rights.
Hong Kong has a unitary system of government; no local government has existed since the two municipal councils were abolished in 2000. As such there is no formal definition for its cities and towns. Administratively, Hong Kong is subdivided into 18 geographic districts, each represented by a district council which advises the government on local matters such as public facilities, community programmes, cultural activities, and environmental improvements.
There are a total of 534 district council seats, 405 of which are elected; the rest are appointed by the Chief Executive and 27 ex officio chairmen of rural committees. The Home Affairs Department communicates government policies and plans to the public through the district offices.
When Hong Kong was a British colony and later, a dependent territory, defence was provided by the British military under the command of the Governor of Hong Kong who was ex officio Commander-in-chief. When the PRC assumed sovereignty in 1997 the British barracks were replaced by a garrison of the People's Liberation Army, comprising ground, naval, and air forces, and under the command of the Chinese Central Military Commission. The Hong Kong Basic Law protects local civil affairs against interference by the garrison, and members of the garrison are subject to Hong Kong laws. The Hong Kong Government remains responsible for the maintenance of public order; however, it may ask the PRC government for help from the garrison in maintaining public order and in disaster relief. The PRC government is responsible for the costs of maintaining the garrison.
Hong Kong is located on China's south coast, ៦០ គ.ម. (៣៧ ម៉ៃ.) east of Macau on the opposite side of the Pearl River Delta. It is surrounded by the South China Sea on the east, south, and west, and borders the Guangdong city of Shenzhen to the north over the Shenzhen River. The territory's ១១០៤ គ.ម២ (៤២៦ ម៉ាយ ក.) area consists of Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula, the New Territories, and over 200 offshore islands, of which the largest is Lantau Island. Of the total area, ១០៥៤ គ.ម២ (៤០៧ ម៉ាយ ក.) is land and ៥០ គ.ម២ (១៩ ម៉ាយ ក.) is inland water. Hong Kong claims territorial waters to a distance of ៣ nautical miles (៥,៦ គ.ម.)ទំព័រគំរូ:Convert/test/Aout. Its land area makes Hong Kong the 179th largest inhabited territory in the world.
As much of Hong Kong's terrain is hilly to mountainous with steep slopes, less than 25% of the territory's landmass is developed, and about 40% of the remaining land area is reserved as country parks and nature reserves. Most of the territory's urban development exists on Kowloon peninsula, along the northern edge of Hong Kong Island, and in scattered settlements throughout the New Territories. The highest elevation in the territory is at Tai Mo Shan, ៩៥៧ មាត្រ (៣១៤០ ភត) above sea level. Hong Kong's long and irregular coast provides it with many bays, rivers and beaches. On 18 September 2011, UNESCO listed the Hong Kong National Geopark as part of its Global Geoparks Network. Hong Kong Geopark is made up of eight Geo-Areas distributed across the Sai Kung Volcanic Rock Region and Northeast New Territories Sedimentary Rock Region.
Despite Hong Kong's reputation of being intensely urbanised, the territory has tried to promote a green environment, and recent growing public concern has prompted the severe restriction of further land reclamation from Victoria Harbour. Awareness of the environment is growing as Hong Kong suffers from increasing pollution compounded by its geography and tall buildings. Approximately 80% of the city's smog originates from other parts of the Pearl River Delta.
Though it is situated just south of the Tropic of Cancer, Hong Kong has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa). Summer is hot and humid with occasional showers and thunderstorms, and warm air coming from the southwest. Summer is when typhoons are most likely, sometimes resulting in flooding or landslides. Winters are mild and usually start sunny, becoming cloudier towards February; the occasional cold front brings strong, cooling winds from the north. The most temperate seasons are spring, which can be changeable, and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry. Hong Kong averages 1,948 hours of sunshine per year, while the highest and lowest ever recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory are ៣៦,១ °C (៩៧�០ °F) and ០,០ °C (៣២�០ °F), respectively.
|ទិន្នន័យអាកាសធាតុសំរាប់ ហុងកុង (ឱលោកនដ្ឋានហុងកុង)|
ខ្ពស់ °C (°F)
ខ្ពស់ °C (°F)
ប្រចាំថ្ងៃ °C (°F)
|មធ្យមភាគទាប °C (°F)||14.5
ទាប °C (°F)
|មធ្យមភាគភ្លៀងធ្លាក់ មម (អ៊ីង)||24.7
|មធ្យមភាគថ្ងៃមានភ្លៀង (≥ 0.1 mm)||5.37||9.07||10.90||12.00||14.67||19.07||17.60||16.93||14.67||7.43||5.47||4.47||137.65|
|មធ្យមភាគ សំណើមសាបេក្ខៈ (%)||74||80||82||83||83||82||81||81||78||73||71||69||78.0|
|Source: Hong Kong Observatory (normals 1981–2010, extremes 1884–1939 and 1947–present)|
As one of the world's leading international financial centres, Hong Kong has a major capitalist service economy characterised by low taxation and free trade. The currency, Hong Kong dollar, is the eighth most traded currency in the world as of 2010. Hong Kong was once described by Milton Friedman as the world's greatest experiment in laissez-faire capitalism, but has since instituted a regime of regulations including a minimum wage. It maintains a highly developed capitalist economy, ranked the freest in the world by the Index of Economic Freedom every year since 1995. It is an important centre for international finance and trade, with one of the greatest concentrations of corporate headquarters in the Asia-Pacific region, and is known as one of the Four Asian Tigers for its high growth rates and rapid development from the 1960s to the 1990s. Between 1961 and 1997 Hong Kong's gross domestic product grew 180 times while per-capita GDP increased 87 times over.
The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the seventh largest in the world, with a market capitalisation of US$2.3 trillion as of December 2009. In that year, Hong Kong raised 22 percent of worldwide initial public offering (IPO) capital, making it the largest centre of IPOs in the world  and the easiest place to raise capital. The Hong Kong dollar has been pegged to the U.S. dollar since 1983.
The Hong Kong Government has traditionally played a mostly passive role in the economy, with little by way of industrial policy and almost no import or export controls. Market forces and the private sector were allowed to determine practical development. Under the official policy of "positive non-interventionism", Hong Kong is often cited as an example of laissez-faire capitalism. Following the Second World War, Hong Kong industrialised rapidly as a manufacturing centre driven by exports, and then underwent a rapid transition to a service-based economy in the 1980s. Since then, it has grown to become a leading center for management, financial, IT, business consultation and professional services.
Hong Kong matured to become a financial centre in the 1990s, but was greatly affected by the Asian financial crisis in 1998, and again in 2003 by the SARS outbreak. A revival of external and domestic demand has led to a strong recovery, as cost decreases strengthened the competitiveness of Hong Kong exports and a long deflationary period ended. Government intervention, initiated by the later colonial governments and continued since 1997, has steadily increased, with the introduction of export credit guarantees, a compulsory pension scheme, a minimum wage, anti-discrimination laws, and a state mortgage backer.
The territory has little arable land and few natural resources, so it imports most of its food and raw materials. Agricultural activity—relatively unimportant to Hong Kong's economy and contributing just 0.1% of its GDP—primarily consists of growing premium food and flower varieties. Hong Kong is the world's eleventh largest trading entity, with the total value of imports and exports exceeding its gross domestic product. It is the world's largest re-export centre. Much of Hong Kong's exports consist of re-exports, which are products made outside of the territory, especially in mainland China, and distributed via Hong Kong. Its physical location has allowed the city to establish a transportation and logistics infrastructure that includes the world's second busiest container port and the world's busiest airport for international cargo. Even before the transfer of sovereignty, Hong Kong had established extensive trade and investment ties with the mainland, which now enable it to serve as a point of entry for investment flowing into the mainland. At the end of 2007, there were 3.46 million people employed full-time, with the unemployment rate averaging 4.1% for the fourth straight year of decline. Hong Kong's economy is dominated by the service sector, which accounts for over 90% of its GDP, while industry constitutes 9%. Inflation was at 2.5% in 2007. Hong Kong's largest export markets are mainland China, the United States, and Japan.
As of 2010 Hong Kong is the eighth most expensive city for expatriates, falling from fifth position in the previous year. Hong Kong is ranked fourth in terms of the highest percentage of millionaire households, behind Switzerland, Qatar, and Singapore with 8.5 percent of all households owning at least one million US dollars. In 2011, Hong Kong was ranked second in the Ease of Doing Business Index, behind Singapore.
Hong Kong's transportation network is highly developed. Over 90% of daily travels (11 million) are on public transport, the highest such percentage in the world. Payment can be made using the Octopus card, a stored value system introduced by the Mass Transit Railway (MTR), which is widely accepted on railways, buses and ferries, and accepted like cash at other outlets.
The city's main railway company (KCRC) was merged with MTR in 2007, creating a comprehensive rail network for the whole territory (also called MTR). This MTR rapid transit system has 152 stations, which serve 3.4 million people a day. Hong Kong Tramways, which has served the territory since 1904, covers the northern parts of Hong Kong Island.
Hong Kong's bus service is franchised and run by private operators. Five privately owned companies provide franchised bus service across the territory, together operating more than 700 routes. The two largest, Kowloon Motor Bus provides 402 routes in Kowloon and New Territories; Citybus operates 154 routes on Hong Kong Island; both run cross-harbour services. Double-decker buses were introduced to Hong Kong in 1949, and are now almost exclusively used; single-decker buses remain in use for routes with lower demand or roads with lower load capacity. Public light buses serve most parts of Hong Kong, particularly areas where standard bus lines cannot reach or do not reach as frequently, quickly, or directly.
The Star Ferry service, founded in 1888, operates two lines across Victoria Harbour and provides scenic views of Hong Kong's skyline for its 53,000 daily passengers. It acquired iconic status following its use as a setting on The World of Suzie Wong. Travel writer Ryan Levitt considered the main Tsim Sha Tsui to Central crossing one of the most picturesque in the world. Other ferry services are provided by operators serving outlying islands, new towns, Macau, and cities in mainland China. Hong Kong is famous for its junks traversing the harbour, and small kai-to ferries that serve remote coastal settlements. The Port of Hong Kong is a busy deepwater port, specialising in container shipping.
Hong Kong Island's steep, hilly terrain was initially served by sedan chairs. The Peak Tram, the first public transport system in Hong Kong, has provided vertical rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since 1888. In Central and Western district, there is an extensive system of escalators and moving pavements, including the longest outdoor covered escalator system in the world, the Mid-Levels escalator.
Hong Kong International Airport is a leading air passenger gateway and logistics hub in Asia and one of the world's busiest airports in terms of international passenger and cargo movement, serving more than 47 million passengers and handling 3.74 million tonnes (4.12 million tons) of cargo in 2007. It replaced the overcrowded Kai Tak Airport in Kowloon in 1998, and has been rated as the world's best airport in a number of surveys. Over 85 airlines operate at the two-terminal airport and it is the primary hub of Cathay Pacific, Dragonair, Air Hong Kong, Hong Kong Airlines, and Hong Kong Express.
The territory's population is 7.03 million. In 2009 Hong Kong had a birth rate of 11.7 per 1,000 population and a fertility rate of 1,032 children per 1,000 women. Residents from mainland China do not have the right of abode in Hong Kong, nor are they allowed to enter the territory freely. However, the influx of immigrants from mainland China, approximating 45,000 per year, is a significant contributor to its population growth – a daily quota of 150 Mainland Chinese with family ties in Hong Kong are granted a "one way permit". Life expectancy in Hong Kong is 79.16 years for males and 84.79 years for females as of 2009, making it one of the highest life expectancies in the world.
About 93.6% of the people of Hong Kong are of Chinese descent, the majority of whom are Taishanese, Chiu Chow, other Cantonese people, and Hakka. Hong Kong's Han majority originate mainly from the Guangzhou and Taishan regions in Guangdong province. The remaining 6.4% of the population is composed of non-ethnic Chinese. There is a South Asian population of Indians, Pakistanis and Nepalese; some Vietnamese refugees have become permanent residents of Hong Kong. There are also Britons, Americans, Canadians, Japanese, and Koreans working in the city's commercial and financial sector.[note ៣] In 2008, there were an estimate of 252,500 foreign domestic helpers from Indonesia and the Philippines working in Hong Kong.
Hong Kong's de facto official language is Cantonese, a Chinese language originating from Guangdong province to the north of Hong Kong. English is also an official language, and according to a 1996 by-census is spoken by 3.1 percent of the population as an everyday language and by 34.9 percent of the population as a second language. Signs displaying both Chinese and English are common throughout the territory. Since the 1997 handover, an increase in immigrants from mainland China and greater integration with the mainland economy have brought an increasing number of Mandarin speakers to Hong Kong.
A majority of residents of Hong Kong would claim no religious affiliation, professing a form of agnosticism or atheism. According to the U.S Department of State only 43 percent of the population practices some form of religion. Some figures put it higher, according to a Gallup poll, 64% of Hong Kong residents do not believe in any religion, and possibly 80% of Hong Kong claim no religion. In Hong Kong teaching evolution won out in curriculum dispute about whether to teach other explanations, and that creationism and intelligent design will form no part of the senior secondary biology curriculum.
Hong Kong enjoys a high degree of religious freedom, guaranteed by the Basic Law. Hong Kong's main religions are Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism; a local religious scholar in contact with major denominations estimates there are approximately 1.5 million Buddhists and Taoists. A Christian community of around 833,000 forms about 11.7% of the total population; Protestants forms a larger number than Catholics at a rate of 4:3, although smaller Christian communities exist, including the Latter-Day Saints and Jehovah's Witnesses. The Anglican and Roman Catholic churches each freely appoint their own bishops, unlike in mainland China. There are also Sikh, Muslim, Jewish, Hindu and Bahá'í communities. The practice of Falun Gong is tolerated.
Statistically Hong Kong's income gap is the greatest in Asia Pacific. According to a report by the United Nations Human Settlements Programme in 2008, Hong Kong's Gini coefficient, at 0.53, was the highest in Asia and "relatively high by international standards". However, the government has stressed that income disparity does not equate to worsening of the poverty situation, and that the Gini coefficient is not strictly comparable between regions. The government has named economic restructuring, changes in household sizes, and the increase of high-income jobs as factors that have skewed the Gini coefficient.
Hong Kong's education system used to roughly follow the system in England, although international systems exist. The government maintains a policy of "mother tongue instruction" (ចិន ៖ 母語教學) in which the medium of instruction is Cantonese, with written Chinese and English. In secondary schools, 'biliterate and trilingual' proficiency is emphasised, and Mandarin-language education has been increasing. The Programme for International Student Assessment ranked Hong Kong's education system as the second best in the world. Hong Kong's public schools are operated by the Education Bureau. The system features a non-compulsory three-year kindergarten, followed by a compulsory six-year primary education, a compulsory three-year junior secondary education, a non-compulsory two-year senior secondary education leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examinations and a two-year matriculation course leading to the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examinations. The New Senior Secondary academic structure and curriculum was implemented in September 2009, which provides for all students to receive three years of compulsory junior and three years of compulsory senior secondary education. Under the new curriculum, there is only one public examination, namely the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education.
Most comprehensive schools in Hong Kong fall under three categories: the rarer public schools; the more common subsidised schools, including government aids-and-grant schools; and private schools, often run by Christian organisations and having admissions based on academic merit rather than on financial resources. Outside this system are the schools under the Direct Subsidy Scheme and private international schools.
There are eight public and one private universities in Hong Kong with the University of Hong Kong (HKU) being the oldest which was established in 1910-1912. Competition among students to receive an offer for an undergraduate program is fierce as the annual number of intakes is limited, especially when some disciplines are just offered by some of those tertiary institutions, like medicine which is provided by merely two medical schools in the territory, the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine owned by the University of Hong Kong and the Faculty of Medicine of the The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Besides, there is also a number of private higher institutions which offer higher diplomas and associate degree courses for those who fail to enter a college for a degree study so as to boost their qualification of education, some of whom can have a second chance of getting into a university if they have a good performance in these sub-degree courses.
There are 13 private hospitals and more than 40 public hospitals in Hong Kong. There is little interaction between public and private healthcare. The hospitals offer a wide range of healthcare services, and some of the territory's private hospitals are considered to be world class. According to UN estimates, Hong Kong has one of the longest life expectancy of any country or territory in the world. As of 2012, Hong Kong women are the longest living demographic group in the world.
There are two medical schools in the territory, one based at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the other at Hong Kong University. Both have links with public sector hospitals. With respect to postgraduate education, traditionally many doctors in Hong Kong have looked overseas for further training, and many took British Royal College exams such as the MRCP(UK) and the MRCS(UK). However, Hong Kong has been developing its own postgraduate medical institutions, in particular the Hong Kong Academy of Medicine, and this is gradually taking over the responsibility for all postgraduate medical training in the territory.
By 2011, there have been growing concerns that mothers-to-be from mainland China, in a bid to obtain the right of abode in Hong Kong and the benefits that come with it, have saturated the neonatal wards of the city's hospitals, both public and private sectors, which has led to outcries and protests from local pregnant women for the government to remedy the issue, as they have found difficulty securing a bed space for giving birth and arrange routine check-ups. Other concerns in the decade of 2001–2010 relate to the workload medical staff experience; and medical errors and mishaps, which are frequently highlighted in local news.
Hong Kong is frequently described as a place where "East meets West", reflecting the culture's mix of the territory's Chinese roots with influences from its time as a British colony. Hong Kong balances a modernised way of life with traditional Chinese practices. Concepts like feng shui are taken very seriously, with expensive construction projects often hiring expert consultants, and are often believed to make or break a business. Other objects like Ba gua mirrors are still regularly used to deflect evil spirits, and buildings often lack any floor number that has a 4 in it, due to its similarity to the word for "die" in Cantonese. The fusion of east and west also characterises Hong Kong's cuisine, where dim sum, hot pot, and fast food restaurants coexist with haute cuisine.
Hong Kong is a recognised global centre of trade, and calls itself an "entertainment hub". Its martial arts film genre gained a high level of popularity in the late 1960s and 1970s. Several Hollywood performers, notable actors and martial artists have originated from Hong Kong cinema, notably Bruce Lee, Jackie Chan, Chow Yun-fat, Michelle Yeoh, Maggie Cheung and Jet Li. A number of Hong Kong film-makers have achieved widespread fame in Hollywood, such as John Woo, Wong Kar-wai, and Stephen Chow. Homegrown films such as Chungking Express, Infernal Affairs, Shaolin Soccer, Rumble in the Bronx, In the Mood for Love and Echoes of the Rainbow have gained international recognition. Hong Kong is the centre for Cantopop music, which draws its influence from other forms of Chinese music and Western genres, and has a multinational fanbase.
The Hong Kong government supports cultural institutions such as the Hong Kong Heritage Museum, the Hong Kong Museum of Art, the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts, and the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra. The government's Leisure and Cultural Services Department subsidises and sponsors international performers brought to Hong Kong. Many international cultural activities are organised by the government, consulates, and privately.
Hong Kong has two licensed terrestrial broadcasters – ATV and TVB. There are three local and a number of foreign suppliers of cable and satellite services. The production of Hong Kong's soap dramas, comedy series, and variety shows reach audiences throughout the Chinese-speaking world. Magazine and newspaper publishers in Hong Kong distribute and print in both Chinese and English, with a focus on sensationalism and celebrity gossip. The media in Hong Kong is relatively free from official interference compared to Mainland China, although the Far Eastern Economic Review points to signs of self-censorship by media whose owners have close ties to or business interests in the People's Republic of China and states that even Western media outlets are not immune to growing Chinese economic power.
Hong Kong offers wide recreational and competitive sport opportunities despite its limited land area. It sends delegates to international competitions such as the Olympic Games and Asian Games, and played host to the equestrian events during the 2008 Summer Olympics. There are major multipurpose venues like Hong Kong Coliseum and MacPherson Stadium. Hong Kong's steep terrain and extensive trail network with expansive views attracts hikers, and its rugged coastline provides many beaches for swimming.
Sports in Hong Kong are a significant part of its culture. Due mainly to British influence going as far back as the late 19th century, Hong Kong had an earlier introduction to Western athletics compared to other Asia regions. Football, basketball, swimming, badminton, table tennis, cycling and running have the most participants and spectators. In 2009, Hong Kong successfully organized the V East Asian Games and was the biggest sporting event ever held in the territory. Other major international sporting events including the Equestrian at the 2008 Summer Olympics, Hong Kong Sevens, Hong Kong Marathon, AFC Asian Cup, EAFF East Asian Cup, Hong Kong Tennis Classic, Premier League Asia Trophy, and Lunar New Year Cup. Hong Kong athletes over see improved, as of 2010, there are 32 Hong Kong athletes from seven sports ranking in world's Top 20, 29 athletes in six sports in Asia top 10 ranking. Moreover, Hong Kong is equally impressive performance of athletes with disabilities in 2009, having won four world championships and two Asian Champions.
According to Emporis, there are 1,223 skyscrapers in Hong Kong, which puts the city at the top of world rankings. It has more buildings higher than 500 ft (or 150m) than any other city. The high density and tall skyline of Hong Kong's urban area is due to a lack of available sprawl space, with the average distance from the harbour front to the steep hills of Hong Kong Island at ១,៣ គ.ម. (០,៨១ ម៉ៃ.), much of it reclaimed land. This lack of space causes demand for dense, high-rise offices and housing. Thirty-six of the world's 100 tallest residential buildings are in Hong Kong. More people in Hong Kong live or work above the 14th floor than anywhere else on Earth, making it the world's most vertical city.
As a result of the lack of space and demand for construction, few older buildings remain, and the city is becoming a centre for modern architecture. The International Commerce Centre (ICC), at ៤៨៤ ម (១៥៨៨ ភត) high, is the tallest building in Hong Kong and the third tallest in the world, by height to roof measurement. The tallest building prior to the ICC is Two International Finance Centre, at ៤១៥ ម (១៣៦២ ភត) high. Other recognisable skyline features include the HSBC Headquarters Building, the triangular-topped Central Plaza with its pyramid-shaped spire, The Center with its night-time multi-coloured neon light show; A Symphony of Lights and I. M. Pei's Bank of China Tower with its sharp, angular façade. According to the Emporis website, the city skyline has the biggest visual impact of all world cities. Also, Hong Kong's skyline is often regarded to be the best in the world, with the surrounding mountains and Victoria Harbour complementing the skyscrapers. Most of the oldest remaining historic structures, including the Tsim Sha Tsui Clock Tower, the Central Police Station, and the remains of Kowloon Walled City were constructed during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
There are many development plans in place, including the construction of new government buildings, waterfront redevelopment in Central, and a series of projects in West Kowloon. More high-rise development is set to take place on the other side of Victoria Harbour in Kowloon, as the 1998 closure of the nearby Kai Tak Airport lifted strict height restrictions.
Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Portal/images/g' not found.
- Outline of Hong Kong
- Index of Hong Kong-related articles
- List of cities with most skyscrapers
- Public holidays in Hong Kong
- Gibraltar - a city with a similar history to Hong Kong
- Section 3(2) of the Sino-British Joint Declaration states in part, "The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region will enjoy a high degree of autonomy, except in foreign and defence affairs which, are the responsibilities of the Central People's Government."
- Section 3(5) of the Sino-British Joint Declaration states that the social and economic systems and lifestyle in Hong Kong will remain unchanged, and mentions rights and freedoms ensured by law. Section 3(12) states in part, "The above-stated basic policies of the People's Republic of China ... will remain unchanged for 50 years."
- The results of the 2006 census showed that the "white" population had declined from 46,584 in 2001 to 36,384, a decline of 22 percent.
- %5b%5bCategory:អត្ថបទទាំងអស់ដែលមានតំណភ្ជាប់ក្រៅខូច%5d%5d%5b%5bCategory:អត្ថបទទាំងអស់ដែលមានតំណភ្ជាប់ក្រៅខូចពីNovember 2012%5d%5d%5b%5bCategory:អត្ថបទដែលមានបរាមាត្រកាលបរិច្ឆេទអសុពលភាពក្នុងទំព័រគំរូ%5d%5d[%5b%5bវិគីភីឌា:តំណភ្ជាប់ខូច|តំណភ្ជាប់ខូច%5d%5d] "Official Languages" Check
|url=value (help). Hong Kong Government. 2009. Retrieved 14 ខែតុលា 2012.
- "Hong Kong". The World Factbook. CIA. 23 ខែសីហា 2010. Retrieved 17 ខែកញ្ញា 2010.
- "Population and Vital Events". Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government. 2010. Retrieved 4 ខែតុលា 2010.
- "Population Density by Area" (PDF). Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government. 2009. Retrieved 4 ខែតុលា 2010.
- "Hong Kong". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 ខែមេសា 2012.
- "Human Development Report 2009 – Gini Index". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 10 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- "Geography and Climate, Hong Kong" (PDF). Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 10 ខែមករា 2007.
- Ash, Russell (2006). The Top 10 of Everything 2007. Hamlyn. p. 78. ISBN 0-600-61532-4.
- (PDF) 2011 Population Census – Summary Results (Report). Census and Statistics Department. February 2012. p. 37. http://www.census2011.gov.hk/pdf/summary-results.pdf។ បានយកមក 14 July 2013.
- Fan Shuh Ching (1974). "The Population of Hong Kong" (PDF). World Population Year. Committee for International Coordination of National Research in Demography: 18–20. Retrieved 25 ខែសីហា 2010.
- "Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong". Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau, Hong Kong Government. 19 ខែធ្នូ 1984. Retrieved 4 ខែតុលា 2010.
The Government of the People's Republic of China declares that to recover the Hong Kong area (including Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories, hereinafter referred to as Hong Kong) is the common aspiration of the entire Chinese people, and that it has decided to resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong with effect from 1 July 1997.
- "On This Day: 1997: Hong Kong handed over to Chinese control". BBC News. 1 ខែកក្កដា 1997. Retrieved 9 ខែកញ្ញា 2008.
- "The World's Most Competitive Financial Centers". CNBC. Retrieved 30 ខែតុលា 2009.
- "24 hours in Hong Kong: Urban thrills where East meets West". CNN. 8 ខែមីនា 2009. Retrieved 27 ខែឧសភា 2009.
- Chan, Shun-hing; Leung, Beatrice (2003). Changing Church and State Relations in Hong Kong, 1950–2000. Hong Kong University Press. p. 24. ISBN 962-209-612-3.
- "Programme Highlights". Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 20 ខែតុលា 2010.
- So, Dudley L.; Lin, Nan; Poston (2001). The Chinese Triangle of Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Greenwood Publishing. pp. 13–29. ISBN 0-313-30869-1.
- "Basic Law, Chapter IV, Section 4". Basic Law Promotion Steering Committee. Retrieved 10 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- Russell, Peter H.; O'Brien, David M. (2001). Judicial Independence in the Age of Democracy: Critical Perspectives from around the World. University of Virginia Press. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-8139-2016-0.
- Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- Ghai, Yash P. (2000). Autonomy and Ethnicity: Negotiating Competing Claims in Multi-ethnic States. Cambridge University Press. pp. 92–97. ISBN 978-0-521-78642-3.
- "Decision of the National People's Congress on the Method for the Formation of the First Government and the First Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region". Retrieved 21 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2012.
- "Amendment to Annex I to the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China Concerning the Method for the Selection of the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region" (PDF).
- Rioni, S. G. (2002). Hong Kong in Focus: Political and Economic Issues. Nova Publishers. pp. 9–10. ISBN 978-1-59033-237-5.
- "Triennial Central Bank Survey: Report on global foreign exchange market activity in 2010" (PDF). Monetary and Economic Department. Bank for International Settlements: 12. ខែធ្នូ 2010. Retrieved 15 ខែតុលា 2011.
- "Vertical Cities: Hong Kong/New York". Time Out. 3 ខែសីហា 2008. Retrieved 25 ខែសីហា 2010.[តំណភ្ជាប់ខូច]
- "Home page". Skyscraper Museum. 14 ខែកក្កដា 2008. Retrieved 25 ខែសីហា 2010.
- "Public Transport Introduction". Transport Department, Hong Kong Government. Archived from the original on 7 ខែកក្កដា 2008. Retrieved 13 ខែកក្កដា 2008.
- Lam, William H. K.; Bell, Michael G. H. (2003). Advanced Modeling for Transit Operations and Service Planning. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-08-044206-8.
- "Global Competitiveness Index 2012–2013" (PDF). 2012. Retrieved 8 ខែមិថុនា 2013.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2012". Transparency International. 2012. Retrieved 8 ខែមិថុនា 2013.
- "WHO: Japan report finds Hong Kong women have overtaken Japanese as longest living". Haaretz. ខែកក្កដា 2012. Retrieved 26 ខែកក្កដា 2012.
- , IQ and the Wealth of Nations
- Room, Adrian (2005). Placenames of the World. McFarland & Company. p. 168. ISBN 0-7864-2248-3. Retrieved 1 ខែកញ្ញា 2011.
- Bishop, Kevin; Roberts, Annabel (1997). China's Imperial Way. China Books and Periodicals. p. 218. ISBN 962-217-511-2. Retrieved 1 ខែកញ្ញា 2011.
- Fairbank, John King (1953). Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast: The Opening of the Treaty Ports, 1842–1854 (2nd ed.). Harvard University Press. pp. 123–128. ISBN 978-0-8047-0648-3.
- Hongkong Government Gazette, Notification 479, 3 September 1926
- "GovHK: Residents". Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 29 ខែកញ្ញា 2010.
- "The Trial Excavation at the Archaeological Site of Wong Tei Tung, Sham Chung, Hong Kong SAR". Hong Kong Archaeological Society. ខែមករា 2006. Retrieved 21 ខែសីហា 2010.
- "港現舊石器制造場 嶺南或為我發源地". People's Daily (in Chinese). 17 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2006. Retrieved 21 ខែសីហា 2010. Unknown parameter
|trans_title=ignored (help)CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
- Tang, Chung (2005). "考古與香港尋根" (PDF). New Asia Monthly (in Chinese). New Asia College. 32 (6): 6–8. Retrieved 21 ខែសីហា 2010. Unknown parameter
|trans_title=ignored (help)CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
- Li, Hui (2002). "百越遗传结构的一元二分迹象" (PDF). Guangxi Ethnic Group Research (in Chinese). 70 (4): 26–31. Retrieved 21 ខែសីហា 2010. Unknown parameter
|trans_title=ignored (help)CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
- "2005 Field Archaeology on Sham Chung Site". Hong Kong Archaeological Society. ខែមករា 2006. Retrieved 21 ខែសីហា 2010.
- "Declared Monuments in Hong Kong – New Territories". Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Hong Kong Government. 13 ខែមករា 2010. Retrieved 21 ខែសីហា 2010.
- Courtauld, Caroline; Holdsworth, May; Vickers, Simon (1997). The Hong Kong Story. Oxford University Press. pp. 38–58. ISBN 978-0-19-590353-9.
- Hoe, Susanna; Roebuck, Derek (1999). The Taking of Hong Kong: Charles and Clara Elliot in China Waters. Routledge. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-7007-1145-1.
- Linda Pomerantz-Zhang (1992). "Wu Tingfang (1842–1922): reform and modernization in modern Chinese history". Hong Kong University Press. p.8. ISBN 962-209-287-X
- Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues: A-M. ABC-CLIO. p. 499. ISBN 0-313-34102-8.
- L, Klemen (1999–2000). "Chronology of the Dutch East Indies, 7 December 1941 – 11 December 1941". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
- L, Klemen (1999–2000). "Chronology of the Dutch East Indies, 25 December 1941 – 31 December 1941". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942.
- Bradsher, Keith (17 ខែមេសា 2005). "Thousands March in Anti-Japan Protest in Hong Kong". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 ខែតុលា 2010.
- Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- "Links between SARS, human genes discovered". People's Daily. 16 ខែមករា 2004. Retrieved 1 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2008.
- Lee, S. H. (2006). SARS in China and Hong Kong. Nova Publishers. pp. 63–70. ISBN 978-1-59454-678-5.
- "Summary of probable SARS cases with onset of illness from 1 November 2002 to 31 July 2003". World Health Organization. 31 ខែធ្នូ 2003. Retrieved 4 ខែតុលា 2010.
- "疫情衝擊香港經濟損失巨大" (in Chinese). BBC News. 28 ខែឧសភា 2003. Retrieved 24 ខែសីហា 2010. Unknown parameter
|trans_title=ignored (help)CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
- "Specials: Hong Kong". New York Times. Retrieved 26 ខែតុលា 2011.
- "Basic Law, Chapter VIII". Basic Law Promotion Steering Committee. Retrieved 10 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- Chen, Wenmin; Fu, H. L.; Ghai, Yash P. (2000). Hong Kong's Constitutional Debate: Conflict Over Interpretation. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 235–236. ISBN 978-962-209-509-0.
- "The Legal System in Hong Kong". Department of Justice, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 20 ខែកញ្ញា 2008.
- Ash, Robert F. (2003). Hong Kong in Transition: One Country, Two Systems. Volume 11: RoutledgeCurzon Studies in the Modern History of Asia. Psychology Press. pp. 161–188. ISBN 978-0-415-29954-1.
- "Country Report 2009". Freedom House. Retrieved 14 ខែធ្នូ 2009.
- "2008 Human Rights Report: China (Hong Kong)". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 23 ខែមករា 2010. Retrieved 2 ខែមីនា 2010.
- "Protest against HK rail link". The Straits Times. 17 ខែមករា 2010. Retrieved 6 ខែមេសា 2010.[តំណភ្ជាប់ខូច]
- "Sexual Orientation and Human Rights in Hong Kong". Hong Kong Human Rights Monitor. Retrieved 2 ខែមីនា 2010.
- Barme, Geremie R.; Ye, Sang (1 ខែកុម្ភៈ 1996). "The Great Firewall of China". Wired.com. Retrieved 2 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2011.
- "Hong Kong – The Facts: District Administration" (PDF). Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 31 ខែសីហា 2008.
- "Mission". Home Affairs Department, Hong Kong Government. 30 ខែមិថុនា 2009. Retrieved 10 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- Huque, Ahmed Shafiqul; Lee, Grace O. M.; Cheung, Anthony (1998). The Civil Service in Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. p. 19. ISBN 962-209-458-9. Retrieved 1 ខែកញ្ញា 2011.
- Rioni, S. G. (2002). Hong Kong in Focus: Political and Economic Issues. Nova Publishers. pp. 154–163. ISBN 978-1-59033-237-5.
- Morton, Brian; Harper, Elizabeth (1995). An Introduction to the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. p. 9. ISBN 9789622093881.
- "2006 Population By-census" (PDF). Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 13 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- "Tai Mo Shan Country Park". Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, Hong Kong Government. 17 ខែមីនា 2006. Retrieved 8 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- "Hong Kong". Olympic Council of Asia. Retrieved 14 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- Geopark leaflet
- "Chief Executive pledges a clean, green, world-class city". Hong Kong Trade Development Council. 2001. Retrieved 17 ខែកញ្ញា 2010. Unknown parameter
- "HK harbour reclamation reprieve". BBC News. 9 ខែមករា 2004. Retrieved 4 ខែតុលា 2010.
- Bradsher, Keith (5 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2006). "Dirty Air Becomes Divisive Issue in Hong Kong Vote". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2008.
- "Climate of Hong Kong". Hong Kong Observatory. 4 ខែឧសភា 2003. Retrieved 2 ខែសីហា 2007.
- "Hong Kong in Figures 2008 Edition". Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Government. 27 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2008. Retrieved 7 ខែឧសភា 2008.
- "Extreme Values and Dates of Occurrence of Extremes of Meteorological Elements between 1884–1939 and 1947–2006 for Hong Kong". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 1 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2008.
- "Monthly Meteorological Normals for Hong Kong". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 3 ខែមករា 2012.
"Extreme Values and Dates of Occurrence of Extremes of Meteorological Elements between 1884-1939 and 1947-2011 for Hong Kong". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2012-8-12. Check date values in:
- "End of an experiment". The Economist. 15 ខែកក្កដា 2010. Retrieved 5 ខែកញ្ញា 2010.
- "Hong Kong ranked world's freest economy for 18th consecutive year". Government of Hong Kong. 12 ខែមករា 2012. Retrieved 28 ខែឧសភា 2012.
- "Top 10 Countries". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 ខែមករា 2008. Retrieved 1 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2008.
- Bromma, Hubert (2007). How to Invest in Offshore Real Estate and Pay Little Or No Taxes. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-07-147009-4.
- Preston, Peter Wallace; Haacke, Jürgen (2003). Contemporary China: The Dynamics of Change at the Start of the New Millennium. Psychology Press. pp. 80–107. ISBN 978-0-7007-1637-1.
- Yeung, Rikkie (2008). Moving Millions: The Commercial Success and Political Controversies of Hong Kong's Railways. Hong Kong University Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-962-209-963-0.
- "The Global Financial Centres Index 1 Executive Summary" (PDF). City of London. 2007. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 ខែមិថុនា 2007. Retrieved 12 ខែមេសា 2007. Unknown parameter
- "World Federation of Exchanges – Statistics/Monthly". World Federation of Exchanges. Archived from the original on 21 ខែសីហា 2010. Retrieved 17 ខែកញ្ញា 2010.
- "Hong Kong IPOs May Raise Record $48 Billion in 2010, E&Y Says". Bloomberg. 21 ខែធ្នូ 2009. Retrieved 17 ខែកញ្ញា 2010.
- "Hong Kong: A Symphony of Lights | Thomas White International". Thomaswhite.com. 16 ខែតុលា 2009. Retrieved 28 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2010.
- Hong Kong's Linked Exchange Rate System (PDF). Hong Kong Monetary Authority. p. 33. Retrieved 6 ខែតុលា 2010.
- Hong Kong Government (18 September 2006)។ "Big Market, Small Government"។ Press release។ http://www.ceo.gov.hk/eng/press/oped.htm។ បានយកមក 6 October 2010។
- "Hong Kong's Export Outlook for 2008: Maintaining Competitiveness through Supply Chain Management". Hong Kong Trade Development Council. 6 ខែធ្នូ 2007. Retrieved 30 ខែសីហា 2010.
- "HKDF – Has Hong Kong Lost its Competitiveness?". Hong Kong Democratic Foundation. Retrieved 14 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- "About Hong Kong". Hong Kong Government. 2006. Archived from the original on 19 ខែមករា 2008. Retrieved 1 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2008. Unknown parameter
- "The Panama Canal: A plan to unlock prosperity". The Economist. 3 ខែធ្នូ 2009. Retrieved 4 ខែធ្នូ 2009.
- Dhungana, Gita (29 ខែធ្នូ 2006). "Growth in exports defies predictions". The Standard. Retrieved 4 ខែតុលា 2010.
- Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics, Hong Kong Government, March 2008
- Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2009: Addressing Triple Threats to Development. United Nations Publications. 2009. pp. 94–99. ISBN 978-92-1-120577-0.
- "Worldwide Cost of Living survey 2009". Mercer. 29 ខែមិថុនា 2010. Retrieved 25 ខែសីហា 2010.
- Finance Twitter (31 May 2011)។ "Global Wealth Continues Its Strong Recovery with $9 Trillion Gain, but Pressures on Wealth Managers Persist, Says Study by The Boston Consulting Group"។ Press release។ http://www.financetwitter.com/2011/06/top-twenty-countries-with-highest-proportion-of-millionaires.html។
- "Explore Economies". World Bank. 2010. Retrieved 31 ខែសីហា 2010.
- "Octopus Card Information". Octopus Cards Limited. Retrieved 10 ខែធ្នូ 2008.
- Poon, Simpson; Chau, Patrick (ខែកុម្ភៈ 2001). "Octopus: The Growing E-payment System in Hong Kong". Electronic Markets. Informa. 11 (2): 97–106. doi:10.1080/101967801300197016.
- "Press Release: Government has reached understanding with MTRCL on the terms for merging the MTR and KCR systems". Hong Kong Government. 11 ខែមេសា 2006. Retrieved 17 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2007.
- "Tourist Information". Mass Transit Railway. Retrieved 29 ខែមេសា 2008.
- "The Company". Hong Kong Tramways. Archived from the original on 10 ខែមេសា 2008. Retrieved 29 ខែមេសា 2008.
- Cullinane, S. (ខែមករា 2002). "The relationship between car ownership and public transport provision: a case study of Hong Kong". Transport Policy. 9 (1): 29–39. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(01)00028-2.
- Ng, Tze-wei (10 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2006). "Not even HK's storied Star Ferry can face down developers". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 10 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2006. Retrieved 1 ខែកញ្ញា 2010.
- "Ferry is amongst the world's best". BBC News. 19 ខែតុលា 2004. Retrieved 29 ខែមេសា 2008.
- Fitzpatrick, Liam. "Hong Kong: 10 Things to Do in 24 Hours". Time. Retrieved 31 ខែសីហា 2010.
- Cushman, Jennifer Wayne (1993). Fields from the sea: Chinese junk trade with Siam during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. SEAP Publications. p. 57. ISBN 0-87727-711-7.
- "HIT:: Hongkong International Terminals". Retrieved 22 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2011.
- Thomson, John (1873). Illustrations of China and Its People. Sampson Low, Marston, Low, and Searle. p. 96.
- Cavaliero, Eric (24 ខែកក្កដា 1997). "Grand old lady to turn 110". The Standard. Retrieved 1 ខែកញ្ញា 2010.
- Gold, Anne (6 ខែកក្កដា 2001). "Hong Kong's Mile-Long Escalator System Elevates the Senses : A Stairway to Urban Heaven". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 ខែតុលា 2010.
- "About Us". Hong Kong International Airport. Archived from the original on 21 ខែសីហា 2007. Retrieved 28 ខែមេសា 2008.
- "International travellers have voted Hong Kong the best airport in the world". Skytrax. 8 ខែសីហា 2007. Retrieved 28 ខែមេសា 2008.
- "Air Cargo and Aviation Logistic Services" (PDF). Hong Kong International Airport. p. 1. Retrieved 31 ខែសីហា 2010.
- "Hong Kong: The Facts – Population" (PDF). Hong Kong Government. 2009. Retrieved 4 ខែធ្នូ 2009. Unknown parameter
- "Right of Abode in HKSAR—Verification of Eligibility for Permanent Identity Card". Immigration Department, Hong Kong Government. 5 ខែមិថុនា 2007. Archived from the original on 19 ខែមករា 2008. Retrieved 1 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2008.
- "Who is entitled to sponsor family members to come to live in Hong Kong? If I am a lawful resident of Hong Kong, can my family members in the Mainland (or elsewhere) apply to immigrate to Hong Kong?". Community Legal Information Centre. Retrieved 4 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- "Counting Expat Numbers a Complex Task (Hong Kong)". Global Auto Industry. ខែកក្កដា 2008. Retrieved 30 ខែសីហា 2010.
- International Labour Office (2009). Application of International Labour Standards 2009 (I). International Labour Organization. p. 640. ISBN 92-2-120634-3.
- Westra, Nick (5 ខែមិថុនា 2007). "Hong Kong as a Cantonese speaking city". Journalism and Media Studies Centre, University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 14 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- "ICE Hong Kong". University College London. Retrieved 1 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2008.
- Yum, Cherry (2007). "Which Chinese? Dialect Choice in Philadelphia's Chinatown" (PDF). Haverford College. Retrieved 25 ខែសីហា 2010.
- "Hong Kong". Bmm.org. 1 ខែកក្កដា 1997. Retrieved 2 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2011.
- "China (Includes Tibet, Hong Kong, Macau)". State.gov. Retrieved 2 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2011.
- Carballo, Marita. "RELIGION IN THE WORLD AT THE END OF THE MILLENNIUM". Gallup International Association. Archived from the original on 20. Retrieved 11 May 2012 Check date values in:
- "Apostasy". Countdown.org. Retrieved 2 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2011.
- "Do Hong Kong youth know how to practice safe sex?". Slidefinder.net. 14 ខែមករា 2010. Retrieved 2 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2011.
- "Evolution wins out in Hong Kong curriculum dispute". Nature.com. Retrieved 2 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2011.
- "Victory for Darwin – Creationism rejected in new guidelines on the biology curriculum | 香港獨立媒體". Inmediahk.net. Retrieved 2 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2011.
- Hong Kong Year Book (2010): Chapter 18 - Religion and Custom
- "Hong Kong China Temple". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved 30 ខែកញ្ញា 2010.
- "2007 Report of Jehovah's Witnesses Worldwide". The Watchtower. Retrieved 9 ខែសីហា 2008.
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2007 – Hong Kong". United States Department of State. 2007. Retrieved 16 ខែឧសភា 2009.
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2006 – Hong Kong". United States Department of State. 2006. Retrieved 6 ខែតុលា 2010.
- Piboontanasawat, Nipa (23 ខែតុលា 2008). "Hong Kong Has Highest Income Disparity in Asia, UN Report Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 25 ខែសីហា 2010.
- United Nations Human Settlements Programme (2009)។ "State of the World’s Cities 2008/2009"។ Press release។ http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/presskitsowc2008/PR%201.pdf។ បានយកមក 31 August 2010។
- "Subcommittee to Study the Subject of Combating Poverty" (PDF). Legislative Council of Hong Kong. 23 ខែមិថុនា 2005. Retrieved 30 ខែសីហា 2010.
- "Policies in Assisting Low-income Employees" (PDF). Commission on Poverty. Legislative Council of Hong Kong. 23 ខែមករា 2006. Retrieved 30 ខែសីហា 2010.
- "母語教學小冊子" (in Chinese). Education Bureau, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 4 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009. Unknown parameter
|trans_title=ignored (help)CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
- "Policy for Secondary Schools -Medium of Instruction Policy for Secondary Schools". Education Bureau, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 4 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- "PISA 2006 Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2006. Retrieved 14 ខែធ្នូ 2007.
- "Kindergarten, Primary and Secondary Education". Education Bureau, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 1 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2008.
- Li, Arthur (18 ខែឧសភា 2005). "Creating a better education system". Hong Kong Government. Archived from the original on 3 ខែមីនា 2008. Retrieved 17 ខែសីហា 2010.
- "HKDSE". Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority. 12 ខែតុលា 2010. Retrieved 20 ខែតុលា 2010.
- "History of HKU".
- Tan, Hwee Ann (5 ខែមិថុនា 2013). "Hong Kong Says International Schools Can't Meet Primary Demand". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 9 ខែមិថុនា 2013.
- Hsu, Cathy (12 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2012). Global Tourism Higher Education: Past, Present, and Future. Routledge. pp. 139–142. ISBN 9781136448478.
- "Clusters, Hospitals & Institutions". Hospital Authority. Retrieved 9 ខែឧសភា 2013.
- "Health & safety". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 10 ខែឧសភា 2013.
- "Private Hospitals in Hong Kong". The New Economy. Retrieved 9 ខែឧសភា 2013.
- "Life Expectancy Around the World". LiveScience. 1 ខែសីហា 2012.
- "Longest Life Expectancy In World: Women In Hong Kong Now Outlast Japan". Huffington Post. 26 ខែកក្កដា 2012.
- "Milestones". Chinese University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 10 ខែឧសភា 2013.
- "Education". University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 10 ខែឧសភា 2013.
- "Educational objectives". University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 10 ខែឧសភា 2013.
- LaFraniere, Sharon (22 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2012). "Mainland Chinese Flock to Hong Kong to Give Birth". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 ខែមិថុនា 2013.
- "Feng shui used in 90% of RP businesses". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 17 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2009. Retrieved 14 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- Fowler, Jeaneane D.; Fowler, Merv (2008). Chinese Religions: Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-84519-172-6.
- Xi, Xu; Ingham, Mike (2003). City Voices: Hong Kong writing in English, 1945–present. Hong Kong University Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-962-209-605-9.
- Chan, Cecilia; Chow, Amy (2006). Death, Dying and Bereavement: a Hong Kong Chinese Experience. Volume 1. Hong Kong University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-962-209-787-2.
- Stone, Andrew; Chow, Chung Wah; Ho, Reggie (15 ខែមករា 2008). Hong Kong and Macau. Lonely Planet. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-74104-665-6.
- "Hong Kong calls itself Asia's entertainment hub". Monsters and Critics. 23 ខែមីនា 2007.
- Corliss, Richard (24 ខែកញ្ញា 2001). "Hong Kong music circles the globe with its easy-listening hits and stars". Time. Retrieved 4 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- "General Information". Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Hong Kong Government. 15 ខែតុលា 2009. Archived from the original on 16 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2004. Retrieved 31 ខែសីហា 2010.
- "About the Museum". Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Hong Kong Government. 25 ខែឧសភា 2010. Retrieved 31 ខែសីហា 2010.
- "Broadcasting: Licences". Commerce and Economic Development Bureau, Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 4 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- Li, Jinquan (2002). Global Media Spectacle: News War Over Hong Kong. State University of New York Press. pp. 69–74. ISBN 978-0-7914-5472-5.
- Walker, Christopher; Cook, Sarah (12 ខែតុលា 2009). "China's Export of Censorship". Far Eastern Economic Review. Retrieved 4 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- "Hong Kong Olympic Equestrian Venue (Beas River & Shatin)". Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games. Retrieved 4 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2009.
- Macdonald, Phil (2006). National Geographic Traveler: Hong Kong (2nd ed.). National Geographic Society. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-7922-5369-3.
- "Legislative Council Panel on Home Affairs Sports Development Policy and Objectives" (PDF). Home Affairs Bureau. ខែតុលា 2010. Retrieved 8 ខែមិថុនា 2013.
- "Cities with the most skyscrapers". Emporis. Retrieved 14 ខែមិថុនា 2012.
- Tong, C. O.; Wong, S. C. (1997). "The advantages of a high density, mixed land use, linear urban development". Transportation. 24 (3): 295–307. doi:10.1023/A:1004987422746. Unknown parameter
- "World's Tallest Residential Towers". Emporis. Retrieved 24 ខែឧសភា 2009.[តំណភ្ជាប់ខូច]
- "International Commerce Centre". Emporis. Retrieved 2 ខែកញ្ញា 2008.
- "Two International Finance Centre". Emporis. Retrieved 24 ខែឧសភា 2009.
- "Emporis Skyline Ranking". Emporis. Retrieved 24 ខែឧសភា 2009.
- "The world's top 20 city skylines, CNNGo.com". Retrieved 1 ខែមីនា 2011.
- "Best Skyline Poll". Retrieved 8 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2008.
- Gramsbergen, Egbert. "The World's Best Skylines". Retrieved 8 ខែកុម្ភៈ 2008. Unknown parameter
- "Declared Monuments in Hong Kong – Hong Kong Island". Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Hong Kong Government. 13 ខែមករា 2010. Retrieved 31 ខែសីហា 2010.
- "Declared Monuments in Hong Kong – Kowloon Island". Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Hong Kong Government. 13 ខែមករា 2010. Retrieved 31 ខែសីហា 2010.
- Sinn, Elizabeth (1990). "Kowloon Walled City: Its Origin and Early History" (PDF). Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 27: 30–31. Retrieved 20 ខែមិថុនា 2012.
- "Tamar Development Project". Hong Kong Government. 23 ខែមេសា 2010. Retrieved 17 ខែកញ្ញា 2010.
- "Central Waterfront Design Competition". Designing Hong Kong. Retrieved 26 ខែមេសា 2008.
- "West Kowloon Cultural District Public Engagement Exercise". Home Affairs Bureau, Hong Kong Government. 26 ខែសីហា 2008. Archived from the original on 11 ខែមេសា 2008. Retrieved 6 ខែតុលា 2010.
- "Kai Tak building height restrictions lifted". Hong Kong Government. 10 ខែកក្កដា 1998. Retrieved 26 ខែមេសា 2008.
- Endacott, G. B (1964). An Eastern Entrepot;: A Collection of Documents Illustrating the History of Hong Kong. Her Majesty's Stationary Office. p. 293. ASIN B0007J07G6.
- Fu, Poshek; Deser, David (2002). The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Cambridge University Press. p. 346. ISBN 978-0-521-77602-8.
- Hanstedt, Paul (2012). Hong Konged: One Modern American Family's (Mis)adventures in the Gateway to China. Avon, MA: Adams Media. ISBN 9781440540738.
- Lui, Adam Yuen-chung (1990). Forts and Pirates – A History of Hong Kong. Hong Kong History Society. p. 114. ISBN 962-7489-01-8.
- Liu, Shuyong; Wang, Wenjiong; Chang, Mingyu (1997). An Outline History of Hong Kong. Foreign Languages Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-7-119-01946-8.
- Ngo, Tak-Wing (1 ខែសីហា 1999). Hong Kong's History: State and Society Under Colonial Rule. Routledge. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-415-20868-0.
- Tsang, Steve (1995). Government and Politics: A Documentary History of Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. p. 312. ISBN 962-209-392-2.
- Tsang, Steve (4 ខែកញ្ញា 2007). A Modern History of Hong Kong. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-419-0.
- Welsh, Frank (1993). A Borrowed place: the history of Hong Kong. Kodansha International. p. 624. ISBN 978-1-56836-002-7.
|ស្វែងយល់បន្ថែមអំពីHong Kongលើ គម្រោងបងប្អូនរបស់វិគីភីឌា:|
|រូបភាពនិងមីឌាពី Wikimedia Commons|
- Hong Kong at Encyclopædia Britannica
- HongKong at UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Hong Kong ច្រកចូលនៅក្នុង សៀវភៅការពិតពិភពលោក
- ហុងកុង នៅគម្រោងបញ្ជីរាយឈ្មោះបើកទូលាយ
- Hong Kong from the BBC News
- សៀវភៅផែនទីវិគីមីឌាHong Kong
- Key Development Forecasts for Hong Kong from International Futures
- Discover Hong Kong – Official site of the Hong Kong Tourism Board
<ref> tags exist for a group named "កំណត់", but no corresponding
<references group="កំណត់"/> tag was found, or a closing
</ref> is missing